Gregory Lewis

Gregory Lewis
Georgia State University | GSU · Honors College

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95
Publications
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Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employees perceive less justice in the federal service than do their heterosexual colleagues. The “double jeopardy” hypothesis suggests that this will be especially true for LGBTs with a second stigmatized identity, but intersectionality theory is less clear about whether being LGBT will have a larger...
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Our understanding of the determinants of public concern about climate change relies heavily on survey research in the United States. But can those findings be generalized to the rest of the world? Analysis of the Pew Research Center’s 2015 Global Attitudes Survey shows fairly similar patterns in the English-speaking Western democracies and, to a le...
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According to its designers, the U.S. merit system centered on a “pivotal idea”: The civil service would use “open, fair, honest, impartial, competitive examination” to find the people “best fitted to discharge the duties of the position.” Officials would announce job openings to the widest-possible applicant pool and assess that pool on uniformly a...
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We know strikingly little about the people who earn undergraduate degrees in public administration/policy. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) for 2009–2014, this article expands our knowledge, examining the characteristics of people with bachelor’s degrees in public administration and public policy, the degrees...
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Does the social work labor force reflect the field’s commitment to social and economic justice? Using individual-level census data for 1980–2014 on self-identified social workers and on other college graduates in college-majority occupations, this article finds three key patterns. First, representation of women, blacks, and Latinx in social work is...
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Are state governments fulfilling their responsibilities to be model employers of women and minorities? Using U.S. Census Bureau data on individual employees from 1980 to 2015, this article looks at how much progress state governments have made toward eliminating racial and gender pay differences. It examines whether differences in education, age/ex...
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Two competing theories argue that the nonprofit sector pays differently: Nonprofit employees may accept lower pay to be able to do meaningful work for a good cause, or they may earn higher pay due to nonprofit organizations’ tax exemptions and weaker incentives to hold down wages. To test these opposing expectations, we use the 2005-2013 American C...
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Despite some stakeholders’ concerns about the practical value of an undergraduate degree in political science, our graduates actually do quite well in the labor market. Based on analysis of a sample of 3.4 million college graduates (including 86,000 in political science) from the 2009–2014 American Community Surveys, our majors earn two-thirds more...
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After a decade of steady growth in the acceptance of the existence of climate change and its anthropogenic causes, opinions have polarized, with almost one third of Americans, mostly Republicans, denying that the climate is changing or that human activity is responsible. What causes Americans to change their minds on this issue? Using a large panel...
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Have state and local governments (SLGs) achieved pay parity with the private sector? The answer depends on how one defines parity. Using a standard labor economics model on U.S. Census data from 1990 to 2014, we find different patterns if we focus on pay, on pay plus benefits, or on total compensation within an occupation. All approaches indicate t...
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Public pension plans face pressures to cut costs. Although government costs and retiree benefits drive changes in retirement plans, policy makers should also consider impacts on turnover and retirement behavior. In the mid-1980s, Congress moved new federal employees from a traditional defined benefit (DB) pension plan to a new hybrid plan, comprise...
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The swelling wave of federal retirements heightens the importance of understanding the factors that influence retirement decisions. We examine both behavior and intentions to retire using two large data sets on federal white-collar employees aged 50 and above. Analysis of personnel records for 1979-2009 shows that several of the usual factors—in pa...
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Although we still lack objective data on treatment of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgenders (LGBTs) in the federal service, a huge recent survey of federal employees allows us to compare LGBT and heterosexual employees’ perceptions of the treatment they receive. LGBTs have several reasons for more negative perceptions of their treatment: 70 y...
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Public sector employment of immigrants can increase their economic assimilation and potentially improve their treatment by government. Yet, as we show using Census data from 1990, 2000, and 2009–2011, immigrants are substantially underrepresented in federal, state, and local governments. To understand why, we use logit analysis for federal and for...
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Has veterans’ preference been successful in increasing military veterans’ access to state and local government (SLG) jobs? U.S. Census data for 1980 through 2011 show that veterans are more likely than nonveterans to work for SLGs, despite some characteristics that would normally make them less likely to take SLG jobs. This is especially true in st...
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Evidence shows that gay men hold fewer government jobs in the US than their share of the population would predict. Two large surveys of Canadian university and college students, however, indicate no lack of interest in public sector jobs among gay, lesbian, transgender and queer people (GLBTQs). This article explores data on the differing perceptio...
