Grzegorz Kwiatek

Grzegorz Kwiatek
Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ | GFZ · Section 4.2 Geomechanics and Scientific Drilling

Doctor of Engineering

About

119
Publications
27,053
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3,005
Citations
Citations since 2017
57 Research Items
2379 Citations
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Introduction
I am a senior researcher at Section 4.2: Geomechanics and Rheology of the GFZ German Research Centre of Geosciences in Potsdam, and Free University in Berlin. My background is Environmental Geophysics, with a focus on physics of earthquake source, earthquake scaling relations, and geomechanics. My research covers seismo-mechanical studies in a broad range of earthquake scales from analysis of acoustic emission activity recorded in laboratory experiments on rock samples and in the in-situ geomechanical laboratories to seismicity induced by exploitation of geo-reservoirs.
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - present
fastloc GmbH
Position
  • Consultant
August 2007 - April 2021
Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ
Position
  • Senior Researcher
August 2002 - August 2007
Polish Academy of Sciences

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Studies of controlled hydraulic stimulation experiments with active and passive seismic monitoring conducted in Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) benefit from specific knowledge of hydraulic parameters, close by microseismic monitoring revealing structural details of the rock mass, and detailed evolution of seismicity in response to injectio...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Earthquakes associated with fluid injection in various geo‐energy settings, such as shale gas and deep geothermal energy, have shelved many projects with great potential. However, the injection‐rate dependence of earthquake nucleation length, which characterizes the length of a slowly slipping (creeping) fault patch in prepar...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate the effects of site response on source parameters using earthquakes recorded by a dense nodal array in Oklahoma. While it is well-known that near-surface unconsolidated sediments can cause an apparent breakdown of earthquake self-similarity, the influence of laterally varying site conditions remains unclear. We analyze site condition...
Article
Full-text available
The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation is considered a suitable host rock candidate for nuclear waste storage. However, the sealing integrity and long-term safety of OPA are potentially compromised by pre-existing natural or artificially induced faults. Therefore, characterizing the mechanical behavior and microscale deformation mechanisms of faults and...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate induced seismicity associated with a hydraulic stimulation campaign performed in 2020 in the 5.8 km deep geothermal OTN‐2 well near Helsinki, Finland as part of the St1 Deep Heat project. A total of 2,875 m³ of fresh water was injected during 16 days at well‐head pressures <70 MPa and with flow rates between 400 and 1,000 L/min. The...
Article
The recently observed slow transients in the Sea of Marmara are important to quantify the seismic hazard and risk for the greater Istanbul metropolitan region. In this study, we analyze and characterize a slow slip event that occurred in the Eastern Sea of Marmara in 2016. To characterize the temporal history and the location of this event, we comb...
Conference Paper
EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) integrates, within the framework of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) (www.epos-eu.org), research infrastructures freely open for scientists, engineers, and all others interested in hazards posed by the seismicity induced by geo-resource exploration and exploitation. The integrated...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018 and 2019, we performed STIMulation tests with characterising periodic pumping tests and high-resolution seismic monitoring for improving prognosis models and real-time monitoring TEChnologies for the creation of hydraulic conduits in crystalline rocks (STIMTEC). The STIMTEC underground research laboratory is located at 130 m depth in the Re...
Chapter
In-situ acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is carried out in mines, tunnels and underground laboratories in the context of structural health monitoring, in decameter-scale research projects investigating the physics of earthquake nucleation and propagation and in research projects looking into the seismo-hydro-mechanical response of the rock mass in...
Article
Full-text available
Multiplet analysis is based on the identification of seismic events with very similar waveforms which are used then to enhance seismological analysis e.g. by precise relocation of sources. In underground fluid injection conditions, it is a tool frequently used for imaging of subsurface fracture system. We identify over 150 repeatedly activated seis...
Article
Full-text available
Aftershock cascades are a characteristic feature of natural seismicity, but underlying mechanisms remain debated. Here, we experimentally explore the presence or absence of aftershocks during failure of intact rock and slip on newly created laboratory faults. We show that the overall activity increase and spatial localization of acoustic emission (...
