Günter Kampf

Günter Kampf
University of Greifswald

MD

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332
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Publications (332)
Article
Biocide resistance is an increasing concern. However, it is currently unknown if an elevated MIC value for an isolate correlates with a lower log10 reduction in suspension tests or carrier tests. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate if isolates with a suspected tolerance to a biocidal active substance reveal an elevated MIC value and an...
Article
The number of human monkeypox virus infections is increasing in many countries. The typical mode of transmission is by direct contact. As orthopoxviruses may stay infectious on inanimate surfaces under laboratory conditions for up to 42 days, disinfection may be relevant in the surrounding of confirmed cases. Aim of the review was to evaluate publi...
Article
Background The contribution of droplet-contaminated surfaces for virus transmission has been discussed controversially in the context of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Importantly, the risk of fomite-based transmission has not been systematically addressed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate...
Preprint
Background The contribution of droplet-contaminated surfaces for virus transmission has been discussed controversially in the context of the current Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Importantly, the risk of fomite-based transmission has not been systematically addressed. Methods We initiated this single-center...
Article
Background: A sporicidal surface disinfection is recommended both for the outbreak and the endemic setting but a comparative evaluation on the efficacy of 'sporicidal' surface disinfectants using suspension tests and 4-field tests has not been performed. Aim: To determine the efficacy of five 'sporicidal' surface disinfectants (three ready-to-us...
Book
Es steht nicht gut um die Freiheit der Wissenschaft. Ihre Unabhängigkeit, finanziert durch den Staat, ist normalerweise ein großer Vorteil, solange der Staat kein eigenes Interesse am Ergebnis hat. Doch in der COVID-19-Pandemie scheint das bei einzelnen Fragestellungen nicht mehr zu gelten. So wurden beispielsweise wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichun...
Article
Structured Summary Background In the current era, the importance of proper hand hygiene to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases has become difficult to debate. Yet, compliance rates remain low and are affected by many factors amongst which user acceptability of hand hygiene products. Aim The present study aimed at investigating drivers...
Article
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Book
Dieses Buch ist als Standardwerk für die wesentlichen Aspekte der Flächenhygiene in allen Bereichen der Versorgung von Patienten und Heimbewohnern konzipiert. Erkenntnisse aus der internationalen wissenschaftlichen Fachliteratur werden umfassend ausgewertet und dargestellt, Fallbeispiele, Infoboxen und Abbildungen erleichtern deren Lesbarkeit. Zahl...
Article
Full-text available
Contaminated surfaces have been discussed as a possible source of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Under experimental conditions, SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious on surfaces for several days. However, the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 detection on surfaces in healthcare settings and the public is currently not known. A syste...
Article
Full-text available
Fundamental rights are probably given back earlier to COVID-19 vaccinated individuals assuming that they cannot spread SARS-CoV-2 anymore. The objective of the study was to determine if COVID-19 vaccinated individuals can still be the source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. PubMed was searched for studies on 4 April 2021. All studies with original data...
Article
We evaluated the bactericidal efficacy of 2 modified WHO-recommended alcohol-based hand rubs (3 ml) after a 15 second rubbing period using two different rub-in techniques (3 vs. 6 steps). The formulation based on 80% w/w ethanol and 0.5% v/v glycerol (modified WHO I) showed a mean log10-reduction of 3.63 ± 0.87 (6 steps) and 3.80 ± 0.71 (3 steps) w...
Book
Zahlreiche Maßnahmen wurden im Rahmen der COVID-19-Pandemie in Deutschland verhängt. In diesem Sachbuch wird beschrieben, in welchen Körpersekreten infektiöses SARS-Coronavirus-2 nachweisbar ist, welche Erkenntnisse zu Übertragungswegen vorliegen und welche Menschen bzw. Berufsgruppen besonders gefährdet sind. Es werden Maßnahmen wie das Anlegen ei...
