Guido Makransky

Guido Makransky
University of Copenhagen · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

83
Publications
61,839
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3,127
Citations
Introduction
My main research interests include the areas of Educational Psychology, and Work and Organizational Psychology. I am particularly interested in research on learning within immersive environments including virtual and augmented reality, multimedia learning, instructional design, motivation, self-efficacy, process measures of learning, presence, training, psychometrics, and psychological and educational measurement.

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the instructional effectiveness of using an interactive and immersive virtual reality (IVR) simulation versus a video for teaching scientific knowledge in two between-subject experiments. In Experiment 1, 131 high school students (84 females) used a science simulation that involved forensic analysis of a collected DNA sample in a vi...
Article
Full-text available
Immersive virtual reality (IVR) simulations for education have been found to increase affective outcomes compared to traditional media, but the effects on learning are mixed. As reflection has previously shown to enhance learning in traditional media, we investigated the efficacy of appropriate reflection exercises for IVR. In a 2x2 mixed-methods e...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a surge in interest and implementation of Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) based lessons in education and training recently, which has resulted in many studies on the topic. There are recent reviews which summarize this research, but little work has been done that synthesizes the existing findings into a theoretical framework. The Cog...
Article
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This study describes and investigates the immersion principle in multimedia learning. A sample of 102 middle school students took a virtual field trip to Greenland via a head mounted display (HMD) or a 2D video as an introductory lesson within a 6-lesson inquiry-based climate change intervention. The HMD group scored significantly higher than the v...
Article
Full-text available
Lay Description What is already known about this topic Recent meta‐analyses have found a small effect size benefit to using immersive virtual reality (IVR) learning interventions compared to than less‐immersive learning approaches. Recent reviews call for more IVR‐based research that is integrated within actual learning and training interventions....
Article
Can a virtual reality (VR) simulation promote acquisition of scientific skills with real-life practicability? In order to answer this question, we conducted (I) an online study (N = 126) and (II) a field study at a high school (N = 47). Study I focused on the instructional design of VR by comparing the effects of different pedagogical agents on acq...
Article
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The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of an immersive virtual reality (IVR) science simulation on learning in a higher educational setting, and to assess whether using self-explanation has benefits for knowledge gain. A sample of 79 undergraduate biology students (40 females, 37 males, 2 non-binary) learned about next-generat...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study investigates the impact of an immersive virtual reality (VR) simulation of herd immunity on vaccination intentions and its potential underlying mechanisms. In this preregistered field study, N = 654 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three VR conditions: (1) Gamified Herd Immunity; (2) Gamified Herd Immunity + Empathy (wit...
Preprint
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As the food industry significantly contributes to global carbon emissions, studying new behavioral interventions promoting plant-based diets is crucial for mitigating climate change. This study investigates the impact of an efficacy-focused virtual reality (VR) intervention designed according to instructional design principles on eating behavior. I...
Article
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Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) has the potential to play an important role in increasing environmental literacy by providing individuals the opportunity to experience plausible scenarios of climate change directly. However, there is currently little evidence for the role of IVR, and for specific design features, in increasing environmental self-ef...
Article
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• Background: Immersive virtual reality (VR) is increasingly used in organizational training interventions. However, few studies have systematically investigated VR compared to standard training methods in actual organizational contexts. • Objectives: The focus of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a VR simulation for training profess...
Article
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Vaccine hesitancy poses one of the largest threats to global health. Informing people about the collective benefit of vaccination has great potential in increasing vaccination intentions. This research investigates the potential for engaging experiences in immersive virtual reality (VR) to strengthen participants’ understanding of community immunit...
Preprint
Full-text available
We developed and tested a Virtual Reality (VR) intervention that allowed users (1) to visualize the consequences of food behavior and (2) to revise their food choices and see how this would alter future climate scenarios. In this pre-registered study, using a 2x2 design, participants experienced intervention with or without normative feedback and v...
Article
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Background The increased availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) has led to a surge of immersive technology applications in education. Nevertheless, very little is known about how to effectively design instruction for this new media, so that it would benefit learning and associated cognitive processing. Objectives This experiment explores...
Article
Even though learning refers to both a process and a product, the former tends to be overlooked in educational virtual reality (VR) research. This study examines the process of learning with VR technology using the Cognitive Affective Model of Immersive Learning (CAMIL) as its framework. The CAMIL theorizes that two technological features of VR, int...
