Guido Baroni

Guido Baroni
Politecnico di Milano | Polimi · Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering

Full Professor

About

423
Publications
48,896
Reads
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5,639
Citations
Citations since 2016
146 Research Items
3506 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - November 2015
National Centre for Oncological Treatment (Italy)
Position
  • Responsible of Clinical Bioengineering Unit

Publications

Publications (423)
Article
Purpose: To investigate the static magnetic field generated by a proton pencil beam as a candidate for range verification by means of Monte Carlo simulations, thereby improving upon existing analytical calculations. We focus on the impact of statistical current fluctuations and secondary protons and electrons. Methods: We considered a pulsed bea...
Article
Background and purpose In recent years, there is an emerging interest in the prognostic role of chemistry blood biomarkers in oncological patients but their role in adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) is still unknown. This study aims to assess the prognostic significance of baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and blood chemistry in a series...
Article
Full-text available
Morphological changes that may arise through a treatment course are probably one of the most significant sources of range uncertainty in proton therapy. Non-invasive in-vivo treatment monitoring is useful to increase treatment quality. The INSIDE in-beam Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner performs in-vivo range monitoring in proton and carb...
Article
Introduction Ocular biometry in Ocular Proton Therapy (OPT) currently relies on a generic geometrical eye model built by referencing surgically implanted markers. An alternative approach based on image fusion of volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and panoramic fundus photography was investigated. Materials & Methods Eighteen non-consecuti...
Article
Aim: To evaluate the association between pretreatment diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and 12-month radiological response in locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Methods: Histogram analysis was performed on pretreatment DW-MRI for patients re-irradiated with carbon ion radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal canc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A robotic cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scanner has inherent advantages. In particular, it enables source and detector trajectories capable of extending the field-of-view (FOV) of the reconstructed CT images, where the FOV is defined as the region in the source trajectory plane for which all ray lines are acquired (at any position and directio...
Article
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Integrating the information coming from biological samples with digital data, such as medical images, has gained prominence with the advent of precision medicine. Research in this field faces an ever-increasing amount of data to manage and, as a consequence, the need to structure these data in a functional and standardized fashion to promote and fa...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In this study, we investigate the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the clinical evaluation of gating treatment robustness in carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) of pancreatic cancer. Indeed, MRI allows radiation-free repeated scans and fast dynamic sequences for time-resolved (TR) imaging (cine-MRI), providing information on inter-f...
Article
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Purpose: In-beam Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is one of the modalities that can be used for in-vivo non-invasive treatment monitoring in proton therapy. Although PET monitoring has been frequently applied for this purpose, there is still no straightforward method to translate the information obtained from the PET images into easy to interpre...
Conference Paper
Skull-base chordoma (SBC) is a rare tumour whose molecular and radiological characteristics are still being investigated. In neuro-oncology microstructural imaging techniques, like diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), have been widely investigated, with the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) being one of the most used DW-MRI parameters due to its eas...
Article
Purpose Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) is sensitive to anatomical density variations. We examined the dosimetric effect of variable intestinal filling condition during CIRT to ten sacral chordoma patients. Methods For each patient, eight virtual computed tomography scans (vCTs) were generated by varying the density distribution within the rectum a...
Article
Purpose With the future goal of defining a large dataset based on low-dose CT with labelled pulmonary lesions for lung cancer screening (LCS) research, the aim of this work is to propose and evaluate into a clinical context a tool for semi-automatic segmentation able to facilitate the process of labels collection from a LCS study (COSMOS, Continuou...
Article
Objective Carbon ion radiation therapy (CIRT) is an emerging radiation technique with advantageous physical and radiobiologic properties compared to conventional radiotherapy (RT) providing better response in case of radioresistant and hypoxic tumors. Our aim is to critically review if functional imaging techniques could play a role in predicting o...
Chapter
In neuro–oncology microstructural imaging techniques, like diffusion–weighted MRI (DW–MRI), have been investigated to non–invasively derive patient–specific parameters that can be used for tumour characterization, treatment personalisation and monitoring, response assessment and prediction of radiotherapy outcomes. In particular, DW–MRI is opening...
Article
Full-text available
Rectum and bladder volumes play an important role in the dose distribution reproducibility in prostate cancer adenocarcinoma (PCa) radiotherapy, especially for particle therapy, where density variation can strongly affect the dose distribution. We investigated the reliability and reproducibility of our image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and treatment...
Article
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Purpose To assess early microstructural changes of meningiomas treated with proton therapy through quantitative analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters. Methods Seventeen subjects with meningiomas that were eligible for proton therapy treatment were retrospectively enrolled. Each subject unde...
