Gudny Eiriksdottir

Gudny Eiriksdottir
Hjartavernd · Department of Genetics

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771
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Publications

Publications (771)
Article
Full-text available
The apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE-ε4) is established as a major genetic risk factor for cognitive decline and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Accumulating evidence has linked ε4 carriership to abnormal structural brain changes across the adult lifespan. To better understand the underlying causal mechanisms, we investigated the extent to which the...
Article
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Background Participation in leisure activities and extensive social network have been associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment (CI) and dementia. Aims We examined whether leisure activities (cognitive solitary, cognitive group, social, physical, or creative activities) and social involvement are associated with less incidence of CI or de...
Article
Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/'proxy' AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 ris...
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Full-text available
Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‘proxy’ AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 ris...
Article
Background: n-3 and n-6 PUFAs have physiologic roles in sleep processes, but little is known regarding circulating n-3 and n-6 PUFA and sleep parameters. Objectives: We sought to assess associations between biomarkers of n-3 and n-6 PUFA intake with self-reported sleep duration and difficulty falling sleeping in the Fatty Acids and Outcome Resea...
Article
Fragility fractures are an important hallmark of aging and an increasingly recognized complication of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D individuals have been found to exhibit an increased fracture risk despite elevated bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, BMD and FRAX-scores tend to underestimate fracture risk in T2D. Ne...
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Measures of information processing speed vary between individuals and decline with age. Studies of aging twins suggest heritability may be as high as 67%. The Illumina HumanExome Bead Chip genotyping array was used to examine the association of rare coding variants with performance on the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) in community-dwelling...
Article
Full-text available
Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP tr...
Article
Full-text available
Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, “Some College” (yes/no) and “Graduated College”...
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Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose,...
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The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. Over a median of 16 years of follow-up, 15,720 deaths occurred among 42...
Article
Background Threshold serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations for extraskeletal outcomes are uncertain and could differ from recommendations (20–30 ng/mL) for skeletal health. Objectives We aimed to identify and validate sex-specific threshold 25(OH)D concentrations for older adults’ physical function. Methods Using 5 large prospective,...
Article
Objective This study aimed to investigate how skeletal muscle attenuation and adipose tissue (AT) attenuation of the quadriceps, hamstrings, paraspinal muscle groups and the psoas muscle vary according to the targeted muscles, sex, and age. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Community-dwelling old population in Reykjavik, Icel...
Article
Objective This study aimed to examine whether an accelerated decline in quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA), attenuation (a surrogate of quality), and strength, as well as lower limb muscular function, are associated with hip fractures in older adults with impaired kidney function. Design Prospective population-based study. Setting Community-dw...
Article
Context Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations increase during the perimenopausal transition and remain high post menopause. Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and gain of bone marrow adiposity (BMA) and body fat mass also occur during this time. In mice, blocking the action of FSH increases bone mass and decreases fat mass. Objective T...
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Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci...
Article
Full-text available
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were...
Article
Context Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation. Objective Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Design Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium Setting Popula...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10−8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP tr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Obesity has been longitudinally associated with depression but only few studies take a life course approach. This longitudinal study investigates whether being overweight or obese at age 8 and 13 years is associated with depressive symptoms more than 60 years later and whether this association is independent of late-life body mass inde...
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Purpose: To study associations between body size at birth and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in old age. Methods: The study sample consists of 1497 community-dwelling individuals (56.1% women) aged 67-89 years with birth data and retinal data collected twice in old age 5 years apart. Birth data (weight, length, birth order) were extracte...
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Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To elucidate the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conduct multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery +...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that genes play a substantial role in determining a person’s susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment. The existing studies on this subject have different results, which may be caused by difficulties in determining the phenotype or the limited number of participants involved. Here, we have gathered the largest sa...
Article
Bone marrow adiposity (BMA) is associated with aging and osteoporosis, but whether BMA can predict bone loss and fractures remains unknown. Using data from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)‐Reykjavik study, we investigated the associations between 1H‐MRS‐based measures of vertebral bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), annualized change i...
Article
Background Copeptin, a marker for vasopressin, is related to advanced cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction. Purpose The aim of the present investigation was to assess whether copeptin is associated with the different atherosclerotic plaque stages expressed by coronary artery calcium scores (CAC score). Methods Copeptin and CAC sco...
Article
Full-text available
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The debate whether "asymptomatic hyperuricemia" should be treated is still ongoing. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze whether hyperuricema in the elderly is associated with joint pain. Methods and findings: Participants in the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study (males 2195, females 2975, mean age 76(6)) an...
