Gudasalamani Ravikanth

Gudasalamani Ravikanth
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment | ATREE · Conservation Genetics

Ph. D

About

345
Publications
87,571
Reads
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3,260
Citations
Introduction
Dr. G. Ravikanth is a Senior Fellow at the Centre for Biodiversity Monitoring and Conservation Planning at the Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Ravikanth has over 20 years of research experience working on population genetics and applying molecular tools in the context of tropical forests, conservation, and species recovery. His research interests include phylogenetics, conservation genetics, and molecular ecology.
Additional affiliations
April 2017 - present
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
November 2008 - March 2017
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2007 - present
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • Ecology, Biosystematics
Education
July 1999 - December 2003
August 1997 - June 1999
November 1992 - August 1996
College of Forestry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
Field of study
  • Forestry

Publications

Publications (345)
Article
The rapid spread of alien invasive plant species has emerged as one of the serious issues for forest composition, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. The most probable distribution range of Hyptis suaveolens was modeled for Jharkhand using MaxEnt for the years 2020 and 2050 under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) i.e. 2.6, 4....
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Myristica swamps are tree-covered wetlands within the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats, India. Even with their little-known biota, the swamps are virtually a live museum that is of great interest to biologists. The swamps harbour several rare-relic floristic and faunal taxa, comprising many endemic and threatened species. Most of the plant sp...
Article
Environmental heterogeneity is considered as one of the main drivers of habitat specialization and niche evolution among tropical plant lineages, and local‐scale habitat specialization promotes niche differentiation among sister taxa. In this study, we examined the degree to which habitat specialization leads to niche differentiation across the dis...
Article
The West Himalayan Yew (Taxus contorta Griff.) is an extremely important tree species as its bark and leaves are the source of the anti-cancer medicine Taxol® used in chemotherapy for the treatment of a number of different cancers. Unfortunately, the species is endangered because of unsustainable harvesting and over grazing coupled with a very low...
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Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. is an important multipurpose, woody climber used by the rural communities in India for various economic activities as well as for medicinal purposes. Indiscriminate extraction of the woody climber has led to population decline in its distribution range. Climate change has further led to the amplification leading to dras...
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Tree diversity in Asia's tropical and subtropical forests is central to nature-based solutions. Species vulnerability to multiple threats, which affects the provision of ecosystem services, is poorly understood. We conducted a region-wide, spatially explicit vulnerability assessment (including overexploitation, fire, overgrazing, habitat conversion...
Article
The apparent absence of Himalayan low-elevation taxa in the central Indian region and resumption of their distribution in the high elevation of Western Ghats has puzzled biogeographers for several decades. Many theories have been proposed to explain this but attempts remain futile owing to insufficient empirical support. Here, we have employed a mo...
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Climate change, water scarcity, population growth, and food shortage are some of the threatening challenges being faced in today's world. Among different types of stresses, drought stress presents a persistent challenge for global food production, however, its harshness and intensity are supposed to expand in the imminent future. The most striking...
Article
Amphibians show a high amount of species richness and endemism. Such diversity can be attributed to their microenvironment as amphibians display fine‐scale heterogeneity depending on the microhabitats they inhabit. Tadpoles are considered as good indicators for understanding microhabitat–species association as they reflect the breeding sites and si...
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Cannabis sativa has long been an important source of fiber extracted from hemp and both medicinal and recreational drugs based on cannabinoid compounds. Here, we investigated its poorly known domestication history using whole-genome resequencing of 110 accessions from worldwide origins. We show that C. sativa was first domesticated in early Neolith...
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As a pioneering work in the field of domestication of Pyrenacantha volubilis Wight, an anti-cancer drug (camptothecin) yielding plant, this study identifies superior seed sources of southern peninsular India for various parameters related to its growth and yield. The experiment was set up following the common garden experiment protocol in Completel...
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Keywords Wild food plants, indigenous community, dependency, economic benefits Wild food plant resources and their indigenous knowledge of use are in danger of being lost in areas where rapid environmental and cultural transformations have led to changes in eating habits and practices. The study assesses the dependency and economic value of wild fo...
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Fourth issue of EPW Review of Environment and Development on the theme of biodiversity focused development pathways consists of five papers and one introduction.
Article
Farmlands and farm practices are increasingly getting homogenised due to the all-pervasive intensification of agriculture. Often blurred in this production maximising system is the biodiversity in and around farms—both wilderness and agricultural—that dots farm neighbourhoods. Unfortunately, unlike biodiversity associated with more recognisable lan...
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Aquatic invasive species negatively impact the native aquatic communities in many parts of the world. Every nation faces the issue of introduced species, but the efforts to manage them depend on the vary-ing capacity and willingness to manage invasions globally. Aquatic invasive species have their own set of challenges; it is crucial to understand...