Article
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Eye tracking techniques based on deep learning are rapidly spreading in a wide variety of application fields. With this study, we want to exploit the potentiality of eye tracking techniques in ocular proton therapy (OPT) applications. We implemented a fully automatic approach based on two-stage convolutional neural networks (CNNs): the first stage...
Article
The introduction of noninvasive imaging techniques such as MRI imaging for treatment planning and optical eye tracking for in-room eye localization would obviate the requirement of clips implantation for many patients undergoing ocular proton therapy. This study specifically addresses the issue of torsional eye movement detection during patient pos...
Article
Full-text available
Particle therapy in which deep seated tumours are treated using 12C ions (Carbon Ions RadioTherapy or CIRT) exploits the high conformity in the dose release, the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ratio of such projectiles. The advantages of CIRT are driving a rapid increase in the number of centres that are trying to...
Article
The most common way to analyze the effect of aging on breathing is to divide subjects into age groups. However, in addition to the fact that there is no consensus in the literature regarding age group division, such design critically influences the interpretation of the effects attributed to aging. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the feasibil...
Article
Purpose To evaluate changes in diffusion and perfusion-related properties of white matter (WM) induced by proton therapy, which is capable of a greater dose sparing to organs at risk with respect to conventional X-ray radiotherapy, and to eventually expose early manifestations of delayed neuro-toxicities. Methods Apparent diffusion coefficient (AD...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Spatial distortions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are mainly caused by inhomogeneities of the static magnetic field, nonlinearities in the applied gradients, and tissue-specific magnetic susceptibility variations. These factors may significantly alter the geometrical accuracy of the reconstructed MR image, thus questioning the reliab...
Article
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Introduction Respiratory motion models establish a correspondence between respiratory‐correlated (RC) 4‐dimensional (4D) imaging and respiratory surrogates, to estimate time‐resolved (TR) 3D breathing motion. To evaluate the performance of motion models on real patient data, a validation framework based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is propos...
Chapter
Ocular proton therapy (OPT) is acknowledged as a therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular melanomas. OPT clinical workflow is deeply based on x-ray image guidance procedures, both for treatment planning and patient setup verification purposes. An optimized eye orientation relative to the proton beam axis is determined during treatment plannin...
Article
An Eye Tracking System (ETS) is used at CNAO for providing a stable and reproducible ocular proton therapy (OPT) set-up, featuring a fixation light (FL) and monitoring stereo-cameras embedded in a rigid case. The aim of this work is to propose an ETS set-up simulation algorithm, that automatically provides the FL positioning in space, according to...
Article
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In particle therapy, the uncertainty of the delivered particle range during the patient irradiation limits the optimization of the treatment planning. Therefore, an in vivo treatment verification device is required, not only to improve the plan robustness, but also to detect significant interfractional morphological changes during the treatment its...
Article
Full-text available
Skull-base chordoma (SBC) can be treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) to improve local control (LC). The study aimed to explore the role of multi-parametric radiomic, dosiomic and clinical features as prognostic factors for LC in SBC patients undergoing CIRT. Before CIRT, 57 patients underwent MR and CT imaging, from which tumour contours an...
Article
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Purpose: Proton therapy could benefit from non-invasively gaining tumour microstructure information, at both planning and monitoring stages. The anatomical location of brain tumours, such as meningiomas, often hinders the recovery of such information from histopathology, and conventional non-invasive imaging biomarkers, like the apparent diffusion...
Article
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The high dose conformity and healthy tissue sparing achievable in Particle Therapy when using C ions calls for safety factors in treatment planning, to prevent the tumor under-dosage related to the possible occurrence of inter-fractional morphological changes during a treatment. This limitation could be overcome by a range monitor, still missing in...
Article
Real-time motion monitoring of lung tumors with low-field magnetic resonance imaging-guided linear accelerators (MR-Linacs) is currently limited to sagittal 2D cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To provide input data for improved intrafractional and interfractional adaptive radiotherapy, the 4D anatomy has to be inferred from data with lower di...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeMeningiomas are mainly benign tumors, though a considerable proportion shows aggressive behaviors histologically consistent with atypia/anaplasia. Histopathological grading is usually assessed through invasive procedures, which is not always feasible due to the inaccessibility of the lesion or to treatment contraindications. Therefore, we pr...
Article
In a radiation therapy workflow based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), dosimetric errors may arise due to geometric distortions introduced by MRI. The aim of this study was to quantify the dosimetric effect of system-dependent geometric distortions in an MRI-only workflow for proton therapy applied at extra-cranial sites. An approach was develo...
Article