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The South provides far fewer legal protections for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Americans than does the rest of the country. Because state gay rights policies strongly reflect public opinion, trends in and the causes of Southerners’ stronger opposition to homosexuality and gay rights are key to the future of lesbian and gay rights in the...
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A strong link between performance and rewards in the U.S. federal civil service could raise top performers to positions of power and responsibility and motivate employees to greater productivity. Federal employees, the general population and scholars all express doubts about the strength of that link, however, though few have estimated it empirical...
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Although pay differences between men and women with comparable characteristics are generally smaller in the nonprofit than in the for-profit sector, gender pay gaps in the nonprofit sector vary widely across industries. In some industries, gender pay gaps are as large as in the for-profit sector, but in others, women make more than comparably quali...
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Government preference for military veterans in hiring, a means to honor them for their service and sacrifices, potentially conflicts with other values of the public service, including its diversity and quality. Census data for 1990, 2000, and 2006–2009 show that veterans are at least three times as likely to hold federal jobs as, but only 10% more...
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As the retirement wave of Baby Boomers approaches, retaining newly hired, mid-career, and retirement-eligible employees will be nearly as crucial as hiring top-quality new people. Using two large data sets on federal employees, we focus on whether human resource management (HRM) practices can affect turnover intention and whether they matter equall...
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Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) in the United States are strikingly more likely to vote for Democratic presidential candidates than heterosexuals. LGBs are one of the Democratic Party's most loyal voting blocs, despite the absence of one of the most important mechanisms for creating party identification: intergenerational transmission. We u...
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Despite numerous public opinion polls indicating that California voters would defeat Proposition 8, a proposed constitutional amendment to limit marriage to one man and one woman, Election Day 2008 brought an end to six months of marriage equality for same-sex couples. This paper explores four possible explanations for why Californians passed Propo...
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When white men overwhelmingly dominated the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) work force, the high pay in STEM occupations was a major source of gender and race inequality in the U.S. economy. As women, Blacks, and Latinos increasingly study STEM fields, new possibilities for achieving pay equality are opening. We test whethe...
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According to both the contact hypothesis and gay rights advocates, coming out to straight friends and family members should increase acceptance of homosexuality and support for gay rights. If lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) come out primarily to people they expect to be accepting, however, the repeated finding that people who know LGBs are...
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This study examines pay differences between comparable workers in state and local governments and in private firms in the same state. Using a pooled sample of national census data (ACS 2001-2006), we test whether private/public pay differential exists at the state and local levels and whether such differentials are race and gender dependent. Additi...
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Using a 5% sample of the 2000 Census, we present the first estimates of the percentages of federal, state, and local government employees who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB). For each state, we estimate that percentage not only for its total state and local government workforce but also for three occupations where active representation of LGB i...
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The aging of the Baby Boom generation, combined with the success of the New Public Management in downsizing the federal government, has led to a rapidly aging federal service, a reduced flow of new blood with creativity and updated skills (Lane, Wolf, and Woodard, 2003), and a looming “tsunami” of retirements that is forcing the federal service to...
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Why are people with same-sex partners more likely than married people to work for nonprofit organizations (NPOs)? Analysis of 2000 Census data suggests that smaller gay—straight pay disparities for men in the nonprofit sector, occupational choices, and ability to afford nonprofit employment explain some overrepresentation of partnered gay men but n...
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Why are Americans who believe homosexuality is innate more likely to support the rights of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs)? Attribution theory suggests that people are more likely to support LGB rights if they do not blame LGBs for their sexual orientation. Alternatively, moral condemnation of homosexuality may lead both to belief that homo...
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Can a performance appraisal system (PAS) elicit better performance from an intrinsically motivated workforce? By explicitly linking extrinsic rewards to performance, a PAS might actually discourage the work effort of the primarily intrinsically motivated federal workforce. Data from the 2000 Merit Principles Survey show that few federal employees b...
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Men's greater tendency to study such high-paying fields as engineering, computer science, and business may account for half of the pay gap between male and female college graduates in the general economy, and women's mobility into traditionally male fields may explain the closing of the gender pay gap in recent decades. Do similar patterns hold for...
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In one of the most disappointing electoral blows in the struggle for gay and lesbian rights, California voters passed Proposition 8 by a 52-48 margin in November 2008, overturning a state supreme court decision that had legalized same-sex marriage earlier in the year. Although popular votes have almost uniformly rejected same-sex marriage rights, u...