Article
Zusammenfassung Maßnahmen zur Eingrenzung von SARS-CoV-2 beinhalten häufig die regelmäßige Desinfektion öffentlicher Flächen. In dieser systematischen Übersichtsarbeit wird dargelegt, wie häufig sich SARS-CoV-2 im Umfeld bestätigter Fälle auf Flächen nachweisen lässt. In 26 Studien zeigt sich, dass die RNA von SARS-CoV-2 zu 0 bis 100% auf Flächen i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cutibacterium acnes is part of the anaerobic skin microbiome and resides in deeper skin layers. The organism is an agent of surgical site infections (SSI) in shoulder surgery. We hypothesized that prolonged skin preparation with an agent that penetrates deeply into the skin would be beneficial. Thus, we compared two classes of antisept...
Article
Full-text available
Long before the nature of infection was recognized, or the significance of biofilms in delayed healing was understood, antimicrobial agents were being used in wound care. In the last 70 years, antibiotics have provided an effective means to control wound infection, but the continued emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and the documented antib...
Article
Full-text available
Letter to the research article "Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19" (https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009637117) Open access
Article
During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic new studies are emerging daily providing novel information about sources, transmission risks and possible prevention measures. In this review, we aimed to comprehensively summarize the current evidence on possible sources for SARS-CoV-2, including evaluation of transmission risks and effectiveness of applied p...
Article
The WHO hand rub formulations have been in use around the world for at least the past ten years. The advent of COVID-19 has further enhanced their use. We reviewed published efficacy data for the original and modified formulations. Only efficacy data according to the European Norms (EN) were found. The bactericidal efficacy of the original formulat...
Article
Es gibt keinerlei Hinweise auf SARS-CoV-2-RNA oder infektiöses SARS-CoV-2 auf Oberflächen in Schulen, Restaurants, Sportstätten und Unternehmen. Die zunehmende Verwendung aller möglichen Flächendesinfektionsmitteln in diesen Einrichtungen für das unwahrscheinliche Ereignis eines asymptomatischen COVID-19-Falls in der Nähe dieser Fläche wird wahrsch...
Book
Zahlreiche Corona-Maßnahmen wurden im Rahmen der COVID-19-Pandemie in Deutschland schrittweise per Verordnung verhängt. Doch wie wirksam sind die einzelnen Maßnahmen, um die Übertragung von SARS-Coronavirus-2 zu verhindern? Und gibt es Risiken, die mit den Maßnahmen einhergehen? Um die Übertragungswege besser zu verstehen, wird in diesem Fachbuch b...
Article
A few details in our Review require clarification or amendment. We described 0.5% hydrogen peroxide in various parts of the manuscript to be effective against human coronaviruses in 1 min based on the study by Omidbaksh et al. [34]. In this study however, the test product was described as hydrogen peroxide-based but in an accelerated form (ACCEL TB...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Healthcare-associated infections linked to contaminated textiles are rare but underline their potential role as a source for transmission. The aim of the review was to summarize the experimental evidence on the survival and persistence of the different types of nosocomial pathogens on textiles. Methods: A literature search was performed on Me...
Article
Full-text available
Infection control instructions call for use of alcohol-based hand rub solutions to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We determined the virucidal activity of World Health Organization–recommended hand rub formulations, at full strength and multiple dilutions, and of the active ingredients. All disinfectants demonstrated eff...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic caused a huge demand of alcohol-based hand rubs, medical gloves and face masks in healthcare and in the public. More and more hospitals face a serious shortage of these articles. We propose a risk-adapted approach to ensure adequate patient and healthcare worker safety for as long as possible.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a huge demand of alcohol-based hand rubs, medical gloves, face masks and gowns in healthcare and from the public. More and more hospitals face a serious shortage of these articles. We propose a risk-adapted approach to ensure adequate patient and healthcare worker safety for as long as possible.
Preprint
Full-text available
Published data were reviewed to find out which temperature and exposure time is necessary for inactivation of coronaviruses. Overall a thermal disinfection at 60°C for 30 min, 65°C for 15 min and 80°C for 1 min was effective to strongly reduce coronavirus infectivity by at least 4 log10.
