Gregory B Noe

Gregory B Noe
United States Geological Survey | USGS · Florence Bascom Geoscience Center

Ph.D. Ecology

About

110
Publications
23,474
Reads
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4,388
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
2243 Citations
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Introduction
Wetland ecosystem ecology, focusing on the interactive influences of hydrology, geomorphology, climate, and biology on nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and sediment biogeochemistry and transport in fluvial ecosystems, as well as plant community ecology and restoration ecology.
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - present
United States Geological Survey
Position
  • Research Ecologist
December 2002 - September 2019
United States Geological Survey
Position
  • Research Ecologist
December 1999 - December 2002
Florida International University

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Despite the frequent citation of wetlands as effective regulators of water quality, few quantitative estimates exist for their cumulative retention of the annual river loads of nutrients or sediments. Here we report measurements of sediment accretion and associated carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation as sedimentation over feldspar marker...
Article
Conceptual models of river–floodplain systems and biogeochemical theory predict that floodplain soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization should increase with hydrologic connectivity to the river and thus increase with distance downstream (longitudinal dimension) and in lower geomorphic units within the floodplain (lateral dimension). We...
Article
Full-text available
Tidal freshwater wetlands are sensitive to sea level rise and increased salinity, although little information is known about the impact of salinification on nutrient biogeochemistry in tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We quantified soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization using seasonal in situ incubations of modified resin cores alon...
Article
Full-text available
This review aims to synthesize the current knowledge of sediment dynamics using insights from long‐term research conducted in the watershed draining to the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S., to inform management actions to restore the estuary and its watershed. The sediment dynamics of the Chesapeake are typical of many impaired water...
Article
River channelization and artificial levees have decreased the hydrologic connectivity of river-floodplain systems around the world. In response, restoration through enhancing connectivity has been advocated to improve the functions of floodplains, but uncertain benefits and the possibility of phosphate release from re-flooded soils has limited impl...
Article
Excessive sediment runoff as a result of anthropogenic activities is a major concern for watershed ecologic health. This study sought to determine the sources, storage and delivery of sediment using a sediment budget approach for the predominantly-pasture and forested Smith Creek watershed, Virginia USA, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Utilizing...
Article
Full-text available
Stream geomorphic change is highly spatially variable but critical to landform evolution, human infrastructure, habitat, and watershed pollutant transport. However, measurements and process models of streambank erosion and floodplain deposition and resulting sediment fluxes are currently insufficient to predict these rates in all perennial streams...
Article
Tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) provide critical ecosystem services including essential habitat for a variety of wildlife species and significant carbon sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the impacts of climate change on the magnitude and variability of carbon fluxes and storage across a r...
Article
Full-text available
In 2010 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) which is a “pollution diet” that aims to reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus entering the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, by 25 and 24% percent, respectively. To achieve this goal the TMDL requires the implementation o...
Article
Chemical contamination of riverine ecosystems is largely a result of urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural activities occurring on adjacent terrestrial landscapes. Land management activities (e.g., Best Management Practices) are an important tool used to reduce point and non-point sources of pollution. However, the ability to confidentl...
Preprint
Full-text available
A paradigm in carbon cycling science predicts that sea-level rise will enhance carbon accumulation in an apparent negative carbon-climate feedback1,2. However, ecosystems exposed to combinations of stressors and subsidies – such as saltwater intrusion and sea-level rise – may adapt, transition to an alternative state, or experience a decline in fun...
Article
The Chesapeake Bay is the largest, most productive, and most biologically diverse estuary in the continental United States providing crucial habitat and natural resources for culturally and economically important species. Pressures from human population growth and associated development and agricultural intensification have led to excessive nutrien...
Article
Full-text available
The tidal freshwater zone near the estuarine head-of-tide is potentially sensitive to both sea-level rise and associated salinity increases as well as changing watershed inputs of freshwater and nutrients. We evaluated the vegetation response of tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) to changes in nontidal river versus estuarine controls along t...
