Guangzhi Hu

Guangzhi Hu
Yunnan University · Institute for Ecological Research and Pollution Control of Plateau Lakes

Professor

About

236
Publications
36,340
Reads
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6,750
Citations
Citations since 2016
195 Research Items
5623 Citations
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
Additional affiliations
December 2018 - present
Yunnan University
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Principle Investigator
December 2014 - November 2018
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Principle Investigator

Publications

Publications (236)
Article
In hydrotreatment of bio-oil, it is difficult to convert the aliphatic compounds with the carbon number less than four into liquid fuel via hydrodeoxygenation. Thus, ideally, the very light organics of bio-oil could be reformed to generate hydrogen for further upgrading the heavier organics in bio-oil to biofuel or fine chemicals. In this study, th...
Article
In the present work, a microwave-assisted and secondary roasting preparation process was used to synthesize nanocomposite materials. These materials were modified with amorphous cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs) on the surface of biochar doped with different nitrogen sources (melamine (Me), 1,10-phenanthroline (Ph), and urea (Ur)). The nanocomposite (C...
Article
Designing efficient and cost-effective bifunctional catalysts is desirable for carbon dioxide and oxygen reduction reactions (CO2RR and ORR) to address carbon neutralization and energy conversion. Herein, a bifunctional CO2RR and ORR catalyst for aqueous Zn-air battery (ZAB) self-driving CO2RR electrolysis is developed using atomically dispersed ni...
Article
Simultaneous construction of size-asymmetric metal single atoms and nanoparticle active sites in advanced and robust carrier materials is particularly important yet challenging for efficient reversible oxygen catalysis. Herein, a facile “chemical etching/in-Situ capture” synthesis strategy was developed to fabricate a unique double-shelled carbon-b...
Article
Food waste contains generally not a single component but a mixture of vegetables like lettuce and staple food like noodles. Vegetables and staple food are distinct in biological structures, and their pyrolysis or activation might generate biochar and activated carbon with varied properties. This was investigated in this study via conducting the ini...
Article
Direct seawater splitting is more attractive and feasible in realizing hydrogen economy, but the key challenge lies in the development of efficient and stable bifunctional electrocatalysts toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, CoSe2 nanocrystals embedded into carbon framework grown on carbon cloth are...
Article
Removal of excess phosphorus (P) from water systems can effectively prevent eutrophication and maintain the ecological balance. In this study, we used a novel freeze-drying thermal oxidation process to prepare a rod-shaped lanthanum oxychloride decorated porous carbon material, polyvinylpyrrolidone /LaOCl (PL). PL showed excellent performance in re...
Article
The rational modulation of metal catalysts with tailorable valence and redox properties is a promising strategy for further improving their catalytic performance. Herein, an environment-friendly grafting and thermal strategy were adopted to immobilize copper oxides nanoparticles on carbon nanofiber (CuOx/CF). Benefiting from the defect-rich-surface...
Article
Full-text available
Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) driven by halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) modified with nanomanganese cobaltate (MnCo2O4) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that offer high degradation efficiency and mineralization rates for many typical antibiotic pollutants, such as ornidazole (ONZ). The experimental results show that halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) modifie...
Article
Designing cost-effective and high-efficiency electrocatalysts is critical to the water splitting performance during hydrogen generation. Herein, we have developed Fe2P-Co2P heterostructure nanowire arrays with excellent lattice torsions and grain boundaries for highly efficient water splitting. According to the microstructural investigations and th...
Article
Inexpensive, high-activity bifunctional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are imperative for the development of energy storage and conversion systems. A nitrogen-doped carbon material with a micro−meso−macroporous structure doped with La (LaPNC) containing La−O/N−C active sites is prepared using S...
Article
In this work, MIL-100(Fe)-decorated mesoporous carbon powders ([email protected](Fe)) were prepared by in situ growth of MIL-100(Fe) on the surface of ZIF-8 framework-based mesoporous carbons (MC). The hybrid material was characterized using SEM equipped with EDS mapping for morphology investigation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical va...
