Gretchen B Salsich

Gretchen B Salsich
Saint Louis University | SLU · Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training

PT, PhD

About

47
Publications
8,232
Reads
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1,675
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2000 - present
February 1999 - August 2000
University of Southern California
Education
August 1994 - December 1998
Washington University in St. Louis
Field of study
  • Movement Science - Biomechanics
August 1983 - May 1987
Saint Louis University
Field of study
  • Physical Therapy

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Task-specific movement training is a proposed intervention for patellofemoral pain aimed to optimise movement during daily tasks. Focused, progressive task practice emphasising optimal limb alignment may yield improvements in performance-based function and hip muscle strength, and transfer learnt movement patterns to untrained tasks. The...
Article
Context: The authors hypothesized that in people with hip-related groin pain, less static ankle dorsiflexion could lead to compensatory hip adduction and contralateral pelvic drop during step-down. Ankle dorsiflexion may be a modifiable factor to improve ability in those with hip-related groin pain to decrease hip/pelvic motion during functional t...
Article
Background and purpose: Dynamic knee valgus has been associated with patellofemoral pain (PFP) during high-level tasks, however, repeated lower-level stresses may be an alternative pain mechanism. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine the consistency of dynamic knee valgus and task-elicited pain demonstrated by females with PFP a...
Article
Study design: Controlled laboratory cross-sectional study. Objective: To compare 3D hip kinematics during single leg squat (SLsquat) and step down, between patients with hip-related groin pain (HRGP) and asymptomatic participants. To assess relationships among hip kinematics, muscle strength and bony morphology. Methods: 40 patients with HRGP...
Article
Objective: To describe the variability in: (1) the contributions of 3D hip and knee kinematics to the dynamic knee valgus (DKV) movement pattern during a single limb squat in women with patellofemoral pain; and (2) the 3D strategies used to reduce DKV following an intervention. Methods: Secondary analysis of a feasibility study investigating a move...
Article
Objective: Describe the proportional occurrence of visually determined, lower extremity movement patterns (dynamic knee valgus [DKVal], neutral [NEU], dynamic knee varus [DKVar]) during a single leg squat (SLSquat) among patients with chronic hip joint pain (CHJP). Compare 3D hip and pelvic kinematics among the categories and determine whether wit...
Article
Persistent Post-Mastectomy Pain (PPMP) is a common condition that can follow surgeries for breast cancer, the most common cancer for women. Because of the frequency of PPMP and its potential severity, it has received increasing research attention in recent years. This manuscript reviews the recent research literature. It begins with a brief history...
Article
Background: People with low back pain (LBP) may display an altered lumbar movement pattern of early lumbar motion compared to people with healthy backs. Modifying this movement pattern during a clinical test decreases pain. It is unknown whether similar effects would be seen during a functional activity. Objective: The objective of this study is...
Article
Full-text available
Study Design Ancillary analysis, time-controlled randomized clinical trial. Background Movement pattern training (MPT) has been shown to improve function among patients with chronic hip joint pain (CHJP). Objective Determine the association among treatment outcomes and mechanical factors associated with CHJP. Methods Twenty-eight patients with CHJP...
Article
Study Design Secondary analysis, cross-sectional study. Background Chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) can lead to limitations in activity participation, but the musculoskeletal factors associated with the condition are relatively unknown. Understanding the factors associated with CHJP may help develop rehabilitation strategies to improve quality of life...
Article
Full-text available
Background Dynamic knee valgus (DKV) is an abnormal movement pattern visually characterized by excessive medial movement of the lower extremity during weight bearing. Differences in hip and knee kinematic components of DKV may explain the emergence of different pain problems in people who exhibit the same observed movement impairment. Using a secon...
Article
Objective: To investigate whether a novel, task-specific training intervention that focused on correcting pain-producing movement patterns was feasible and whether it would improve hip and knee kinematics, pain, and function in women with patellofemoral pain. Design: Prospective, non-randomized, within-group, double baseline, feasibility interve...
Article
Background: Two=dimensional motion analysis of lower=extremity movement typically focuses on the knee frontal plane projection angle, which considers the position of the femur and the tibia. A measure that includes the pelvis may provide a more comprehensive and accurate indicator of lower=extremity movement. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of the...
