Guillaume Charras

Guillaume Charras
University College London | UCL · London Centre for Nanotechnology

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319
Publications
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Publications

Publications (319)
Article
The interior of the cell is organized with the help of dynamic structures that condense like droplets. A timing strategy ensures that cells maintain healthy function by avoiding uncontrolled growth of these condensates. Dynamic mechanism avoids clumping of the cell's actin cytoskeleton.
Article
Full-text available
Deep learning is now a powerful tool in microscopy data analysis, and is routinely used for image processing applications such as segmentation and denoising. However, it has rarely been used to directly learn mechanistic models of a biological system, owing to the complexity of the internal representations. Here, we develop an end-to-end machine le...
Article
Full-text available
Proper orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a crucial role in embryos, during tissue development, and in adults, where it functions to dissipate mechanical stress to maintain tissue integrity and homeostasis. While mitotic spindles have been shown to reorient in response to external mechanical stresses, the subcellular cues that mediate spindle...
Preprint
Cell-generated forces play a major role in coordinating the large-scale behavior of cell assemblies, in particular during development, wound healing and cancer. Mechanical signals propagate faster than biochemical signals, but can have similar effects, especially in epithelial tissues with strong cell-cell adhesion. However, a quantitative descript...
Article
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the aligned cell polarity within a tissue plane. Mechanical signals are known to act as a global cue for PCP, yet their exact role is still unclear. In this study, we focused on PCP in the posterior neuroectoderm of Xenopus laevis and investigated how mechanical signals regulate polarity. We revealed that the neuroecto...
Preprint
Cell migration are crucial for development, immunity and cancer dissemination. We find that AMPK controls cell migration by acting as an adhesion sensing molecular hub. In 3-dimensional (3D) matrices, fast migrating amoeboid cancer cells exert low adhesion/low traction linked to lower energy levels; while their low ATP/AMP ratio leads to AMPK activ...
Preprint
Proper orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a crucial role in embryos, during tissue development, and in adults, where it functions to dissipate mechanical stress to maintain tissue integrity and homeostasis. While mitotic spindles have been shown to reorient in response to external mechanical stresses, the subcellular cues that mediate spindle...
Article
During development and in adult physiology, living tissues are continuously subjected to mechanical stresses originating either from cellular processes intrinsic to the tissue or from external forces. As a consequence, rupture is a constant risk and can arise as a result of excessive stresses or because of tissue weakening through genetic abnormali...
Preprint
The direction in which a cell divides is set by the orientation of its mitotic spindle and is important for determining cell fate, controlling tissue shape and maintaining tissue architecture. Division perpendicular to the plane of the substrate can promote tissue stratification during development or wound healing, but also metastasis when orientat...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Deep learning is now a powerful tool in microscopy data analysis, and is routinely used for image processing applications such as segmentation and denoising. However, it has rarely been used to directly learn mechanistic models of a biological system, owing to the complexity of the internal representations. Here, we develop an end-to-end...
Article
Full-text available
In animal cells, shape is mostly determined by the actomyosin cortex, a thin cytoskeletal network underlying the plasma membrane. Myosin motors generate tension in the cortex, and tension gradients result in cellular deformations. As such, many cell morphogenesis studies have focused on the mechanisms controlling myosin activity and recruitment to...
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Cells maintain their volume through fine intracellular osmolarity regulation. Osmotic challenges drive fluid into or out of cells causing swelling or shrinkage respectively. The dynamics of cell volume changes depend on the rheology of the cellular constituents and on how fast the fluid permeates through membrane and cytoplasm. We investigated whet...
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Single-cell methods are beginning to reveal the intrinsic heterogeneity in cell populations, arising from the interplay of deterministic and stochastic processes. However, it remains challenging to quantify single-cell behaviour from time-lapse microscopy data, owing to the difficulty of extracting reliable cell trajectories and lineage information...
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Mechanical forces acting on cell–cell adhesion modulate the barrier function of endothelial cells. The actively remodeled actin cytoskeleton impinges on cell–cell adhesion to counteract external forces. We applied stress on endothelial monolayers by mechanical stretch to uncover the role of BRAF in the stress-induced response. Control cells respond...