Article
Electron-deficient effect of Pd in the Pd17Se15 catalyst effectively weakens the adsorption of CO poisoning species and enhances the electrocatalytic performance of alcohol electrooxidation in an alkaline medium.
Article
Electrochemical techniques have shown advantages for the removal of low-concentration nitrate. Here, copper oxide nanosheets were grown on self-supporting nickel foam (NF) to prepare electrodes (CuO/NF), which realized the rapid and highly selective conversion of nitrate pollutants in sewage into non-toxic and harmless N2. The CuO/NF afforded 100%...
Article
Exposure to even trace amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in food can have serious effects on the human body. Therefore, the development of novel electrochemical sensors that can accurately detect the different toxicity levels of heavy metal ions in food is of great significance. Based on the principle of green chemistry, we propose a new type of boron a...
Article
Centimeter-scale composite biochar-alginate gel beads (MoS2B/CaCO3/Alg) were designed for the adsorption of Pb(II) in water using MoS2 modified biochar as the filler, alginate as the matrix, and CaCO3 as the active additive component. The composite gel beads were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrosco...
Article
The reduction of nitroaromatics is important in industrial wastewater treatment. However, the activity of an external catalyst is critical for the reaction. In this study, Au nanocrystals were anchored in situ on two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO), which had oxygen-rich groups on its surface. Oxygen-containing groups combined to form functional bo...
Article
The reduction of nitroaromatics to aminoaromatics is essential for fine chemical production and effective sewage treatment. However, the activity of an external catalyst is essential for the reaction. In this study, Pd nanocrystals were anchored in situ on two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO), which acted as a catalyst support with high specific sur...
Article
In the wave of renewable energy replacing fossil energy, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged. In recent work by X. Sun et al., perovskite devices built by precisely controlling the thermal annealing process achieved a large open-circuit voltage (1.23 V) and power-conversion-efficiency up to 20.32%. This study sheds new light on junction engi...
Article
Lanthanide materials are attracting increasing attention owing to their ability to strongly bind with phosphorus (P). In this paper, a novel method of producing clean lanthanum nano-aerosols by spark ablation is proposed, the particles are uniformly deposited on a cheap and readily available Polypropylene(PP) fiber membrane in a special gas environ...
Article
Hydrogen production from water electrolysis is seriously restricted by the high energy consumption caused by water oxidation. Herein, an effective low-energy input for hydrogen generation via methanol-assisted water electrolysis catalyzed by bifunctional Pt-CoTe/NC nanospheres is demonstrated, which can be obtained by the ZIF-67 derived CoTe/NC sup...
Article
Full-text available
An alginate gel bead composite adsorbent with polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a surface modifier and Eichhornia crassipes (EC) biochar, known as EC-alg/PEI-3, was added internally to the adsorb Cr(VI) from an aqueous environment. The functionalized gel beads were characterized using SEM, XPS, FTIR, and other techniques. The maximum adsorption capacities...
Article
In this study, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) were first assembled via the chemical co-precipitation, and high-quality carbon-based metal-free nanomaterials were synthesized using a heat-treatment process. The internal and morphological characteristics of hexagonal Star ZIF-8 were investigated using scan...
Article
Full-text available
Since seawater is one of the most abundant resources on earth, seawater electrolysis is becoming increasingly attractive for clean energy/hydrogen production. Although significant progress has been made recently, it is still challenging to obtain bifunctional electrocatalysts with high catalytic activity and durability suitable for seawater electro...
Article
Full-text available
Graphene photocatalysis is a new method for harmful algae and water pollution control. However, microbial communities undergoing graphene photocatalysis treatment in freshwater lakes have been poorly studied. Here, using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, the responses of microbial communities to graphene photocatalysis were ana...