Article
Full-text available
Wetlands along upper estuaries are characterized by dynamic transitions between forested and herbaceous communities (marsh) as salinity, hydroperiod, and nutrients change. The importance of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP) associated with fine and coarse root growth also changes but remains the dominant component of overall productivity...
Article
Full-text available
Stream ecosystems are complex networks of interacting terrestrial and aquatic drivers. To untangle these ecological networks, efforts evaluating the direct and indirect effects of landscape, climate, and instream predictors on biological condition through time are needed. We used structural equation modeling and leveraged a stream survey program to...
Article
The papers in this Special Feature are the result of the first Marsh Resilience Summit in the Chesapeake Bay region, which occurred in February 2019. The Chesapeake Bay region has one of the highest rates of relative sea level rise in the U.S., jeopardizing over 1000 km2 of tidal wetlands along with other coastal lands. The goal of the Summit and t...
Technical Report
Dataset includes site averages of measurements of floodplain and streambank sediment physico-chemistry and long-term (dendrogeomorphic) vertical and lateral geomorphic change, and reach scale floodplain width, streambank height, channel width, and streambed particle size. This information was used to calculate fluxes of sediment, fine sediment, sed...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing concern about the adverse effects of saltwater intrusion via tidal rivers, streams, and creeks into tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) due to sea level rise (SLR) and intense and extended drought events. However, the magnitude and duration of porewater salinity in exceedance of plant salinity stress threshold (2 practical...
Article
Limited evidence for spatial patterns of denitrification in tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFWs), seemingly due to high spatial variability in the process, is surprising considering the various spatial gradients of its biogeochemical and hydrogeomorphic controls in these ecosystems. Because certain physical environmental gradients may be usef...
Code
FACET is a Python tool that uses open source modules to map the floodplain extent and derive reach-scale summaries of stream and floodplain geomorphic measurements from high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). FACET allows the user to hydrologically condition the DEM, generate the stream network, select one of two options for stream bank i...
Article
Full-text available
Typha is an iconic wetland plant found worldwide. Hybridization and anthropogenic disturbances have resulted in large increases in Typha abundance in wetland ecosystems throughout North America at a cost to native floral and faunal biodiversity. As demonstrated by three regional case studies, Typha is capable of rapidly colonizing habitats and form...
Article
Identifying floodplains with high rates of denitrification will help prioritize restoration projects for the removal of nitrogen. Currently, relationships of denitrification with hydrogeomorphic, physiographic, and climate (i.e., largescale) characteristics of floodplains are relatively unknown, even though these characteristics have datasets (e.g....
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest that about 2 Pg of organic C is stored on floodplains worldwide. The present study indicates the Atchafalaya River, fifth largest river in the United States in terms of discharge, traps 30 mm/year of sediment on average within its floodplain, which is the highest average nonepisodic rate of fluvial deposition on the U.S. Coas...
Article
In theory, extirpated plant species can be reintroduced and managed to restore sustainable populations. However, few reintroduced plants are known to persist for more than a few years. Our adaptive‐management case study illustrates how we restored the endangered hemiparasitic annual plant, Chloropyron maritimum subsp. maritimum (salt marsh bird’s b...
Article
Floodplains provide critical ecosystem services to local and downstream communities by retaining floodwaters, sediments, and nutrients. The dynamic nature of floodplains is such that these areas can both accumulate sediment and nutrients through deposition, and export material downstream through erosion. Therefore, estimating floodplain sediment an...
Article
Full-text available
The Stream Channel and Floodplain Metric Toolbox was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping fluvial geomorphic features from high-resolution bare-earth elevation data. A Python toolbox for ArcGIS was built to calculate key metrics describing channel and floodplain geometry. Channel and Floodplain Metric Toolbox provides this ability in...
Article
Carbon (C) standing stocks, C mass balance, and soil C burial in tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) and TFFW transitioning to low-salinity marshes along the upper estuary are not typically included in "blue carbon" accounting, but may represent a significant C sink. Results from two salinity transects along the tidal Waccamaw and Savannah ri...