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent emergence of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 is a major burden for health care systems worldwide. It is important to address if the current infection control instructions based on active ingredients are sufficient. We therefore determined the virucidal activity of two alcohol-based hand rub s...
Article
Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, temporary named 2019-nCoV, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore revie...
Article
Full-text available
The novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described, probably via droplets but possibly also via contaminated hands or surfaces. In a recent review on the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfac...
Article
Mitteilungen der kooperierenden Gesellschaften, VAH Verbund für Angewandte Hygiene e.V., Desinfektionsmittel-Kommission, Fragen und Antworten
Article
Full-text available
Several guidelines recommend specific treatments for endoscopes, procedures of quarantine for endoscopes, or additional treatments for the endoscope washer disinfector (EWD) in suspected or confirmed cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or variant CJD (vCJD) but vary in many details. This study therefore reviewed guidelines on reprocessing flex...
Chapter
Eine routinemäßige Anwendung von Desinfektionsmitteln, Biozidprodukten, Reinigern mit bioziden Wirkstoffen oder sonstigen antimikrobiell wirksamen Produkten ist aus den vorher genannten Gründen im Haushalt grundsätzlich abzulehnen. Sie können die Darmflora von Säuglingen ungünstig beeinflussen, sie können bei Säuglingen zu Übergewicht führen, sie k...
Chapter
Sehr viele Menschen verwenden zuhause Produkte aus Supermärkten oder Drogerien zur Reinigung von Flächen, dem WC oder in der Küche. Ein Teil der Produkte sind Biozidprodukte, d. h. dass sie laut Herstellerangabe eine messbare antimikrobielle Wirkung aufweisen und einen oder mehrere biozide Wirkstoffe enthalten, mit denen Schadorganismen unschädlich...
Chapter
Verschaffen Sie sich einen Überblick über Biozidprodukte in Ihrem Haushalt und prüfen Sie sehr genau, ob sie diese tatsächlich weiter nutzen wollen. Die Mehrzahl dieser antimikrobiellen Produkte werden Sie mit Sicherheit nicht brauchen, da sie keinen Gesundheitsnutzen bei routinemäßiger Anwendung aufweisen. Zukünftig sollten Sie auf diese Produkte...
Chapter
Das Ausmaß der Wirksamkeit lässt sich grundsätzlich in zwei Bereiche einteilen, die im Wesentlichen von der Konzentration der bioziden Wirkstoffen bzw. Biozidprodukte abhängen: eine mikrobiozide und mikrobiostatische Wirkung. Diese Bereiche sind beispielhaft für einen Alkohol wie Ethanol und einem Beispielbakterium dargestellt (Abb. 4.1).
Chapter
In Drogerien, Apotheken und Supermarktketten kann man zahlreiche verschiedene Biozidprodukte für unterschiedliche Anwendungen finden. Betrachten wir zunächst die Produkte, die von international tätigen Konzernen angeboten werden.
Chapter
Insgesamt finden sich bestimmte biozide Wirkstoffe immer wieder in Biozidprodukten, die von verschiedenen Herstellern für den häuslichen Bereich angeboten werden. Nachfolgend wird eine Auswahl von Wirkstoffen näher betrachtet, die überproportional häufig von den Herstellern eingesetzt werden.
Chapter
Zahlreiche Hygiene-Produkte weisen laut Hersteller eine eigene, sogar quantifizierte Wirkung gegen Bakterien auf (99,9 %). Das entspricht einer Reduktion um 3 log10-Stufen. Das ist durchaus plausibel, wenn man die bioziden Wirkstoffe betrachtet, die sich in diesen Produkten finden lassen. Wie ist dieses Ausmaß an bakterizider Wirkung einzuschätzen?