Article
Persulfate-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) cannot easily achieve the efficient degradation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with high stability. In this study, a simple in situ precipitation method was used to prepare an amorphous [email protected]2 heterojunction catalyst. The deposition of Co oxide on TiO2, which is relatively no...
Article
Metal‑nitrogen‑carbon materials (M-N-C) have attracted much attention due to their low cost, high abundance, and efficient catalytic performance. Nevertheless, Fe-N-C materials are considered the most promising oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts for replacing noble metals. Ce is chemically active and has many metal valence states, and empty...
Article
In the present work, irregular Cu nanoparticle-decorated boron-carbon-nitrogen (Cu-BCN) nanosheets were successfully synthesized. A Cu-BCN dispersion was deposited on a bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to prepare an electrochemical sensor (Cu-BCN/GCE) for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the environment. Cu-BCN was characterized using hi...
Article
Chromium (VI) is a widely occurring toxic heavy metal ion in industrial wastewater that seriously impacts the environment. In this study, we used environmentally friendly sodium lignosulfonate (SL), polyethyleneimine (PEI), and sodium alginate (SA) to synthesize SL/PEI/SA beads by employing a simple crosslinking method with to develop a novel absor...
Article
Full-text available
The construction of high‐efficiency and low‐cost non‐noble metal bifunctional electrocatalysts for water electrolysis is crucial for commercial large‐scale application of hydrogen energy. Here, we report a novel strategy with erbium‐doped NiCoP nanowire arrays in situ grown on conductive nickel foam (Er‐NiCoP/NF). Significantly, the developed elect...
Article
Designing earth-abundant and advanced bi-functional oxygen electrodes for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are extremely urgent but still ambiguous. Thus, metal-semiconductor nanohybrids were developed with functionally integrating ORR-active Ni species, OER-active Fe/Fe3C components, and multifunctional...
Article
Production of cyclopentanone (CPO) from biomass-derived furfural is attractive but challenging, as deep hydrogenation or ring-opening of furan ring in furfural over Co-based catalysts hinders the formation of the targeting products. In this study, alloying Co with Fe species in Co–Fe–Al catalysts is proposed for selective conversion of furfural to...
Article
Full-text available
Organic/silicon hybrid solar cells have attracted extensive attention owing to their low cost and simple manufacturing process. However, theoretical simulations indicate that the efficiency of organic/silicon hybrid solar cells should exceed 20%. This study demonstrates phosphorus and selenium co‐doped WO3 nanoparticles used for heterojunction sola...
Article
Hypercrosslinked pyrrole was synthesized via the Friedel–Crafts reaction and then carbonized to obtain urchin-like nitrogen-doped carbon (UNC). Ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles were then supported on UNC, and the composite was used to prepare an electrochemical sensor for detecting uric acid (UA) in human urine. FexOy/UNC was characterized and a...
Article
Full-text available
Fundamental understanding of fabricating promoted bi-functional electrocatalyst to achieve fast charge-transfer and smooth mass-transport in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) through the rational management of catalyst composition and ingenious design of nanostructure is highly desired but still a formidable challe...
Article
Full-text available
Doping-inducted heterojunction is an effective strategy to boost the semiconductor photocatalysis. In this work, an artificial chloroplast-like HPWx@Fe2O3-CNTs photocatalyst was developed by a continuous hydrothermal process and microwave irradiation. This catalyst showed an excellent performance in degradation of biotoxic tetracycline (under mild...
Article
Electrochemical nitrate reduction reaction (NIRR) driven by sustainable energy is not only expected to realize the green production of ammonia under ambient conditions, but also a promising way to purify nitrate wastewater. The ammonia yield rate and Faradaic efficiency of NIRR catalyzed by Pd10Cu/BCN constructed with structural constraints and pre...
Article
Aqueous phase of bio-oil (APBO) is water-rich but also contains some sugar-derivatives and phenolics. APBO has little potential as feedstock for producing biofuel, but can be potentially used as medium for hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass. In this study, the HTC of lignin in APBO was conducted, aiming to probe the influence of the organi...