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How cells with different genetic makeups compete in tissues is an outstanding question in developmental biology and cancer research. Studies in recent years have revealed that cell competition can either be driven by short-range biochemical signalling or by long-range mechanical stresses in the tissue. To date, cell competition has generally been c...
Article
Stress fibres form a fully integrated meshwork with the submembranous contractile actin cortex that generates and propagates traction forces across the entire cell.
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Full-text available
The migration of circulating neutrophils towards damage/infected tissue is absolutely critical to the inflammatory response. L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule abundantly expressed on circulating neutrophils. For over two decades, neutrophil L-selectin has been assigned the exclusive role of supporting tethering and rolling – the initial stages...
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Full-text available
Single-cell methods are beginning to reveal the intrinsic heterogeneity in cell populations, which arises from the interplay or deterministic and stochastic processes. For example, the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control are well characterised, yet the observed distribution of cell cycle durations in a population of cells is heterogenous. Th...
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Full-text available
Cortical stiffness is an important cellular property that changes during migration, adhesion and growth. Previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation measurements of cells cultured on deformable substrates have suggested that cells adapt their stiffness to that of their surroundings. Here we show that the force applied by AFM to a cell result...
Article
The balance between stretching and bending deformations characterizes shape transitions of thin elastic sheets. While stretching dominates the mechanical response in tension, bending dominates in compression after an abrupt buckling transition. Recently, experimental results in suspended living epithelial monolayers have shown that, due to the asym...
Article
Full-text available
Cell shape is controlled by the submembranous cortex, an actomyosin network mainly generated by two actin nucleators: the Arp2/3 complex and the formin mDia1. Changes in relative nucleator activity may alter cortical organization, mechanics and cell shape. Here we investigate how nucleation-promoting factors mediate interactions between nucleators....
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Full-text available
Soft materials often exhibit a distinctive power-law viscoelastic response arising from broad distribution of time-scales present in their complex internal structure. A promising tool to accurately describe the rheological behaviour of soft materials is fractional calculus. However, its use in the scientific community remains limited due to the unu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The actin cortex is a thin layer of actin, myosin, and actin binding proteins that underlies the membrane of most animal cells. It is highly dynamic and can undergo remodelling on time-scales of tens of seconds thanks to protein turnover and myosin-mediated contractions. The cortex enables cells to resist external mechanical stresses, controls cell...
Article
Epithelial monolayers are two-dimensional cell sheets which compartmentalize the body and organs of multicellular organisms. Their morphogenesis during development or pathology results from patterned endogenous and exogenous forces and their interplay with tissue mechanical properties. In particular, bending of epithelia is thought to result from a...
Article
The ability of cells to divide along their longest axis has been proposed to play an important role in maintaining epithelial tissue homeostasis in many systems. Because the division plane is largely set by the position of the anaphase spindle, it is important to understand how spindles become oriented. While several molecules have been identified...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soft materials often exhibit a distinctive power-law viscoelastic response arising from broad distribution of time-scales present in their complex internal structure. A promising tool to accurately describe the rheological behaviour of soft materials is fractional calculus. However, its use in the scientific community remains limited due to the unu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The balance between stretching and bending deformations characterizes shape transitions of thin elastic sheets. While stretching dominates the mechanical response in tension, bending dominates in compression after an abrupt buckling transition. Recently, experimental results in suspended living epithelial monolayers have shown that, due to the asym...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical response of single cells and tissues exhibits a broad distribution of time-scales that often gives rise to a distinctive power-law rheology. Such complex behaviour cannot be easily captured by traditional rheological approaches, making material characterisation and predictive modelling very challenging. Here, we present a novel model...