Article
Background: Limitation in function is a primary reason people with low back pain seek medical treatment. Specific lumbar movement patterns, repeated throughout the day, have been proposed to contribute to the development and course of low back pain. Varying the demands of a functional activity test may provide some insight into whether people disp...
Article
Full-text available
Study Design Feasibility randomized clinical trial. Background Rehabilitation may be an appropriate treatment strategy for patients with chronic hip joint pain (CHJP), however the evidence related to the effectiveness of rehabilitation is limited. Objectives Assess feasibility of performing a randomized clinical trial to investigate the effectivene...
Research
Full-text available
The greater trochanter marker is commonly used in 3-dimensional (3D) models; however, its influence on hip and knee kinematics during gait is unclear. Understanding the influence of the greater trochanter marker is important when quantifying frontal and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics, parameters which are particularly relevant to investig...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The greater trochanter marker is commonly used in 3-dimensional (3D) models; however, its influence on hip and knee kinematics during gait is unclear. Understanding the influence of the greater trochanter marker is important when quantifying frontal and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics, parameters which are particularly relevant...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Controlled laboratory cross-sectional study. Objectives To assess strength differences of the hip rotator and abductor muscle groups in young adults with chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) and asymptomatic controls. A secondary objective was to determine if strength in the uninvolved hip of those with unilateral CHJP differs from that in...
Article
Objectives To understand how instructing females with patellofemoral pain to correct dynamic knee valgus affects pelvis, femur, tibia and trunk segment kinematics. To determine if pain reduction in the corrected condition was associated with improved segment kinematics. Design Cross-sectional. Methods A 3D-motion capture system was used to collec...
Article
Context: Abnormal movement patterns have been implicated in lower extremity injury. Reliable, valid, and easily implemented assessment methods are needed to examine existing musculoskeletal disorders and investigate predictive factors for lower extremity injury. Objective: To determine the reliability of experienced and novice testers in making...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Controlled laboratory study. Objectives: To compare hip and knee kinematics and pain during a single-limb squat between 3 movement conditions (usual, exaggerated dynamic knee valgus, corrected dynamic knee valgus) in women with patellofemoral pain. Background: Altered kinematics (increased hip adduction, hip medial rotation, knee...
Article
The relationship between trunk and lower limb kinematics in healthy females versus males is unclear since trunk kinematics in the frontal and transverse planes have not been systematically examined with lower limb kinematics. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of different multi-joints movement strategies between genders during...
Article
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that, at 0° and 20° of knee flexion, patellofemoral contact area would be lower, while tibiofemoral rotation and patellofemoral malalignment would be higher in participants with patellofemoral pain (PFP) compared to pain-free participants. We hypothesized that no differences would be detected at 40° due to increa...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to test the hypothesis that females with patellofemoral pain (PFP) have increased hip adduction, hip medial rotation, and knee valgus (medial collapse) during the stance phase of gait. Twenty subjects with PFP and 20 pain-free subjects participated. Subjects underwent three-dimensional motion analysis during free speed and fast sp...
Article
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common musculoskeletal pain condition, especially in females. Decreased hip muscle strength has been implicated as a contributing factor, yet the relationships between pain, hip muscle strength and function are not known. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that pain and hip muscle strength explain un...
Article
Case report. Selecting the most effective conservative treatment for knee pain continues to be a challenge. An understanding of the underlying movement system impairment that is thought to contribute to the knee pain may assist in determining the most effective treatment. Our case report describes the treatment and outcomes of a patient with the pr...
Article
Full-text available
Observational, cohort study. To test the hypothesis that patellar alignment and tibiofemoral rotation alignment explain unique portions of variance in patellofemoral joint contact area in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and in pain-free control subjects. PFP has been proposed to result from increased patellofemoral joint stress due to de...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of a tendo-Achilles lengthening (TAL) procedure on ankle muscle performance has not been clearly established. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of TAL and total-contact casting (TCC) with TCC alone on ankle muscle performance in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) and a neuropathic plantar ulcer. Subjects were randoml...