Article
Interaction of the volatiles in co-pyrolysis of plastics and biomass is known to affect properties of pyrolysis products. Nevertheless, in co-pyrolysis, except the interaction between the volatiles, the volatiles could also interact with the char of same or different origin. Thus, understanding the specific effects of the volatiles of plastics/biom...
Article
Electrodes, in new function-flexible optoelectronic devices, need to meet the requirements of foldability and high transmittance. In last decades, thousands of researchers about copper and silver nanowires matured the Ag/Cu NWs kept presenting new technical breakthrough and altered humans’ daily life. In this paper, we focus on the recent researche...
Article
Hydrogen production via solar and electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy and achieving a carbon-neutral economy. However, hydrogen production by photoelectric coupling remains a challenge. Here, by the cooperative coupling of heteroatoms and a heterojunction interface engineering strategy in a limited space...
Article
Cost-effective and high-performance electrode materials for energy storage and conversion are essential for commercial applications. In this work, the influence of solvent on the morphologies of [CH3NH3][M(HCOO)3] precursors was studied to design and synthesize two-dimensional (2D) porous NiCo2S4 nanosheets with different structures. As an electrod...
Article
Lanthanum-based adsorbents are promising phosphate (P) adsorbents and their selectivity determines their potential for application in P recovery. However, there have been few systematic studies for quantifying the selectivity of lanthanum-based adsorbents for P. In this study, lanthanum carbonate/biochar (LCB300) and lanthanum hydroxide/biochar (LH...
Article
Ammonia is used extensively as a raw material for fertilizers and industrial production. However, the ammonia yield of the traditional ammonia production process is far from reaching the requirements of industrial applications. Among various methods, electrochemical ammonia synthesis is the most anticipated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculat...
Article
The electrodeposition approach is significant in electrode fabrication for practical application. Herein, the electrodeposited amorphous NiFe hydroxide species for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in water splitting reaction is demonstrated by revealing the synergistic effect influenced by the support electrode of Fe and Ni foil and the contents of...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past few decades, the design and development of carbon materials have occurred at a rapid pace. In particular, these porous graphene-like carbon nitride materials have received considerable attention due to their superior structures and performances in the energy transformation field. In this review, nitrogenated holey two-dimensional grap...
Chapter
The environmentally friendly electrochemical nitrogen reduction method for preparing ammonia has attracted the participation of more and more researchers. One of the current tasks is to find some nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) catalysts with high catalytic activity and high selectivity. Noble metal-based materials have good electrochemical activ...
Article
Full-text available
Simultaneously tuning the electronic structure of active sites and the microenvironment of the carbon matrix in metal phosphide/carbon nanohybrids is the most effective way to design and develop bi-functional electrocatalysts for electrochemically related energy storage devices. Inspired by this, a robust and advanced N/P co-doped carbon-based dode...
Article
In the present work, hematite–boron-carbonitride (Fe2O3–BCN) nanosheets were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction and the following high temperature treatment. The morphology, structure and chemical composition of the as-prepared material were carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (...
Article
Ru-Based catalysts are significant in the green hydrogen generation via the electrochemical water-splitting reaction. Herein, it is found that the increased crystallinity of cubic RuSe2 nanoparticles anchored over carbon nanotubes (RuSe2/CNTs) could largely increase the hydrogen generation performance both in acidic and alkaline electrolytes. The f...
Article
In this article, a micropore CMOF structure with abundant nitrogen species, D-His-ZIF-L (DHZL), was synthesized in water according to the reference with a modification. The performance of DHZL was verified by enantioselective capture of S-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (S-BINOL), with an enantiomeric excess (ee) value of 60.5% under optimal conditions. To expe...