Purpose To generate virtual 4DCT from 4DMRI with field of view (FOV) extended to the entire involved patient anatomy, in order to evaluate its use in carbon ion radiation therapy (CIRT) of the abdominal site in a clinical scenario. Materials and methods The virtual 4DCT was generated by deforming a reference CT in order to (1) match the anatomy de...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Ocular proton therapy (OPT) for the treatment of uveal melanoma has a long and remarkably successful history. This is despite that, for the majority of patients treated, the definition of the eye anatomy is based on a simplified geometrical model embedded in the treatment planning system EyePlan. In this study, differences in anatomi...
Article
Purpose In image-guided particle radiotherapy of abdominal lesions, respiratory motion hinders treatment accuracy. In this study, 2D cineMRI data were used to quantify the tumor (GTV) motion and to evaluate the clinical approach based on deriving an internal target volume (ITV) from a planning 4DCT for gating treatments. Methods Seven patients wit...
Article
Purpose: Low-dose CT screening allows early lung cancer detection, but is affected by frequent false positive results, inter/intra observer variation and uncertain diagnoses of lung nodules. Radiomics-based models have recently been introduced to overcome these issues, but limitations in demonstrating their generalizability on independent datasets...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for guidance in external beam radiotherapy has faced significant research and development efforts in recent years. The current availability of linear accelerators with an embedded MRI unit, providing volumetric imaging at excellent soft tissue contrast, is expected to provide novel possibilities i...
Article
Purpose To investigate the impact of four-dimensional robust optimization (4DRO) on dose delivered to lung cancer patients in pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and materials 2 strategies were compared for 20 lung cancer patients, using a different number of breathing phases of the reconstructed 4D computed tomography (CT) included in th...
Article
Purpose To evaluate if baseline ADC from DWI sequences could predict response to treatment in patients with sacral chordoma not suitable for surgery treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) alone compared with volume changes. Methods Fifty-nine patients with sacral chordoma not suitable for surgery underwent one cycle of CIRT alone and a minimu...
Article
Purpose: To model 4-Dimensional (4D) Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE)-weighted dose variations in abdominal lesions treated with scanned carbon ion beam in case of irregular breathing motion. Methods: The proposed method, referred to as bioWED method, combines the simulation of tumor motion in a patient- and beam-specific water equivalent...
Article
Purpose: Ocular proton therapy (OPT) is an effective therapeutic option for patients affected with uveal melanomas (UMs). An optical eye tracking system (ETS) aiming at non-invasive motion monitoring was developed and tested in a clinical scenario. Materials and methods: The ETS estimates eye position and orientation at 25 frames per second usin...
Article
Purpose: To devise a novel Spatial Normalization framework for Voxel-based analysis (VBA) in brain radiotherapy. VBAs rely on accurate spatial normalization of different patients' planning CTs on a common coordinate system (CCS). The cerebral anatomy, well characterized by MRI, shows instead poor contrast in CT, resulting in potential inaccuracies...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate a method for generating virtual 4DCT from 4DMRI data in carbon ion radiotherapy with pencil beam scanning for abdominal tumors. Methods: Deformable image registration is used to: (1) register each respiratory phase of the 4DMRI to the end-exhale MRI; (2) register the reference end-exhale CT to the end-exhale MRI volume; (3)...
Article
Multiparametric MRI is a remarkable imaging method for the assessment of patho-physiological processes. In particular, brain tumor characterization has taken advantage of the development of advanced techniques such as diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion- (PWI) weighted imaging, but a thorough analysis of meningiomas is still lacking despite the variety...
Article
Objectives Accurate patient positioning is crucial in particle therapy due to the geometrical selectivity of particles. We report and discuss the XXX experience in positioning accuracy and stability achieved with solid thermoplastic masks fixed on index base plates and assessed by daily orthogonal X-ray imaging. Methods Positioning data were retro...
Article
Magnetic-resonance linear-accelerator (MR-LINAC) systems integrating in-room magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) guidance are a currently emerging technology. Such systems address the need to provide frequent imaging at optimal soft-tissue contrast for treatment guidance. However, the use of MRI-guidance in radiotherapy should address imaging-related...
Preprint
Proton radiography combined with X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed to obtain a patient-specific calibration curve and reduce range uncertainties in cancer treatment with charged particles. The main aim of this study was to identify the optimal charged particle for the generation of the radiographies and to determine the optimal numbe...
Article
MRI-treatment units enable 2D cine-MRI centred in the tumour for motion detection in radiotherapy, but they lack 3D information due to spatio-temporal limits. To derive time-resolved 3D information, different approaches have been proposed in the literature, but a rigorous comparison among these strategies has not yet been performed. The goal of thi...
Article
Purpose: In particle therapy, conventional treatment planning systems rely on an imaging representation of the irradiated region to compute the dose. For irregular breathing, when an imaging dataset describing the actual motion is not available, a different approach for dose estimation is needed. To this aim, we validate a method for the estimatio...
Article
Purpose: To derive personalized tumour control probability (TCP) models, using diffusion-weighted (DW-) MRI for defining initial tumour cellular density in skull-base chordoma patients undergoing carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT). Materials and methods: 67 patients affected by skull-base chordoma were enrolled for a standardized CIRT treatment (70....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Proton CT (pCT) has the ability to reduce inherent uncertainties in proton treatment by directly measuring the relative proton stopping power with respect to water, thereby avoiding the uncertain conversion of X‐ray CT Hounsfield unit to relative stopping power and the deleterious effect of X‐ ray CT artifacts. The purpose of this work was...