Article
Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify in vivo patellofemoral joint contact area and to determine if contact area is affected by quadriceps muscle contraction. Ten subjects without pain (six women, four men) had their right patellofemoral joint imaged. Cartilage-enhanced, axial plane images were obtained at 0 degrees, 20 degrees, 40 degree...
Article
To compare the level of agreement between quantitative and qualitative methods in determining patellofemoral relationships, since controversy exists regarding the use of quantitative vs. qualitative criteria to interpret images of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) obtained using kinematic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. One hundred twenty mid-patella...
Article
PurposeTo compare the level of agreement between quantitative and qualitative methods in determining patellofemoral relationships, since controversy exists regarding the use of quantitative vs. qualitative criteria to interpret images of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) obtained using kinematic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Materials and Methods On...
Article
Full-text available
Pre- and postintervention repeated measures design. To determine the effects of patellar taping on knee kinetics, kinematics, and vastus lateralis muscle activity during stair ambulation in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Patellar taping is a common treatment technique for individuals with PFP. Specific data on whether patellar taping i...
Article
Objective: To compare lower extremity kinetics during stair ascent and descent in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain. Design: A cross-sectional study utilizing a control group. Background: The patellofemoral joint reaction force (the resultant force between the quadriceps muscle force and patellar ligament force) increases with quad...
Article
Full-text available
Descriptive study to compare relationships between muscle performance measures in 2 subject groups. To determine the relationships between plantar flexor (PF) muscle stiffness, strength (concentric peak torque), and dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) in subjects with diabetes who have peripheral neuropathy (n = 17, 10 men, 7 women; age = 58 +/...
Article
Although plantar flexor muscle strength is known to affect gait characteristics, the effect of plantar flexor (PF) muscle stiffness on gait is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of PF muscle stiffness, in addition to PF strength, on the gait characteristics of subjects with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy (DM & PN) an...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DM and PN) often complain of joint stiffness. Although stiffness may contribute to some of the impairments and functional limitations found in these patients, it has not been quantified in this population. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare passive ankle stiffness and dor...
Article
Full-text available
Case report with repeated measures. To describe the effects of a tendo-Achilles lengthening (TAL) and total contact casting (TCC) on wound healing, motion, plantar pressure, and function in a patient with diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic ulcer, and limited dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM). Limited DFROM has been associated...
Article
Changes in passive muscle stiffness with age and disuse were assessed in male Fischer-344 and Brown Norway rats. Three groups of rats were studied: young (approximately 7 months old), old (approximately 33 months old), and old that had undergone 2 weeks of hindlimb unweighting, a model of reduced muscle use. Four hindlimb muscles were examined: the...
Article
Although qualitative reports in the surgical literature suggest that people with diabetes mellitus (DM) and transmetatarsal amputation (TMA) walk well with regular shoes and a toe-filler, recent data indicates that this population has multiple complications and difficulty with functional mobility. A thorough description of their gait characteristic...
Article
Full-text available
Reports in the surgical and rehabilitation literature suggest that patients with transmetatarsal amputations (TMAs) function well with regular shoes and a toe filler. Functional limitations, however, have not been documented in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare the function of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and TMA wit...
Article
To determine the correlation between strength and functional measures, and the intercorrelation between the functional measures themselves, in a group of subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) and transmetatarsal amputation (TMA). Correlational study. The subjects were tested in the Applied Kinesiology Laboratory of the Program in Physical Therapy at...

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