Article
As phosphate is one of the key causes of water eutrophication, its removal from aquatic ecosystems is essential. Adsorption methods have been widely used to remove phosphate from water bodies. However, most of the adsorbents are unstable and difficult to separate from solution. In this paper, we used a simple electrospinning method to prepare a new...
Article
Electrochemical methods have been proven to effectively eliminate nitrates in sewage and convert them into high value-added ammonia products. Here, after annealing treatment of metal boron cluster organic polymers formed by the combination of 1,10-phenanthroline, Cu 2 + and closo-[B 12 H 12 ] 2-, a Cu single-atom doped BCN (B-doped CN) with a diamo...
Article
The development of advanced catalyst materials capable of efficiently capturing solar energy to drive the beneficial conversion of chemicals is a key part of the blueprint for “liquid sunlight.” Here, highly dispersed ultrafine nano-Au (B/[email protected]) was anchored in situ on B/TPTH3 formed by alternate cross-linking of closo-[B12H12]²⁻ and pr...
Article
Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia driven by clean energy is expected to realize the supply of ammonia for distributed production of industry and agriculture. Here, nickel nanoparticles and nickel in the form of single atoms were simultaneously anchored on the electrochemically active carrier BCN matrix through a structured domain strategy, which...
Article
Electrochemical methods to convert high-concentration nitrates present in sewage into high-value-added ammonia do not just alleviate the problem of environmental pollution but provide less energy-intensive alternatives to the Haber–Bosch process....
Article
Salt is widely applied as catalyst but it is difficult to separate the soluble salt from the reaction medium. To solve this issue, in this study, a solid salt catalyst (FeClx-D008) was prepared by using a solid acidic resin (D008) and FeCl3 via a partial ion exchange method as the demonstration of proof of concept. The introduction of FeCl3 onto D0...
Article
In this study, a new hollow nanotube material, 30% Co–CHNTs was prepared by the impregnation–chemical reduction–calcination method. This material can be used as a peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activator to catalyse the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The best reaction conditions that correspond to the degradation rate of SMX, up to 97.5%, are as f...
Article
The biggest challenge is to develop a low cost and readily available catalyst to replace expensive commercial Pt/C for efficient electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this research, closo-[B12H12]²⁻ and 1,10-phenanthroline-iron complexes were introduced into the porous metal-organic framework by impregnation method, and further anneal...
Article
Full-text available
Highly efficient and robust non-noble bifunctional electrocatalysts with excellent stability are essential for practical large-scale application of hydrogen energy. Here, we design a hybrid nanostructure of Co2P nanoparticles encapsulated uniformly within N, P co-doped carbon layers that are then integrated into conductive carbon cloth (N-Co2P/NPC)...
Article
Environmentally friendly electrochemical reduction pathways from NO3- to NH3 or N2 have provided feasible strategy into the green production of ammonia or the treatment of nitrate wastewater. Here, we anchored single-atom Cu with boron carbon nitride on carbon nanotube (BCN@Cu/CNT), and achieved the efficient operation of electrochemical nitrate re...
Article
Effective removal of pollutants that affect human health and ecosystem stability is a crucial challenge. Here, the structural confinement engineering strategy realizes the effective anchoring of atomically dispersed Co in the B-doped-CN network (BCN) (BCN/CoN[2+2]). The advanced oxidation process (AOP) involved BCN/CoN[2+2] has realized the rapid a...
Article
Under simultaneous illumination and heating, Jatropha oil was converted into jet–fuel components over modified catalysts. XRD, HRTEM, N2 adsorption–desorption, XRF, NH3/CO–NH3–TPD/CO–TPD, UV–Vis and TG–DTG–MS were employed to determine the surface morphology and acidic site content of the modified catalysts. Through the characterizations and experi...
Article
Glycosyl-functionalized metal organic framework-5 (Glycosyl/MOF-5) based porous carbon nanofibers (Glycosyl/MOF-5-CNFs) were synthesized using MOF-5 as a precursor and glucose as an additional carbon source. The cubic Glycosyl/MOF-5 nanoparticles and polyacrylonitrile suspensions were used to prepare nanofibers by using electrospinning. The as-prep...