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Using a 1% sample of federal personnel records for 1983 through 2003, we compare the career success of employees with master’s degrees in public administration (MPA) to those with bachelor’s degrees or graduate degrees in other fields—especially law, business administration, and the social sciences, the degrees most likely to compete for our studen...
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Americans increasingly view lesbians and gay men as a legitimate minority, entitled to equal employment opportunities and perhaps to adequate representation in government. Scholars of public administration have extensively studied whether women and racial minorities receive fair representation and pay in the public sector, but we have generally ign...
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Objective. I estimate the impact of knowing someone gay on acceptance of homosexuality and support for gay rights. Method. Logit analyses on individual-level data from 27 national surveys control for demographic and political variables that predict both acquaintance with lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and support for gay rights. Findings....
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Objective. We test whether the increasing tendency of women, blacks, and Latinos to study science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is decreasing gender and race pay inequality in the federal civil service and the U.S. economy. Method. Using logit analysis on a one percent sample of federal personnel records for college graduates in...
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Using a one percent sample of federal personnel records for 1983 through 2003, we compare the career success of employees with master's degrees in public administration to those of employees with bachelor's degrees or graduate degrees in other fields - especially law, business administration, and the social sciences, the degrees most likely to comp...
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Though public opposition to same-sex marriage seems reasonably stable nationally, support in California has grown substantially in the past two decades. Using data from six Field Polls of Californians since 1985, we explore the roots of that growth in individual attitude change and population changes. Cohort replacement can explain half the growth....
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Since the early days of the gay liberation movement, activists have argued that coming out to heterosexuals would increase acceptance of homosexuality and support for gay rights. Though the empirical research has generally supported this hypothesis, it has not adequately controlled for reciprocal causation: having positive attitudes toward homosexu...
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Using panel data analysis, we examine the relative importance of citizen and government characteristics on a highly discretionary and volatile budget item: state appropriations to arts agencies. Despite the unimportance of arts spending to most citizens, changes in arts spending appear to reflect citizen desires. Spending rises with per capita inco...
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Successfully reframing a political issue as morality policy should strengthen the hand of those charging immorality. However, reframers face a daunting task in shifting public opinion. In 1989, Christian conservatives attempted to reframe the debate over federal funding for the arts from waste to immorality, by attacking grants for “anti-Christian”...
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Does the federal service face more serious problems in recruiting, motivating, and retaining high-quality information technology (IT) professionals and administrators (PAs) than it does other PAs? Using a 1% sample of federal personnel records for 1976-2003, we compare the turnover rates, qualifications, and performance ratings of federal IT and ot...
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In 1989, the combination of art, religion, homosexuality, ana1 public dollars set off an explosive two-year battle and a decade of skirmishes over funding for the National Endowment for the Arts. To promote artistic freedom and to avoid political controversy, federal arts policy delegates specific funding decisions to private donors and arts profes...
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Objective.We establish and try to explain a gay affinity for the arts. Methods. Using logit analysis on the General Social Survey, we test whether demographics, creativity, gender nonconformity, and sexual repression can explain differences between lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and others in attendance at art museums, classical music conc...
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Are government employees lazier than private-sector employees? Drawing from theories of work motivation and public service motivation, this article examines three public-private differences that might produce different levels of work effort in the two sectors. First, government and business may offer different extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Secon...
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Black homophobia has been cited as a contributing factor in slowing mobilization against AIDS in the African-American community, as an obstacle to black lesbians and gay men in coming to terms with their sexuality, and as a challenge to the legitimacy of the gay rights movement. Yet evidence that blacks are more homophobic than whites is quite limi...
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In an era when everyone wants to be a millionaire, governments struggle to attract and retain highly qualified employees, making it more important than ever to understand what attracts people to the public service. Using contingency table analysis and logistic regression on the 1989 and 1998 General Social Surveys, we explore how individuals' demog...
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Perry and Wise (1990) argued that people with high public service motivation (PSM) are more likely than others to choose government jobs, to perform better on the job, and to respond more to nonutilitarian incentives once in government. Using multiple regression and logit analyses on responses by 35,000 federal, white-collar employees to the 1991 S...
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Federal policies denied security clearances to lesbians and gay men until the 1980s and subjected gay applicants to intrusive questioning about their sex lives until the 1990s. Administrators argued that homosexuals made poor risks because of their susceptibility to blackmail, but the government has never made a strong public case for that claim. T...