Article
Full-text available
Floodplains and streambanks can positively and negatively influence downstream water quality through interacting geomorphic and biogeochemical processes. Few studies have measured those processes in agricultural watersheds. We measured inputs (floodplain sedimentation and dissolved inorganic loading), cycling (floodplain soil nitrogen [N] and phosp...
Article
Sea-level rise is pushing freshwater tides upstream into formerly non-tidal rivers. This tidal extension may increase the area of tidal freshwater ecosystems and offset loss of ecosystem functions due to salinization downstream. Without considering how gains in ecosystem functions could offset losses, landscape-scale assessments of ecosystem functi...
Article
Floodplains are among the world’s economically-most-valuable, environmentally-most-threatened, and yet conceptually-least-understood ecosystems. Drawing on concepts from existing riverine and wetland models, and empirical data from floodplains of Atlantic Coast rivers in the Southeastern US (and elsewhere when possible), we introduce a conceptual m...
Article
Stream restoration practices frequently aim to increase connectivity between the stream channel and its floodplain to improve channel stability and enhance water quality through sediment trapping and nutrient retention. To measure the effectiveness of restoration and to understand the drivers of these functional responses, we monitored five restore...
Article
This study examines Holocene impacts of changes in climate, land use, and sea-level rise (SLR) on sediment accretion, carbon accumulation rates (CAR), and vegetation along a transect of tidal freshwater forested wetlands (TFFW) to oligohaline marsh along the Waccamaw River, South Carolina (4 sites) and along the Savannah River, Georgia (4 sites). W...
Article
The resilience of constructed wetland ecosystems to severe disturbance, such as a mass herbivory eat-out or soil disturbance, remains poorly understood. In this study, we use a controlled mesocosm experiment to examine how original planting diversity affects the ability of constructed freshwater wetlands to recover structurally and functionally aft...
Article
The development of soil nitrogen (N) cycling in created wetlands promotes the maturation of multiple biogeochemical cycles necessary for ecosystem functioning. This development proceeds from gradual changes in soil physicochemical properties and influential characteristics of the plant community, such as competitive behavior, phenology, productivit...
Article
Contemporary deposition (artificial marker horizon, 3.5 years) and long-term accumulation rates (210Pb profiles, ~150 years) of sediment and associated carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) were measured in wetlands along the tidal Savannah and Waccamaw rivers in the southeastern USA. Four sites along each river spanned an upstream-to-downst...
Article
We measured rates of sediment, C, N, and P accumulation at four floodplain sites spanning the nontidal through oligohaline Choptank and Pocomoke Rivers, Maryland, USA. Ceramic tiles were used to collect sediment for a year and sediment cores were collected to derive decadal sedimentation rates using 137Cs. The results showed highest rates of short-...
Article
Forested fl oodplains are important landscape features for retaining river nutrients and sediment loads but there is uncertainty in how vegetation infl uences nutrient and sediment retention. In order to understand the role of vegetation in nutrient and sediment trapping, we quantifi ed species composition and the uptake of nutrients in plant mater...
Article
Tidal freshwater wetlands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change and rising sea levels. However salinification within these systems is poorly understood, therefore, productivity (litterfall, woody biomass, and fine roots) were investigated on three forested tidal wetlands [(1) freshwater, (2) moderately saline, and (3) heavily...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
SEDIMENT AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE LOWER ATCHAFALAYA BASIN, LOUISIANA EXTENDED ABSTRACT Cliff R. Hupp, Research Botanist, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, crhupp@usgs.gov; Daniel E. Kroes, Research Ecologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, dkroes@usgs.gov; Edward R. Schenk, Research Ecologist, U.S. Geological Survey,...