Article
Full-text available
Herein, single-atom niobium-doped boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes (SANb-BCN) were synthesized and utilized to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitrobenzene (NB), an environmental pollutant. SANb-BCN were characterized through scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron micro...
Article
Full-text available
The electrochemical method of combining N2 and H2O to produce ammonia (i.e., the electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction [E-NRR]) continues to draw attention as it is both environmentally friendly and well suited for a progressively distributed farm economy. Despite the multitude of recent works on the E-NRR, further progress in this field face...
Article
Considering the complexity of traditional cobalt phosphide (Co2P) loaded biochar synthesis research on a simple and efficient synthesis method has practical significance. In this study, after phosphoric acid activation, Neosinocalamus affinis biochar (NAB) and nanoplate Co3O4 quickly formed a Co2P-NAB composite material with high Co2P crystallinity...
Article
Highly efficient electrocatalysts with low cost for electrochemical water splitting is important for the intermediate energy conversion. In the present work, P and Cu dual-doped cobalt selenide nanoarrays with hierarchical structure were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal method, involving in-situ growth on a self-supported conductive Ni foam sub...
Article
Full-text available
The large-scale and controllable synthesis of novel N-doped three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanocage-decorated carbon skeleton sponges (Co-NCMS) is introduced. These Co-NCMS were highly active and durable non-noble metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This hybrid electrocatalyst showed high ORR activity with a diffusion-limiting c...
Article
The stable physicochemical properties of Polyaniline/closo-[B12H12]2- (PA/B12) obtained by ion exchange technique combined with polyaniline (PA) and closo-[B12H12]2- (B12) can realize rapid kinetic adsorption and complete removal of Cr(VI) and...
Article
Efficient and non-precious-metal-based catalysts (e.g., manganese-based oxides) for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remain a substantial challenge. Creation of oxygen vacancies of manganese-based oxides with the aim to enhance their intrinsic activities is rarely reported, and there is a critical requirement for a mild and facile synthesis stra...
Article
BACKGROUND The occurrence of organic contaminants in surface water has drawn great concerns in recent years. The construction of heterostructure has been proved to improve the photoactivity by boosting the separation of photogenerated charge carriers. In this work, magnetically separable NiFe2O4/Ag3VO4/Ag2VO2PO4 (NFO/AVO/AVPO) heterojunction photoc...
Article
Full-text available
Heteroatom doping offers great promise for boosting the electrocatalytic activity for the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR). Herein, nitrogen-doped ZnO nanorods with a lotus-leaf shape were constructed as the active electrocatalysts, demonstrating enhanced CO2RR performance with a maximum CO faradaic efficiency of 76% at -0.7 V (vs. reversible hydroge...
Article
Hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity is one of the most important parameters in heterogenous catalysts, as it significantly impacts the adsorption and activation of the reaction substrate. In this study, we have demonstrated that the treatment of the biochar derived from the pyrolysis of rice husks with HNO3 oxidation and subsequent thermal treatment coul...
Article
In this study, CoFe2O4–CoFe microspheres were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method and treated in a furnace at a high temperature. The structure and morphology of the CoFe2O4–CoFe microspheres were well characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, and X-ray photoelectron spectrosc...
Article
Alcohols and carboxylic acids have been used intensively as feedstock for production of hydrogen via steam reforming. They have different functionalities and might exhibit the distinct coking behaviors. In this study, ethanol, n-propanol, acetic acid and propionic acid were chosen as the representatives of alcohols/carboxylic acids and their reacti...
Article
The development of anode materials with high-rate capability and long cyclability has become a research hotspot for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). In this work, we propose a simple and convenient method for the synthesis of few-layer FePS3 nanosheets modified by N-doped carbon (FePS3@NC) through a controllable coating of polydopamine on the surface o...