Article
Rationale Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for IPF; however, the extent to which there is additional overlap with IPF, or unique associations among those with ILA is not known. Objectives To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILA. Methods: ILA and the subpleural-predominant subt...
Article
Background: Subclinical changes on the electrocardiogram are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Recognition and knowledge of electrolyte associations in cardiac electrophysiology are based on only in vitro models and observations in patients with severe medical conditions. Objectives: This study sought to investigate associations between...
Article
Background: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and ara...
Article
Importance It is uncertain whether unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is a risk factor for cerebral infarction. Objective To determine whether unrecognized MI detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with cerebral infarction. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a cross-sectional study of ICELAND MI, a cohort s...
Article
Introduction: In addition to well-established links with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cigarette smoking may affect skeletal muscle; however, associations with quadriceps atrophy, density, and function are unknown. This study explored the associations of current and former smoking with quadriceps muscle area and attenuation as well as m...
Article
Background: Common changes with menopause and aging include an increase in visceral adiposity and loss of lean body mass. Declines in sex steroid hormones contribute to these body composition changes, but emerging evidence also implicates increased pituitary production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Blocking FSH action with an FSH-β subunit...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and ar...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the association between osteoarthritis (OA) and microvascular pathology, we examined the relationship between retinal microvascular caliber and osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in an elderly population. The AGES-Reykjavik is a population-based, multidisciplinary longitudinal cohort study of aging. Retinal vessel caliber, hand oste...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic sitting, such as fidgeting and desk work, might be associated with health, but remains difficult to identify out of accelerometry data. We examined, in a laboratory study, whether dynamic sitting can be identified out of triaxial activity counts. Among 18 participants (56% men, 27.3 ± 6.5 years), up to 236 counts per minute were recorded in...
Article
Full-text available
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Article
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Preprint
Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To provide new insights in the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conducted multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study samp...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of di...
Article
Rationale: Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are radiologic abnormalities on chest computed tomography scans that have been associated with an early or mild form of pulmonary fibrosis. Although ILA have been associated with radiologic progression, it is not known if specific imaging patterns are associated with progression or risk of mortality....
Article
Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using validated equations based on serum creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcys), or both (eGFRcr-cys). However, when compared with the measured GFR (mGFR), only eGFRcr-cys meets recommended performance standards. Our goal was to develop a more acc...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lipids are implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The relationship between systemic lipids and AMD has not been well characterized. The objective was to investigate the relationship between serum lipids and AMD in older adults using a lipidomic approach. Methods In a case-control study, 240 adults, age...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine if increased mortality associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reflects a causal relationship by using a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach with genetic variants in the vitamin D synthesis pathway. Individual participant data from three European cohorts were harmonized with standar...
Article
Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMT...
Article
Aims: Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) can cause heart failure and death. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detects myocardial scar/fibrosis associated with myocardial infarction (MI) and NICM with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognosis of ischaemic and non-ischaemic myocardial fi...
Article
Full-text available
The etiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor state of multiple myeloma (MM), is mostly unknown and no studies have been conducted on the effect of diet on MGUS or progression from MGUS to MM. We aimed to explore the association between common foods and MGUS and progression to MM. Data from the population-...
Article
Full-text available
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 100...
Article
Importance Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can identify unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) in the general population. Unrecognized myocardial infarction by CMR portends poor prognosis in the short term but, to our knowledge, long-term outcomes are not known. Objective To determine the long-term outcomes of UMI by CMR compared with c...
Article
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts ( n...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties that could benefit adults with comprised pulmonary health. Objective: To investigate n-3 PUFA associations with spirometric measures of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and determine underlying genetic susceptibility. Methods: Associations of n-3 PUFA...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction There is conflicting evidence whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. Genetic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) locus is associated with altered HDL-C. We aimed to assess AD risk by genetically predicted HDL-C. Methods Ten single nucleoti...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the...
Article
Bone marrow adiposity is associated with aging, osteoporosis and reduced hematopoiesis as well as anorexia nervosa but little is known about the underlying mechanisms that affect marrow adiposity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may influence bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), possibly through loss of lean mass or higher circulating levels of sclerost...
Article
Proteins circulating in the blood are critical for age-related disease processes, however the serum proteome has remained largely unexplored. To this end, 4,137 proteins covering most predicted extracellular proteins, were measured in the serum of 5,457 Icelanders over 65 years of age. Pair-wise correlation between proteins as they varied across in...