Article
A B S T R A C T The 2011 Mississippi River Flood resulted in the opening of the Morganza Spillway for the second time since its construction in 1954 releasing 7.6 km 3 of water through agricultural and forested lands in the Morganza Floodway and into the Atchafalaya River Basin. This volume, released over 54 days, represented 5.5% of the Mississipp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Suspended sediment is one of the most detrimental pollutants to the Chesapeake Bay.; Streams in the Piedmont Physiographic Province have the highest suspended sediment concentrations in the Bay watershed. The Piedmont region has been heavily impacted by historic land uses including land clearing for agriculture, colonial era riparian sedimentation,...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Sediment fingerprinting quantifies the delivery of finegrained sediment from a watershed and sediment-budget measurements quantify the erosion and deposition of fine-grained sediment. Both approaches were used in the agricultural and forested 147-square-kilometer (km2) Linganore Creek watershed in Maryland from August 1, 2008 through December 31, 2...
Article
Understanding the controls on floodplain carbon (C) cycling is important for assessing greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for C sequestration in river-floodplain ecosystems. We hypothesized that greater hydrologic connectivity would increase C inputs to floodplains that would stimulate soil C gas emissions but also sequester more C in soils...
Article
Full-text available
Urban stormwater runoff remains an important issue that causes local and regional-scale water quantity and quality issues. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used to mitigate runoff issues, traditionally in a centralized manner; however, problems associated with urban hydrology have remained. An emerging trend is implement...
Article
Full-text available
Watershed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often designed to reduce loading from particle-borne contaminants, but the temporal lag between BMP implementation and improvement in receiving water quality is difficult to assess because particles are only moved downstream episodically, resting for long periods in storage between transport events. A...
Article
[1] The hydrologic processes by which tide affects river channel and riparian morphology within the tidal freshwater zone are poorly understood, yet are fundamental to predicting the fate of coastal rivers and wetlands as sea level rises. We investigated patterns of sediment accretion in riparian wetlands along the non-tidal through oligohaline por...
Article
Purpose Fine-grained sediment is an important pollutant in streams and estuaries, including the Chesapeake Bay in the USA. The objective of this study was to determine the sources of fine-grained sediment using the sediment fingerprinting approach in the Linganore Creek watershed, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Materials and methods The sedime...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment accretion was measured at four sites in varying stages of forest-to-marsh succession along a fresh-tooligohaline gradient on the Waccamaw River and its tributary Turkey Creek (Coastal Plain watersheds, South Carolina) and the Savannah River (Piedmont watershed, South Carolina and Georgia). Sites included tidal freshwater forests, moderatel...
Article
Greater connectivity to stream surface water may result in greater inputs of allochthonous nutrients that could stimulate internal nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in natural, restored, and created riparian wetlands. This study investigated the effects of hydrologic connectivity to stream water on soil nutrient fluxes in plots ( = 20) locate...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACTA bank and floodplain sediment budget was created for three Piedmont streams tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The watersheds of each stream varied in land use from urban (Difficult Run) to urbanizing (Little Conestoga Creek) to agricultural (Linganore Creek). The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between geomorphic paramete...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Existing Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) nutrient models for the northeastern and southeastern regions of the United States were recalibrated to achieve a hydrographically consistent model with which to assess nutrient sources and stream transport and investigate specific management questions about the effects of w...
Chapter
Full-text available
Hydrogeomorphic, vegetative, and biogeochemical processes interact in floodplains resulting in great complexity that provides opportunities to better understand linkages among physical and biological processes in ecosystems. Floodplains and their associated river systems are structured by four-dimensional gradients of hydrogeomorphology: longitudin...
Article
Full-text available
Suspended sediment is one of the major concerns regarding the quality of water entering the Chesapeake Bay. Some of the highest suspended-sediment concentrations occur on Piedmont streams, including Difficult Run, a tributary of the Potomac River draining urban and suburban parts of northern Virginia. Accurate information on catchment level sedimen...
Chapter
Hydrogeomorphic, vegetative, and biogeochemical processes interact in floodplains resulting in great complexity that provides opportunities to better understand linkages among physical and biological processes in ecosystems. Floodplains and their associated river systems are structured by four-dimensional gradients of hydrogeomorphology: longitudin...