Article
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Effective interventions for increasing people’s intention to get vaccinated are crucial for global health, especially considering COVID-19. We devised a novel intervention using virtual reality (VR) consisting of a consultation with a general practitioner for communicating the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination and, in turn, increasing the intention...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Vaccine hesitancy poses one of the biggest threats to global health. Informing people about the collective benefit of vaccination due to community immunity has great potential in increasing vaccination intentions. Novel communication formats are needed to increase people’s interest in and engagement with such information, boosting the i...
Article
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Conducting user studies online and unsupervised instead of in laboratories gives quick access to a large and inexpensive participant pool. It is however unclear if data sourced this way is valid, and what the best practices for conducting unsupervised VR studies are. The restrictions on laboratory access experienced during COVID-19 further necessit...
Article
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Cognitive load theory (CLT) has been widely used to help understand the process of learning and to design teaching interventions. The Cognitive Load Scale (CLS) developed by Leppink et al., (2013) has emerged as one of the most validated and widely used self-report measures of intrinsic load (IL), extraneous load (EL), and germane load (GL). In thi...
Thesis
Full-text available
Following the renaissance of Virtual Reality (VR) in the last decade, there has been a surge of hype surrounding the use of immersive technologies in education. In just a few years, the number of articles discussing this topic has increased exponentially, and some have even started to propose VR to be the ultimate medium for learning. Nevertheless,...
Article
Full-text available
Lay Description What is already known about this topic Cognitive load theory is broadly applied in different fields of education. Leppink's Cognitive Load Scale (CLS) is widely used in traditional learning situation. Measuring cognitive load is important in virtual learning environments (VLE). Valid and reliable measures of cognitive load are impo...
Article
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Background The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) is a commonly used questionnaire to assess anxiety and depression in trauma-affected refugees. Despite numerous studies evaluating criterion validity and reliability, few studies have assessed the construct validity of the scale. Methods The current study conducted a Rasch analysis based on res...
Conference Paper
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Pedagogical agents are theorized to increase humans’ effort to understand computerized instructions. Despite the pedagogical promises of VR, the usefulness of pedagogical agents in VR remains uncertain. Based on this gap, and inspired by global efforts to advance remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an educational VR study in-...
Article
Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to enrich education but little is known about how unique affordances of immersive technology might influence leaning and cognition. This study investigates one particular affordance of VR, namely environmental embeddedness, which enables learners to be situated in simulated or imagined settings that contextual...
Article
Background The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) is the predominant questionnaire for assessing PTSD in trauma-affected refugees. Although the scale is increasingly used for measuring treatment outcomes, it has never been specifically validated for such use. The current study does so by testing the HTQ with the Rasch model. Methods The analysis i...
Article
Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) is being used for educational virtual field trips (VFTs) involving scenarios that may be too difficult, dangerous or expensive to experience in real life. We implemented an immersive VFT within the investigation phase of an inquiry‐based learning (IBL) climate change intervention. Students investigated the consequenc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) is being used for educational virtual field trips (VFTs) involving scenarios that may be too difficult, dangerous, or expensive to experience in real life. We implemented an immersive VFT within the investigation phase of an inquiry-based learning (IBL) climate change intervention. Students investigated the consequen...
Preprint
Science-related competencies are demanded in many fields, but attracting more students to scientific educations remains a challenge. This paper uses two studies to investigate the value of using Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) laboratory simulations in science education. In Study 1, 99 (52 male, 47 female) 7th (49) and 8th (50) grade students betwe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports findings from a between-subjects experiment that investigates how different learning content representations in virtual environments (VE) affect the process and outcomes of learning. Seventy-eight participants were subjected to an immersive virtual reality (VR) application, where they received identical instructional information,...
Article
Full-text available
Science-related competencies are demanded in many fields, but attracting more students to scientific educations remains a challenge. This paper uses two studies to investigate the value of using Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) laboratory simulations in science education. In Study 1, 99 (52 male, 47 female) 7th (49) and 8th (50) grade students betwe...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to assess whether the combined effect of taste-congruent and incongruent extrinsic visual cues presented in virtual reality (VR) influences the perception of sweetness and product liking. Three VR environments (sweet-congruent, sweet-incongruent, and neutral) were created based on the evidence in existing literature. Partici...