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Public opinion plays a key role in determining what formal and informal protections gay and lesbian teachers have on the job. This study examines 25 years of professional polling data to discern public attitudes regarding lesbians and gay men as elementary, high school, and college teachers. Data from 23 surveys conducted since 1987, covering over...
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The Merit Systems Protection Board’s glass ceiling report worried that the inability of women with young children to work overtime may be unfairly hindering their career advancement. I investigated this possibility, using a large survey of federal employees. Overall, women were only 60% as likely as men to work overtime. Gender differences in both...
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Much disagreement over the status of public pay arises from the comparisons made: governments compare equivalent jobs while economists compare equivalent workers. We pursue a compromise: we apply the economists' model of salary determination of statistically equivalent workers to a sample restricted to people in equivalent jobs—electrical engineers...
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Although White men continue to dominate the middle management and higher levels of the federal service, representation of Blacks, Hispanics, and White women is increasing at an accelerating pace Although women and minorities continue to earn substantially less than White men in the federal service, their average salaries have risen steadily relativ...
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Despite congressional directives calling on federal agencies to promote part-time employment opportunities, the civil service uses part-time workers far less than does the private sector. The reason may lie both in decreased career advancement for part-timers and in higher administrative costs for federal agencies. Using two large samples of federa...
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Has affirmative action promoted women and minorities to levels where they perform less well than their white male counterparts? Do women and minorities have to perform better to achieve the same pay? Can racial and sexual differences in performance ratings, whether legitimate or discriminatory, help explain why white men continue to earn more than...
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During the Cold War, Congress and the president strengthened prohibitions on federal employment of gay men and lesbians, whom they deemed to be risks to national security. The Civil Service Commission and the Federal Bureau of Investigation developed bureaucratic procedures to prevent the hiring of homosexual applicants and to fire homosexual civil...
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Why did the mean grade of federal white-collar workers rise 1.2 grades between 1977 and 1993? The author explores 4 possible explanations: (a) increasing complexity of federal work and increasing qualifications of federal workers; (b) declining discrimination against women and minorities; (c) responses to the underpayment of federal workers; and (4...
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Comparably educated and experienced federal employees held lower grades in the Department of Defense (DOD) than in the rest of the civil service in every year between 1976 and 1995, even at the height of President Reagan's defense build-up. DOD promotion rates jumped, the quality of DOD new hires rose, and the DOD pay disadvantage shrank during the...
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Using the U.S. Office of Personnel Management's Central Personnel Data File, the author shows that from 1976 through 1992 gender integration of occupations proceeded more rapidly and steadily in the federal civil service than in the general economy. During that period, increasing numbers of women moved into traditionally male occupations, especiall...
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Using two large samples of federal employees, this article explores the respective roles of qualifications, racial and sexual discrimination, and locational advantages in explaining why federal employees earn so much more in Washington than in the rest of the country. Higher levels of education and experience, lower levels of sex-based pay inequali...
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Do differences in the competitiveness of local labor markets affect the government's ability to recruit and retain federal workers? The Federal Employee Pay Comparability Act of 1990 (FEPCA) assumes that they do. FEPCA replaces a uniform national salary schedule for white-collar workers with a system of locality pay, which will remunerate the same...
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Using EEO-4 data, provided by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, for state and local governments with more than 250 employees, this paper details the extent of sexual and racial segregation of occupations in 1987 and trends since 1981. It tests a model of determination of occupational segregation and explores the effect of levels of...
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Does a federal agency's mission influence how female employees are used? Gregory Lewis notes that federal agencies differ markedly on a variety of measures. The variation appears to arise, he postulates, primarily from differences in agency tasks, as represented by the occupational breakdown of their work forces. Agencies whose missions require man...
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Does the experience of Asian Americans in the public service support their image as a "model minority?" The image of Asian Americans as a "model minority" conceals both their diversity and the discrimination they face. Although Asians are generally highly educated and well paid, Asian groups vary substantially in educational and earnings levels. De...
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What impact has anti-discrimination legislation had on the careers of disabled federal employees? Gregory B. Lewis and Cheryl Lynn Allee ask that question in light of the recent passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990). Disabled federal employees have had such protection since passage of the 1973 Rehabilitation Act. Using an annual sam...
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Recent years have seen increasing concerns in the public administration community that declining pay and increasing bureaucrat bashing have seriously damaged both the morale and quality of the civil service, making it difficult to recruit or retain excellent employees. Much of the evidence has been impressionistic, however. Using data from surveys...