Article
Nosocomial pathogens can become less susceptible against commonly used antiseptic agents. Chlorhexidine as an example provoked a strong (> 4-fold) and stable adaptation in 20 of 78 bacterial species studied so far (25.6%). The strongest adaptation among clinically relevant isolates was reported with S. marcescens (up to 128-fold to 2048 mg/l) and P...
Preprint
Background: Cutibacterium acnes is part of the anaerobic skin microbiome and resides in deeper skin layers. The organism is an important agent of surgical site infections (SSI), particularly in shoulder surgery, and is difficult to target with skin antisepsis. We hypothesized that prolonged preparation with an agent that penetrates deeper into the...
Book
Zahlreiche Hersteller bieten Reinigungs- und Desinfektionsmittel zum häuslichen Gebrauch an, oft mit der Angabe „entfernt 99,9% der Bakterien“. Doch welche desinfizierenden Wirkstoffe werden hier verwendet, um Bakterien, Viren und Pilze abzutöten? Wie wird diese Wirksamkeit bestimmt? Welchen Nutzen kann der Anwender erwarten? Und was sind die Folge...
Article
Background: Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis are known nosocomial pathogens. The bactericidal activity of biocidal agents used for disinfection, however, is determined with E. hirae. Aim: To find out whether E. hirae is a suitable species to evaluate the efficacy of biocidal agents against the clinically relevant species E. faecalis and E. f...
Article
Biozide Wirkstoffe in Desinfektionsmitteln können in subletaler Konzentration zu erheblichen Anpassungsreaktionen bei verschiedenen, für Patienten potenziell gefährlichen Bakterienspezies führen. Teilweise können sogar Toleranzen gegenüber anderen bioziden Wirkstoffen oder Antibiotika-Resistenzen entstehen. Einige handelsübliche Desinfektionsmittel...
Article
Full-text available
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is commonly used in healthcare, e.g. in skin antiseptics, antimicrobial soaps, alcohol-based hand rubs and oral or wound antiseptics. Aim of the literature review was to evaluate the potential of bacteria to adapt to low level CHG exposure. A maximum 4fold MIC increase to CHG was found after low level exposure in mos...
Article
Full-text available
Summary Background Sporicidal surface disinfection is recommended to control transmission of Clostridium difficile in healthcare facilities. EN 17126 provides a method to determine the sporicidal activity in suspension and has been approved as a European standard. In addition, a sporicidal surface test has been proposed. Aim To determine the in...
Article
The bactericidal activity of isopropanol was determined against Enterococcus faecium ATCC 6057, ST 796 (isopropanol-tolerant strain) and Enterococcus hirae ATCC 10541 (EN 13727). Isopropanol at 60% and 70% were effective (≥5.38 log 10 -reduction) in 15 s against all strains but 23% isopropanol was not (<0.99 log 10 -reduction in ≤15 min). Isopropan...
Article
Full-text available
Some biocidal agents used for disinfection have been described to enhance antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative species. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effect of 13 biocidal agents at sublethal concentrations on antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive species. A MEDLINE search was performed for each biocidal agent on antibioti...
Article
Hand hygiene is an essential element to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens in healthcare facilities. The WHO has launched a global campaign on hand hygiene with the aim to reduce healthcare-associated infections. Hand disinfection using alcohol-based hand rubs is the treatment of choice for clean hands according to the five indications...
Article
Full-text available
Biocidal agents used for disinfection are usually not suspected to enhance cross-resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effect of 13 biocidal agents at sublethal concentrations on antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative species. A medline search was performed for each biocidal agent on antibiotic tolerance, a...
Article
The author's version of the article can be found and downloaded on www.guenter-kampf-hygiene.de
Chapter
Instrument disinfectants can be based on different types of biocidal agents such as benzalkonium chloride, DDAC, glutaraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. A health benefit for patients can be expected for validated reprocessing of non-critical and semi-critical medical devices. A low adaptive response in combination...
Chapter
Wound and mucous membrane antiseptics can be based on chlorhexidine digluconate, polihexanide, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, povidone iodine or octenidine dihydrochloride. In addition, silver may be used as antimicrobial agents for wound treatment, e.g. in wound dressings. A health benefit can at least be expected for patients with infect...