Article
This review provides a critical overview of conservation practices that are aimed at improving water quality by retaining phosphorus (P) downstream of runoff genesis. The review is structured around specific downstream practices that are prevalent in various parts of the United States. Specific practices that we discuss include the use of controlle...
Article
Full-text available
At the interface of estuarine tides and freshwater rivers lie wetland and aquatic ecosystems, which experience dramatic effects of sea level rise. There, nontidal channels and riparian floodplains are transforming into tidal ecosystems, and tidal freshwater ecosystems are receiving increasing salinity. These river-floodplain systems have both fluvi...
Poster
Full-text available
An early presentation to the Chesapeake Bay scientific community on watershed sediment processes. Final results were published in ESPL in 2012 (https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.3314 )
Article
Excess nitrogen (N) flux from the landscape to riverine systems has led to the degradation of many downstream water bodies. Hypoxic zones in both the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay can be attributed to the increase in anthropogenic N sources during the last century. Typically, the majority of N flux occurs during flood events. Floodplains act as...
Article
Riparian evapotranspiration is known to drive distinct diel cycles of hyporheic exchange and nutrient processing in many headwater streams. Likewise, in floodplain wetlands, seasonally varying evapotranspiration-driven flow between raised vegetation patches and flowing open-water environments has the potential to induce heterogeneity in nutrient ac...
Article
Mitigation wetlands are expected to compensate for the loss of structure and function of natural wetlands within 5–10years of creation; however, the age-based trajectory of development in wetlands is unclear. This study investigates the development of coupled structural (soil properties) and functional (nitrogen cycling) attributes of created non-t...
Article
Flow interactions with aquatic vegetation and effects on sediment transport and nutrient redistribution are uncertain in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Here we quantified sediment transport in the Everglades by progressively increasing flow velocity in a field flume constructed around undisturbed bed sediment and emergent macrophytes. Suspended sedime...
Article
Full-text available
More than half of the original Everglades extent formed a patterned peat mosaic of elevated ridges, lower and more open sloughs, and tree islands aligned parallel to the dominant flow direction. This ecologically important landscape structure remained in a dynamic equilibrium for millennia prior to rapid degradation over the past century in respons...
Article
A modification of the resin-core method was developed and tested for measuring in situ soil N and P net mineralization rates in wetland soils where temporal variation in bidirectional vertical water movement and saturation can complicate measurement. The modified design includes three mixed-bed ion-exchange resin bags located above and three resin...
Article
In low-gradient floodplains and wetlands, vegetation provides the primary resisting force for flow and hence can exert strong influence on flow velocities, water depth, and redistribution of sediments that affect the geomorphic evolution and ecological function of wetland landscapes. Critical research needs that remain for predicting flow in these...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Natural wetlands have been widely noted for their ability to improve the water quality of downstream systems by retaining, transforming, and permanently removing nitrogen (N) from polluted water. While there have been numerous studies on N dynamics in natural riparian and coastal plain wetlands, there is insufficient inf...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality reflects numerous environmental processes, including primary production and decomposition, redox gradients, hydrologic transport, and photochemistry. Fluorescence spectroscopy can detect groups of DOM compounds sensitive to these processes. However, different environmental gradients (e.g., redox, DOM provenanc...
Article
Full-text available
Thousands of depressional wetlands accidentally formed as a result of pre-1977 contour coal mining in the Appalachian Mountains. Eleven 20-yr old sites were found in a watershed that did not receive acid mine drainage. The purpose of this study was to quantify and model above- and below-ground plant biomass in these created wetlands and to evaluate...
Article
Contrary to our expectations, soil salinity and moisture explained little of the spatial variation in plant establishment in the upper intertidal marsh of three southern California wetlands, but did explain the timing of germination. Seedlings of 27 species were identified in 1996 and 1997. The seedlings were abundant (maximum densities of 2143/m2...