Article
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Lay Description What is currently known about the subject matter Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly being used to deliver learning and training material. One field where the affordances of VR are particularly relevant is in safety training. VR provides the opportunity for trainees to safely act out realistic scenarios where making the right deci...
Article
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There is great potential in making assessment and learning complementary. In this study, we inves-tigated the feasibility of developing a desktop virtual reality (VR) laboratory simulation on the topic of genetics, with integrated assessment using multiple choice questions based on Item Re-sponse Theory (IRT) and feedback based on the Cognitive The...
Article
Full-text available
Immersive virtual reality (VR) is predicted to have a significant impact on education; but most studies investigating learning with immersive VR have reported mixed results when compared to low-immersion media. In this study, a sample of 118 participants was used to test whether a lesson presented in either immersive VR or as a video could benefit...
Article
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic: A pedagogical agent is a character rendered on a screen who facilitates learning. How to render the basic characteristics of the pedagogical agent is an important topic of research. Studies generally have failed to find support for matching learners' gender to the characteristics of the pedago...
Article
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The use of virtual laboratories is growing as companies and educational institutions try to expand their reach, cut costs, increase student understanding, and provide more accessible hands on training for future scientists. Many new higher education initiatives outsource lab activities so students now perform them online in a virtual environment ra...
Article
Many university students report being stressed which has been linked with various negative outcomes. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the selection effects of different admission procedures on students’ stress level. The sample consisted of 196 students who had been admitted to the psychology program at the University of Southern De...
Conference Paper
A 2×2 between-subjects experiment (a) investigated and compared the instructional effectiveness of immersive virtual reality (VR) versus video as media for teaching scientific procedural knowledge, and (b) examined the efficacy of enactment as a generative learning strategy in combination with the respective instructional media. A total of 117 high...
Article
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Abundant research has pointed to the importance of non-cognitive skills for success in life. This paper describes the development and validation of the “UiL”, designed to measure 19 non-cognitive skills that have been identified as being important for school children in Denmark. First, we describe the development of the scales, and then report a pr...
Article
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Personal resiliency refers to individual attributes that are related to the process of successfully adapting to the environment in the face of adverse conditions, also known as resilience. Emotion regulation is increasingly found as a core component in mental health and found to modulate individual differences in the management of emotional respons...
Article
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Presence has become an increasingly central component of Games User Research (GUR) as developments in technology continuously make modern video games more conducive to the sensation of ‘being there’ in virtual environments. The quality of games is now commonly evaluated based on how reliably they elicit presence; however, no standardized objective...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) is gaining attention for having the potential to enrich students’ educational experiences. However, few studies have investigated the process of learning with VR. With the use of structural equation modeling, this study investigated the affective and cognitive factors that play a role in learning with a desktop VR simulation wh...
Article
Virtual reality (VR) is gaining attention for having the potential to enrich students’ educational experiences. However, few studies have investigated the process of learning with VR. With the use of structural equation modeling, this study investigated the affective and cognitive factors that play a role in learning with a desktop VR simulation wh...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of combining subjective and objective measures of learning process to uncover the mechanisms underlying the spatial contiguity effect in multimedia learning. The subjective measures of learning process were self-reported cognitive load ratings and the objective measures were eye-trac...
Article
Studies have reported gender differences in academic self-efficacy. However, how and if academic self-efficacy questionnaires are gender-biased has not been psychometrically investigated. The psychometric properties of a general version of The Physics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire – the General Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE) – were analyzed usin...
Article
Objective: The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) is considered the gold standard measure of depression. The factor structure of the HDRS is generally unstable, but 4 to 8 items appear to form a general depression factor. As transcultural studies of the HDRS have received little attention, and as most of the studies have taken a data-driven a...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) is projected to play an important role in education by increasing student engagement and motivation. However, little is known about the impact and utility of immersive VR for administering e-learning tools, or the underlying mechanisms that impact learners’ emotional processes while learning. This paper explores whether differe...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) is predicted to create a paradigm shift in education and training, but there is little empirical evidence of its educational value. The main objectives of this study were to determine the consequences of adding immersive VR to virtual learning simulations, and to investigate whether the principles of multimedia learning general...
Article
Full-text available
The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repe...
Article
Self-efficacy is an important and much used construct in psychology and social science studies. The validity of the measurements used is not always sufficiently evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the self-efficacy subscale of The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ-SE) withi...