Chapter
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is mostly bactericidal at 1% (1 min) and yeasticidal at 0.0076% (15 min). A mycobactericidal activity is variable. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have not been proposed yet. Elevated MIC values suggestive of DDAC resistance have been reported among some species including P. ae...
Chapter
Glutaraldehyde (2%) has bactericidal and yeasticidal activity in 3 min and species-dependent mycobactericidal activity in 5–60 min. Some food-associated fungi, however, are less susceptible. An epidemiological cut-off value to determine acquired resistance has only been proposed for Bacillus spp. (4,000 mg/l). But elevated MIC values suggestive of...
Chapter
Propan-1-ol has bactericidal activity at 60%. It is effective against C. albicans at 85% in 30 s. Some food-associated fungi require at least 5 min exposure time. A mycobactericidal activity of propan-1-ol has not been described. High MIC values indicating resistance to propan-1-ol have so far not been reported. An epidemiological cut-off value to...
Chapter
Octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT), mostly in combination with 2% phenoxyethanol, is bactericidal (1 min) and yeasticidal (30 s) at 0.1%. The mycobactericidal activity is unknown. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have not been proposed yet. Elevated MIC values suggestive of OCT tolerance have been reported among few spe...
Chapter
Alcohol-based skin antiseptics are based on ethanol, propan-2-ol or propan-1-ol. Some products contain additional non-volatile biocidal agents such as chlorhexidine digluconate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, povidone iodine or octenidine dihydrochloride. Currently, only chlorhexidine digluconate has a proven health benefit (prevention o...
Chapter
Silver is a naturally occurring element and has some bactericidal activity against selected species (3.0 log) at 0.032 mg/l. The fungicidal or mycobactericidal activity is largely unknown. High MIC values indicating silver tolerance have been described with E. coli (≤ 512,000 mg/l), E. cloacae (≤512,000 mg/l), P. aeruginosa (≤128,000 mg/l), Klebsie...
Chapter
Propan-2-ol has bactericidal activity at 70%. It is effective against C. albicans at 50% in 5 min. Some food-associated fungi require at least 10 min exposure time with 70% propan-2-ol. A tuberculocidal activity has been described for 60% propan-2-ol in 5 min. High MIC values indicating resistance to propan-2-ol have so far not been reported but an...
Chapter
Sodium hypochlorite is mostly bactericidal at 5,000 mg/l (30 min) and yeasticidal at 1,000 mg/l (5 min). An almost comprehensive fungicidal activity was seen with 30,000 mg/l (10 min). High MIC values indicating tolerance to sodium hypochlorite have been reported for Methylobacterium spp. and R. erythropolis. Epidemiological cut-off values to deter...
Chapter
Antimicrobial soaps are usually based on chlorhexidine digluconate, povidone iodine, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, DDAC, octenidine dihydrochloride, polihexanide or sodium hypochlorite. Evidence for a health benefit is inconsistent. Routine antiseptic body washing of ICU patients seems to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infection, and b...
Chapter
Povidone iodine (7.5–10%) is mostly bactericidal in 30 s and yeasticidal in 2 min. A tuberculocidal activity can be found with 1% available iodine in 1 min. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have not been proposed yet. Elevated MIC values suggestive of povidone iodine tolerance have been reported among few species incl...
Chapter
Alcohol-based hand rubs are usually based on ethanol, propan-2-ol or propan-1-ol. Some of them contain additional non-volatile biocidal agents such as chlorhexidine digluconate, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, DDAC, polihexanide, peracetic acid or octenidine dihydrochloride. For the additional biocidal agents, almost all studie...
Chapter
Surface disinfectants can be based on different types of biocidal agents such as benzalkonium chloride, DDAC, glutaraldehyde, alcohols, hydrogen peroxide, silver (mostly in combination with hydrogen peroxide), peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite. A health benefit was described in outbreak situations or on special care units for products based on...