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Was the Volcker Commission correct in its assertion that the federal civil service is losing high-quality employees due to the declining relative pay and prestige of government service? Gregory Lewis examined thousands of federal employee personnel files covering the period 1973 to 1989 to answer that question. On the surface, federal white-collar...
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In combating the negative but contradictory images the public holds of public administrators, Charles Goodsell has examined the research and concluded that bureaucrats are really just ordinary people. This article explores that contention. Using the General Social Surveys of 1982 through 1988, this study compares the political, social, and personal...
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Between 1976 and 1986, women's gross turnover rates were about one-third higher than men's in the federal civil service. Such differences frequently are cited as a justification for preferring men for positions with high training costs or as one explanation why men earn so much more than women. Using a 1% sample of federal personnel records for 197...
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A large increase in the number of federal employees aged 35 to 44 raises questions about what effect this employment bulge is having on the career prospects of federal employees. Comparison of personnel records for 1976 and 1986 indicates that most employees in 1986 were doing as well as or better than employees of the same age in 1976. Men aged 25...
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This paper addresses two questions. First, has the federal civil service made progress toward racial and sexual equality in the past decade? Second, has progress slowed during the Reagan Administration? The paper examines changes in total employment, employment at upper grade levels, average grade levels, average salaries, and unexplained salary ga...
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The gap between the average grades of white men and women m the General Schedule remains substantial, but it has narrowed somewhat in recent years as average grades have risen for both white men and women. This paper uses one percent samples of federal personnel records for 1973 and 1982 to determine whether differences in qualifications can explai...
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Using a one percent sample of federal personnel records, this paper compares the grades, salaries, job authority, and occupations of MPA-holders to those of federal employees with graduate degrees in business administration, law, the social sciences, and other fields. Even after the race, sex, experience, age, and educational levels of employees ha...
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What does the public think of proposed policies of comparable worth for public employees? In a telephone survey we asked 558 Georgians their opinions on whether female-dominated occupations are underpaid because of discrimination and whether a comparable worth policy for public employees is feasible and desirable. Two findings emerge from these sur...
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Using a one percent sample of federal personnel records, this article examines entry levels and advancement rates during the first eight years of the federal career for white and minority males and females who entered the civil service shortly after leaving school. Once educational levels and major fields of study are controlled for, the four group...
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Using logit analysis on 1 percent samples of federal personnel records for 1973-82, this paper finds strikingly similar promotion probabilities for white men and women, once a variety of individual characteristics are accounted for.
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Are women and minorities as likely to supervise employees and to manage programs as are white males at the same levels in the federal bureaucracy? This study argues that they are not, based on analysis of a one percent sample of federal personnel records for 1982.
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The role of veterans `preference in the federal civil service has been both attacked and applauded. Yet little policy research has been conducted investigating the impact of preferential hiring on veterans, the merit system, or the employment of women and miniorities. This article uses data on employees within the General Schedule system to isolate...
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This article examines changes in the revenue and expenditure patterns of twelve major cities (six fiscally healthy; six fiscally distressed) from fiscal years 1964 to 1979. The purpose of the examinatin is to determine whether resource scarcity results in significantly different expenditure patterns, especially for essential services (police, fire...
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This article examines changes in the revenue and expenditure patterns of twelve major cities (six fiscally healthy; six fiscally distressed) from fiscal years 1964 to 1979. The purpose of the examinatin is to determine whether resource scarcity results in significantly different expenditure patterns, especially for essential services (police, fire...
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Using a 1% sample of personnel records for full-time, white-collar workers in the federal domestic agencies, I document how levels of education, experience, and age have risen over the past one-third century. The changing mix of occupations – clerical jobs fell by three-fourths and administrative jobs doubled – has contributed to rising qualificati...
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Does the under-representation of gay men in U.S. government workforces reflect a lack of desire for public sector jobs? Using large 2007 and 2010 surveys of Canadian college students, we show that gay and lesbian students are more likely than heterosexual students to want public and nonprofit sector jobs, partly because (1) they place higher value...
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Using data on 116,816 respondents from 91 national surveys conducted between 2000 and 2009, this paper assesses how rapidly support for same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade; whether cohort replacement, other population changes, or individual attitude explains the rising support; and whether time trends, cohort effects, and mind-changi...

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