Article
Various geophysical observations show that seismic and aseismic slip on a fault may occur concurrently. We analyze microseismicity recordings from a temporary near-fault seismic network and borehole strainmeter data from the eastern Marmara region in northwest Turkey to track seismic and aseismic deformation around the hypocentral region of an Mw 4...
Preprint
Full-text available
In 2018 and 2019, the STIMTEC hydraulic stimulation experiment was conducted at 130 m depth in the Reiche Zeche underground research laboratory in Freiberg/Germany. The experiment was designed to investigate the rock damage resulting from hydraulic stimulation and to link seismic activity and enhancement of hydraulic properties in strongly foliated...
Article
Full-text available
The strong increase of seismicity rates in the contiguous USA over the last 10 years is linked to the injection of huge amounts of wastewater from oil and gas production in unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. We calculated 549 moment tensors of induced earthquakes (MW ≤ 4.9) in southern Kansas to study their source mechanisms and their relation...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the induced seismicity, source mechanisms and mechanical responses of a decameter-scale hydraulic stimulation of a pre-existing shear zone in crystalline rock, at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland. The analysis reveals the meter-scale complexity of hydraulic stimulation, which remains hidden at the reservoir-scale. High earthquake...
Article
Full-text available
Natural earthquakes often have very few observable foreshocks which significantly complicates tracking potential preparatory processes. To better characterize expected preparatory processes before failures, we study stick-slip events in a series of triaxial compression tests on faulted Westerly granite samples. We focus on the influence of fault ro...
Article
Geothermal reservoir production and associated induced seismicity may experience pronounced attention in the near future, given the ambitious plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions toward a carbon-neutral economy and society. At some geothermal sites, the occurrence of hazard- and risk-prone induced earthquakes caused by or associated with res...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Anthropogenic earthquakes caused by fluid injection have been reported worldwide to occur in the frame of waste‐water disposal, CO2 sequestration, and stimulation of hydrocarbon or deep geothermal reservoirs. To study the dynamics of injection‐induced seismic energy release in a controlled environment, we performed laboratory...
Article
Full-text available
Earthquake source parameters such as seismic stress drop and corner frequency are observed to vary widely, leading to persistent discussion on potential scaling of stress drop and event size. Physical mechanisms that govern stress drop variations are difficult to evaluate in nature and are more readily studied in controlled laboratory experiments....
Article
Full-text available
We describe the design and implementation of a traffic light system (TLS) created for the stimulation phase of a 6.1-km-deep geothermal well in the Helsinki area, Finland. Because of the lack of local seismic data to calibrate the TLS, the TLS thresholds have been proposed on the basis of two parameters: acceptable ground motion levels and probabil...
Preprint
In this study, we present a high-resolution dataset of seismicity framing the stimulation campaign of a 6.1 km deep Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in Helsinki suburban area and discuss the complexity of fracture network development. Within St1 Deep Heat project, 18 160 m3 of water was injected over 49 days in summer 2018. The seismicity was monit...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate theoretical limits to detection of fast and slow seismic events, and spatial variations of ground motion expected from M 6 earthquakes at short epicentral distances. The analyses are based on synthetic velocity seismograms calculated with the discrete wavenumber method assuming seismic velocities and attenuation properties of the cru...
Article
Full-text available
Mining, water-reservoir impoundment, underground gas storage, geothermal energy exploitation and hydrocarbon extraction have the potential to cause rock deformation and earthquakes, which may be hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment. Restricted access to data constitutes a barrier to assessing and mitigating the associated hazard...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Human‐induced earthquakes from field‐scale fluid injection projects including enhanced geothermal system and deep wastewater injection have been documented worldwide. Although it is clear that fluid pressure plays a crucial role in triggering fault slip, the physical mechanism behind induced seismicity still remains poorly un...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Predicting and controlling the size of earthquakes caused by fluid injection is currently the major concern of many projects associated with geothermal energy production. Here, we analyze the magnitude and seismic moment evolution with injection parameters for prominent geothermal and scientific projects to date. Evolution of...