Chapter
Polihexanide chloride (PHMB) is mostly bactericidal at 0.016–0.02% (1 h) and yeasticidal at 0.1% (5 min). The fungicidal and mycobactericidal activity depends on the species. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have not been proposed yet. Elevated MIC values suggestive of PHMB resistance have been reported among some spe...
Chapter
Hydrogen peroxide is mostly bactericidal at 0.5% in 30 min and yeasticidal at 3% in 30 min. A comprehensive fungicidal activity was not seen with 3% hydrogen peroxide in 6 h, similar to a lack of a comprehensive mycobactericidal activity with 3% hydrogen peroxide in 1 h. High MIC values indicating resistance to hydrogen peroxide have so far not bee...
Chapter
Peracetic acid has bactericidal activity at 1.6% in 3–5 min, yeasticidal activity at 0.25% in 1 min, and mycobactericidal activity at 0.35% in 5 min. Some food-associated fungi or ascospores, however, are resistant. High MIC values indicating resistance to peracetic acid have so far not been reported but tolerant isolates of E. coli, L. monocytogen...
Chapter
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is bactericidal at 2–4% (5 min) except Enterococcus spp., S. epidermidis and MRSA, and yeasticidal at 2% (30 min). A general mycobactericidal activity cannot be expected. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have been proposed for E. coli, E. faecalis and K. pneumoniae (64 mg/l); Salmonella...
Chapter
Triclosan at 1% is mostly bactericidal (3 min) and yeasticidal (1 min). A mycobactericidal activity is unknown. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have been proposed for E. faecium (32 mg/l), C. albicans and E. faecalis (16 mg/l), Salmonella spp. (8 mg/l), E. coli and K. pneumoniae (2 mg/l), Enterobacter spp. (1 mg/l) a...
Chapter
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is mostly bactericidal at 1% and yeasticidal at 0.2% (5 min). A mycobactericidal activity cannot be expected. Epidemiological cut-off values to determine acquired resistance have been proposed for Salmonella spp. (128 mg/l), E. coli (64 mg/l), K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. (32 mg/l), S. aureus and C. albicans (16 m...
Book
Various antiseptic agents, such as chlorhexidine, are used for different applications, e.g. in healthcare, veterinary medicine, animal production and household products, including cosmetics. However, not all antiseptic agents provide significant health benefits, especially in some products used in human medicine (alcohol-based hand rubs, antimicrob...
Article
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a commonly used active agent in healthcare, e.g. in surface disinfectants, disinfectant cleaners or sometimes also in skin antiseptics. Aim of the review was to evaluate the potential of bacteria to adapt to low level BAC exposure. A maximum 4-fold MIC increase was found in most of the 57 evaluated bacterial species....
Article
The author's version of the paper (in German) can be found on my homepage in the download section (www.guenter-kampf-hygiene.de).
Chapter
Mitarbeiter der Krankenhaushygiene werden immer wieder mit elektronischen Systemen konfrontiert, die zur Bestimmung der Compliance der Händehygiene dienen sollen. Nachfolgend werden der Nutzen und die Schwächen dieser Systeme beleuchtet.

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Projects (3)
Archived project
New textbook with a comprehensive evaluation of 15 biocidal agents regarding microbial susceptibility, effect of low level exposure, contamination of antiseptic solutions resulting in infections and their effect on biofilm development, fixation and removal. Aim of the book is to provide knowledge and proposals to reduce selection pressure for different types of clinical applications (hand disinfection, surface disinfection, instrument disinfection, antimicrobial soaps, skin antiseptics and wound / mucous membrane antiseptics) while maintaining the expected health benefit.
Archived project
Study on hygiene moments being critical for patient safety
Archived project
Comprehensive summary of scientific evidence of 26 aspects of hand hygiene with the aim to enable healthcare workers to understand what to do in clinical practice, and also why. Additional information can be found on https://shop.mhp-verlag.de/detail/index/sArticle/70/sCategory/19.