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Highly populated tropical countries face tremendous pressures in reconciling the needs for improved economic security and the protection of declining biodiversity. India is no exception and its biodiversity is under severe pressure due to complex interactions among land use change, other human economic activities, and climate change. Preservation a...
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The Malai Mahadeshwara Wildlife Sanctuary (MMH) in southern India is home to several long‐standing ethnic and tribal groups and supports a considerable number of domestic herbivores (cattle, goats and water buffalo) as well as a range of wildlife (including several species of deer, bonnet macaque, and Asian elephant). We reconstructed dietary niche...
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The present study was conducted to predict the current and future potential distribution of a tree species Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. in Ranchi, Eastern India using ecological niche modeling. Nine environmental variables comprising of isothermality, precipitation of wettest and warmest quarter, annual temperature range, soil type, human influence...
Article
Antagonism of plant pathogenic fungi by endophytic fungi is a well-known phenomenon. In plate assays, the antagonism could be due to mycoparasitism, competition for space or antibiosis, involving a chemical diffusate, or a volatile organic compound (VOC). In this study, we demonstrate that besides mycoparasitism, VOCs play a major role in antagonis...
Technical Report
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A tri-monthly newsletter published by Centre for Studies in Ethnobiology, Biodiversity and Sustainability (CEiBa) that focusses on a diverse array of topics, mostly covering ecology and environment, natural and cultural history to oral history and conservation. The purpose is to introduce awe-inspiring facets of the natural or semi-natural world to...
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Endophytes, both of bacterial and fungal origin, are ubiquitously present in all plants. While their origin and evolution are enigmatic, there is burgeoning literature on their role in promoting growth and stress responses in their hosts. We demonstrate that a salt-tolerant endophyte isolated from salt-adapted Pokkali rice, a Fusarium sp., colonize...
Article
Amphibians show a very high level of diversity and endemism and are facing global declines from the past few decades. Studies have shown that the molecular tools can be helpful in their conservation efforts. In India, more than 80% of amphibians are endemic and most show a narrow range of distribution. Most of the Indian amphibians lack information...
Article
Sclerotium rolfsii is a necrotrophic, soil-borne pathogenic fungus responsible for serious crop losses worldwide. It is one of the major phytopathogens infecting chilli and causes yield losses ranging from 16 to 80%. Among the various approaches to manage S. rolfsii, biological control is an environmentally acceptable alternative over other chemica...
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Colchicine, a well-known alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor of polymerization of tubulin leading to mitotic arrest. It is highly toxic to eukaryotic cells but also widely used in the field of medicine and plant breeding. Gloriosa superba (family: Colchicaceae) is an important natural source of colchicine. The seeds, tubers and leaves of this plant con...
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Understanding the structure and composition of native forests is a prerequisite in developing an adaptive forest management plan for Himalayan forest ecosystems where climate change is rapid. However, basic information on forest structure and composition are still limited in many places of the Eastern Himalayas. In this study, we aimed to understan...
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Despite numerous studies reporting endophytic fungal production of metabolites chemically similar to the secondary metabolites produced by their host plants, how and why the fungi produce these metabolites remain largely unknown. Here, we review the literature on endophytic fungal production of taxol and camptothecin, two extensively studied plant...
Article
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the variability in DNA quality and quantity along a gradient of industrial processing of botanical ingredients from raw materials to extracts. Methods: A data matrix was assembled for 1242 botanical ingredient samples along a gradient of industrial processing commonly used in the Natural Health Pr...
Article
The evolution of Peninsular Indian biodiversity has been a fascinating topic of research due to historical connections of this region to the ancient Gondwanaland. We investigated the phylogeny and historical biogeography of nearly all extant species of the genus Piper reported from the region to assess the biogeographical origins and test mechanism...
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Understanding the influence of evolutionary history on species-specific phenological events of high-altitude plants and their sensitivity to the abiotic factors has gained importance mainly in the context of climate change. However, the majority of phenology studies across altitudinal gradient are carried out on flowering, whereas other reproductiv...
Article
Systemic fungicide seed treatments are routinely used in conventional agriculture to control soil and seed-borne diseases, but little is known about their unintended adverse effects on non-target beneficial fungal endophytes that are known to be involved in plant growth and development. This study evaluated the seed treatment effect of a broad spec...
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Premise of the Study Boswellia serrata (Burseraceae) is an economically important aromatic, gum‐resin–yielding, non‐timber forest tree species. Microsatellite markers were developed for B. serrata for the first time to study genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results A magnetic bead enrichment method was used to develop 16 mic...
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Phyllanthus emblica and P. indofischeri, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry, are important nontimber forest product (NTFP) species widely distributed across the Indian subcontinent. The fruits of these species are rich in vitamin C and are used in the preparation of a number of herbal medicines for treating a wide range of disorders. Due to th...