Article
Full-text available
Preparatory mechanisms accompanying or leading to nucleation of larger earthquakes have been observed at both laboratory and field scales, but conditions favoring the occurrence of observable preparatory processes are still largely unknown. In particular, it remains a matter of debate why some earthquakes occur spontaneously without noticeable prec...
Article
Full-text available
We show that near–real-time seismic monitoring of fluid injection allowed control of induced earthquakes during the stimulation of a 6.1-km-deep geothermal well near Helsinki, Finland. A total of 18,160 m ³ of fresh water was pumped into crystalline rocks over 49 days in June to July 2018. Seismic monitoring was performed with a 24-station borehole...
Article
Over 700 induced seismic events recorded between June 2009 and March 2015 at different parts of The Geysers geothermal field, California, are used to estimate local S-wave coda quality factors (Q_C). Recorded by the 31-station short period Berkeley-Geysers seismic network, the events have duration magnitudes 1 < MD < 3, depth ranges of 1 and 4 km,...
Article
We analyze a large transient strainmeter signal recorded at 62.5 m depth along the southern shore of the eastern Sea of Marmara region in northwestern Turkey. This region represents a passage of stress transfer from the Izmit rupture to the Marmara seismic gap. The strain signal was recorded at the Esenkoy site by one of the ICDP-GONAF (Internation...
Article
Full-text available
Large-magnitude fluid-injection induced seismic events are a potential risk for geothermal energy developments worldwide. One potential risk mitigation measure is the application of cyclic injection schemes. After validation at small (laboratory) and meso (mine) scale, the concept has now been applied for the first time at field scale at the Pohang...
Article
Full-text available
The SHEER database brings together a large amount of data of various types: interdisciplinary site data from seven independent episodes, research data and those for the project results dissemination process. This concerns mainly shale gas exploitation test sites, processing procedures, results of data interpretation and recommendations. The smart S...
Article
We investigate the source characteristics of picoseismicity (Mw < −2) recorded during a hydraulic fracturing in situ experiment performed in the underground Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. The experiment consisted of six stimulations driven by three different water injection schemes and was performed inside a 28-m-long, horizontal borehole locat...
Article
Full-text available
Earthquake clustering properties are investigated in relation to fluid balance H(t) (the difference of fluid injection and production rates) using about nine years of data from The Geysers (both the entire field and a local subset), Coso, and Salton Sea geothermal fields in California. Individual earthquake clusters are identified and classified us...
Article
We investigate the source mechanisms of 80 earthquakes at the Salton Sea geothermal field in southern California with local magnitudes ranging from 2.2 to 3.8, combining data from a local network of shallow short-period borehole geophones and regional broadband seismometers. The performance of two moment tensor inversion techniques based on P-wave...
Article
Full-text available
The Geysers geothermal field located in California, USA, is the largest geothermal site in the world, operating since the 1960΄s. We here investigate and quantify the correlation between temporal seismicity evolution and variation of the injection data by examination of time series through specified statistical tools (binomial test to investigate s...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we analyze the nano- and picoseismicity recorded during the Fatigue Hydraulic Fracturing (FHF) in situ experiment performed in Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. The fracturing experiment composed of six fractures driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization) was performed during...
Conference Paper
The Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) provides virtual access to IS-EPOS e-platform, which integrates a wide-scale and high quality research infrastructure (RI) in the field of anthropogenic seismicity and other anthropogenic hazards induced by exploitation of geo-resources. The project is developed in the framework of European P...
Article
We study triggering processes in triaxial compression experiments under a constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. We present strong evidence that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections,...
Article
Full-text available
We use a high-quality dataset from the NW part of The Geysers geothermal field to determine statistical significance of temporal static stress drop variations and their relation to injection rate changes. We use a group of 322 seismic events which occurred in the proximity of Prati-9 and Prati-29 injection wells to examine the influence of paramete...