Article
Full-text available
Presence is one of the most important psychological constructs for understanding human-computer interaction. However, different terminology and operationalizations of presence across fields have plagued the comparability and generalizability of results across studies. Lee’s (2004) unified understanding of presence as a multidimensional construct ma...
Article
The assumption of local independence is central to all IRT models. Violations can lead to inflated estimates of reliability and problems with construct validity. For the most widely used fit statistic Q3 there are currently no well-documented suggestions of the critical values which should be used to indicate local dependence, and for this reason a...
Article
Objective: To assess the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a measure of depressive symptoms, in a large Danish national cohort of patients with heart disease, implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), using item response theory. Methods: A prospective cohort of patients implanted with an ICD...
Article
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Background Refugees are known to have high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although recent years have seen an increase in the number of refugees from Arabic speaking countries in the Middle East, no study so far has validated the construct of PTSD in an Arabic speaking sample of refugees. Methods Responses to the Harvard Trauma Ques...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of a two-step admissions procedure that included a cognitive ability test followed by multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) used to assess non-cognitive skills, compared to grade-based admissions relative to subsequent drop-out rates and academic achievement after one and two years of study. T...
Article
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Objective To investigate if a virtual laboratory simulation (vLAB) could be used to replace a face to face tutorial (demonstration) to prepare students for a laboratory exercise in microbiology. Methods A total of 189 students who were participating in an undergraduate biology course were randomly selected into a vLAB or demonstration condition. I...
Article
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We use a longitudinal design to examine associations for 2,120 16-30 months old children between early expressive vocabulary and later reading and math outcomes in the 6th Grade based on a large and diverse sample of Danish children. Educational outcomes, in particular decoding and reading comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary me...
Article
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Background: Simulation based learning environments are designed to improve the quality of medical education by allowing students to interact with patients, diagnostic laboratory procedures, and patient data in a virtual environment. However, few studies have evaluated whether simulation based learning environments increase students’ knowledge, intr...
Article
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Career distress is a common and painful outcome of many negative career experiences, such as career indecision, career compromise, and discovering career barriers. However, there are very few scales devised to assess career distress, and the two existing scales identified have psychometric weaknesses. The absence of a practical, validated scale to...
Article
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Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential validity of an IRT-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS) vocabulary checklist, with the objective of reducing length while maintaining measurement precision. Method: Parent-reported vocabulary for...
Article
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The Over-Claiming Questionnaire (OCQ) aims to provide a practical and cost-effective method of assessing individual differences in the tendency to misrepresent oneself in self-reports. OCQ bias measures have strong theoretical appeal but limited empirical demonstrations of validity. Using a sample of 704 adult community members, we found minimal su...
Article
All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus...
Article
Full-text available
There are no validated measures of psychiatric disability for traumatized refugees in Western psychiatric care. This is a serious shortcoming as it precludes monitoring of global treatment outcomes in this group, as well as appropriate matching of treatment needs to the disability levels. Using Rasch analysis, we evaluated the psychometrics of the...
Article
Evidence suggests the prevalence and duration of mechanical restraint are particularly high among forensic psychiatric inpatients. However, only sparse knowledge exists regarding the reasons for, and characteristics of, prolonged use of mechanical restraint in forensic psychiatry. This study therefore aimed to investigate prolonged episodes of mech...
Article
All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus...
Article
Full-text available
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Rating the severity of psychopathology and symptom load is essential in daily clinical practice and in research. The parent and teacher ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) includes inattention- and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscale...
Article
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The Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale – Short Form (CDSE-SF) is one of the most frequently used instruments to assess individual levels of career-related self-efficacy. The present study used the partial credit model within the framework of item response theory to examine the content, structural, substantive, and generalizability aspects of valid...
Article
Many important decisions are made based on the results of tests administered under different conditions in the fields of educational and psychological testing. Inaccurate inferences are often made if the property of measurement invariance (MI) is not assessed across these conditions. The importance of MI is even greater when test respondents are co...
Article
Comparable data on socio-economic position (SEP) is essential to international studies on health inequalities. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) has used the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) on material assets. The present study used data collected from adolescents in eight countries in 2002, 2006 and 2010, and examined the construct...
Article
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Cognitive ability tests are widely used in organizations around the world because they have high predictive validity in selection contexts. Although these tests typically measure several subdomains, testing is usually carried out for a single subdomain at a time. This can be ineffective when the subdomains assessed are highly