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Garcinia L. (Clusiaceae) fruits are a rich source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid, and this has gained considerable attention as an anti-obesity agent and a popular weight loss food supplement. In this study, we assessed adulteration of morphologically similar samples of Garcinia using DNA barcoding, and used NMR to quantify the content of (-)-hydroxycit...
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A total of 507 endophytic fungal isolates belonging to 82 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were isolated from fifteen plant species naturally occurring in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, India. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Penicillium and Nigrospora were among the dominant fungal genera. Thermotolerance of the isolates was evaluated by cultur...
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Camptothecin (CPT), a monoterpene indole alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic topoisomerase I (Top 1). Because of this property, several derivatives of CPT are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents. The compound is produced by several plant species, including Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Family: Icacinaceae) presumably as a deterrent to insec...
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A number of studies have shown that there could be widespread substitution and/or adulteration (hereafter referred to as substitution) in raw herbal trade of medicinal plants. Substitution could potentially endanger the health and safety of the consumers. In this study, the extent of adulteration in raw herbal trade of 30 important medicinal plants...
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There has been a growing concern about the increasing number of species that are globally threatened. Developmental projects, and increased dependence on forests both for sustenance and livelihood have rendered many species threatened. In the Indian context, more than 150 species are critically endangered and require immediate intervention to susta...
Article
Background Camptothecin (CPT), a quinoline alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic topoisomerase I. Because of this property, several derivatives of CPT are used as chemotherapeutic agents. CPT is produced by several plant species belonging to the Asterid clade as well as by a number of endophytic fungal associates of these plants. In this st...
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Rattans, or canes, are one of the most important non-timber forest products supporting the livelihood of many forest-dwelling communities in South and North-eastern India. Due to increased demand for rattan products, rattans have been extracted indiscriminately from the Western Ghats, a 1600-km mountain chain running parallel to the west coast of I...
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Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1, 4-napthoquinone), also known as hennotannic acid, is an orange red dye used as a popular skin and hair colorant. The dye is produced in the leaves of Lawsonia inermis L, often referred to as the “henna” tree. In this study, we report the production of lawsone by an endophytic fungus, Gibberella moniliformis isolated from the l...
Chapter
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The horizontally transmitted fungal endophytes cause symptomless infections of plants. Endophytes synthesize a diverse array of metabolites and enzymes, an attribute that reflects their milieu: the host plant and co-occurring microbes. We illustrate the versatility and utility of endophytes by highlighting examples of how they enhance plant toleran...
Article
The global economy of the international trade of herbal products has been increasing by 15% annually, with the raw material for most herbal products being sourced from South and Southeast Asian countries. In India, of the 8000 species of medicinal plants harvested from the wild, approximately 960 are in the active trade. With increasing internation...
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Camptothecin (CPT), a quinoline indole alkaloid, is one of the important inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I. The highest concentration of this alkaloid has been reported from the fruits of Pyrenacantha volubilis Hook. Here we report the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of CPT in seeds and fruits of P. volubilis. Temporally, CPT c...
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Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) is an economically important tree species, endemic to the Western Ghats, India, which is the world’s most densely populated biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we used variation at ten nuclear simple sequence repeat loci to investigate genetic diversity and fine scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) in seedling...
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Despite the importance of seed dispersal for survival of plant species in fragmented landscapes, data on seed dispersal at landscape scales remain sparse. Effective seed dispersal among fragments determines recolonization and plant species persistence in such landscapes. We present the first large-scale (216-km2) direct estimates of realized seed d...
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Non-timber forest products (NTFP) have been an important source of subsistence as well as livelihoods for many forest-dwelling and for- est-fringe communities across the developing world. NTFP collection has been promoted as a win-win strategy to not only conserve biodiversity but also provide livelihood options to scores of forest-dwelling communi...
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We present an annotated list of amphibians for the state of Sikkim, India. Data were obtained through literature reviews, fieldwork and review of museum collections. Forty-four species of amphibians belonging to 20 genera in eight families and three orders have been reported in Sikkim from 1864 to 2015. During our fieldwork, we recorded 23 species,...
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Microhyla sholigari is an endangered frog described in the year 2000. The original description was based on non-adult types and lacked information on several morphological characters, call structure, genetic material and photographs of the animal in life. The absence of such information posed challenges in field identification of this species. Sinc...
Article
Full-text available
Microhyla sholigari is an endangered frog described in the year 2000. The original description was based on non-adult types and lacked information on several morphological characters, call structure, genetic material and photographs of the animal in life. The absence of such information posed challenges in field identification of this species. Sinc...