Article
Full-text available
Discriminating between a creeping and a locked status of active faults is of central relevance to characterize potential rupture scenarios of future earthquakes and the associated seismic hazard for nearby population centres. In this respect, highly similar earthquakes that repeatedly activate the same patch of an active fault portion are an import...
Presentation
Full-text available
Investigation for correlation patterns among seismic and operational parameters in the North-western The Geysers Geothermal Field
Presentation
Full-text available
Temporal static stress drop variations in relations to technological activity at The Geysers geothermal field, California
Article
Full-text available
Estimating the expected size of the largest earthquake on a given fault is complicated, for example, by dynamic rupture interactions in addition to geometric and stress heterogeneity. However, a statistical assessment of the potential of seismic events to grow to larger sizes may be possible based on variations in magnitude distributions. Such vari...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Injection induced seismicity (IIS) is an undesired dynamic rockmass response to massive fluid injections. This includes reactions, among others, to hydro-fracturing for shale gas exploitation. Complexity and changeability of technological factors that induce IIS, may result in significant deviations of the observed distributions of seismic process...
Poster
Full-text available
We investigate and quantify the correlation between spatio-temporal seismicity evolution and variation of the injection data by elaboration of time-series through specified statistical tools, in The Geysers geothermal field, California, USA
Article
We investigate source processes of fluid-induced seismicity from The Geysers geothermal reservoir in California to determine their relation with hydraulic operations and improve the corresponding seismic hazard estimates. Analysis of 869 well-constrained full moment tensors (Mw 0.8-3.5) reveals significant non-double-couple components (>25%) for ab...
Article
In this article, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multi-stage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, i.e. seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electro...
Article
We analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of fault geometries from seismicity induced by fluid injection at The Geysers geothermal field. The consistency of these faults with the local stress field is investigated using (1) the fault instability coefficient I comparing the orientation of a fault with the optimal orientation for failure in the assu...
Article
We develop an improved methodology for reliable high resolution inversions of focal mechanisms to background stress field orientation and stress ratio R in 2 or 3 dimensions. The earthquake catalog is declustered to remove events likely affected strongly by local stress interactions rather than reflecting the large-scale background stress field. Th...
Presentation
Full-text available
Preliminary results for Space-Time Clustering of Seismicity and its Connection to Stimulation Processes, in North-Western Geysers Geothermal Field
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the sensitivity of stress inversion from focal mechanisms to pore pressure changes. Synthetic tests reveal that pore pressure variations can cause apparent changes in the retrieved stress ratio R relating the magnitude of the intermediate principal stress with respect to the maximum and minimum principal stresses. Pore pressure and r...
Article
We investigate theoretical limits on detection and reliable estimates of source characteristics of small earthquakes using synthetic seismograms for shear/tensile dislocations on kinematic circular ruptures and observed seismic noise and properties of several acquisition systems (instrument response, sampling rate). Simulated source time functions...
Article
Full-text available
We present the software package hybridMT which allows performing seismic moment tensor inversion and refinement, optimized for earthquake data recorded by regional-to-local seismic networks as well as for acoustic emission activity. The provided software package is designed predominantly for use in MATLAB (see Data and Resources)/shell environments...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic seismicity (AS) is the undesired dynamic rockmass response to technological processes. AS environments are shallow hence their heterogeneities have important impact on AS. Moreover, AS is controlled by complex and changeable technological factors. This complicated origin of AS explains why models used in tectonic seismicity may be not...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic moment tensors can provide information on the size and orientation of fractures producing acoustic emissions (AEs) and on the stress conditions in the sample. The moment tensor inversion of AEs is, however, a demanding procedure requiring carefully calibrated sensors and accurate knowledge of the velocity model. In field observations, the v...
Article
The long-term temporal and spatial changes in statistical, source and stress characteristics of one cluster of induced seismicity recorded at The Geysers geothermal field (US) are analyzed in relation to the field operations, fluid migration and constraints on the maximum likely magnitude. Two injection wells, Prati-9 and Prati-29, located in the n...