Gregory Ciottone

Gregory Ciottone
Harvard Medical School | HMS · Division of Emergency Medicine

MD, FACEP FFSEM

About

185
Publications
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Introduction
Dr Gregory Ciottone is the Director of the Division of Disaster Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and an Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine at Harvard Medical School. He is also the President of the World Associate for Disaster and Emergency Medicine. Dr Ciottone's research interests are focused around Disaster Medicine and Emergency Management, including creating new educational initiatives.

Publications

Publications (185)
Article
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Extreme heat and wildfires have health implications for everyone; however, minority and low-income populations are disproportionately negatively affected due to generations of social inequities and discriminatory practices. Indigenous people in Canada are at a higher risk of many chronic respiratory diseases, as well as other non-communicable disea...
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Introduction Asymmetric warfare and the reaction to its threats have implications in the way far-forward medical assistance is provided in such settings. Investments in far-forward emergency resuscitation and stabilization can contribute to saving lives and increase the resilience of health systems. Thus, it is proposed to extend the use of the Had...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate the exposure to crisis leadership theory already present in Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) accredited Master of Public Health (MPH) programs in the United States and provide a compelling case for its future inclusion. Study design: This was a narrative review. Methods: We compiled a comprehensive list of...
Article
Summary statement: Disaster medicine (DM) training aims to recreate stressful, mass casualty scenarios faced by medical professionals in the field with high fidelity. Virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are well suited to disaster training as it can provide a safe, socially distant simulation with a high degree of realism. The purpose of this...
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Introduction: Over the past five decades, Eastern Europe has seen relatively little in terms of terrorist attacks. The recent escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian conflict has, however, placed a new spotlight on the region, and new questions and concerns around war, conflict, insurgency, and terrorism are being posed. The Russian invasion and extensiv...
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Background The recent United States (US) troop withdrawal out of Afghanistan under a February 2020 US-Taliban agreement and the rapid concurrent collapse of the Afghan military, followed by the ascendance of the Taliban, has placed an international spotlight around the future of South Asian countries. Security threats, in particular, will likely es...
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Background The use of chemical weapons in terrorist attacks, though rare, remains a significant challenge and concern due to their ability to inflict mass casualties. Chemical attacks remain a topic of interest for Disaster Medicine (DM) and Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) specialists and are clearly an area in need of enhanced preparedness. This...
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Background Educational institutions around the world have long been targets of terrorist attacks. Schools, colleges, and universities often lack security measures against intentional threats and may be viewed as relatively easy, soft targets with high potential for mass casualties. The long-term psychosocial impact on children, youth, and survivors...
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Background Tropical cyclones are a recurrent, lethal hazard. Climate change, demographic, and development trends contribute to increasing hazards and vulnerability. This mapping review of articles on tropical cyclone mortality assesses geographic publication patterns, research gaps, and priorities for investigation to inform evidence-based risk red...
Article
Background Many capital cities around the world have been subjected to terrorist attacks on their transport systems with devastating consequences. Large crowds in small enclosed spaces, disruption to people movement, and the psychosocial and financial repercussions of attacks are some of the many soft target vulnerabilities of mass-transit systems....
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Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has been, like many parts of the world, a hotbed for terrorist activities. Terrorist attacks can affect both demand for and provision of health care services and often places a unique burden on first responders, hospitals, and health systems. This study aims to provide an epidemiological des...
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Introduction: The absence of local Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educational programs in Bahrain has given rise to an EMS workforce comprised predominantly of expatriate personnel with varying educational backgrounds that require further training before being licensed as EMS providers in Bahrain. Methods: A qualitative variance analysis was p...
Article
Background The Covid19 pandemic has reignited debates and discussions around healthcare systems' biosecurity vulnerabilities and cast a spotlight on the potential weaponization of biological agents. Terrorist and violent extremist groups have already attempted to incite the intentional spread of Covid19 and to use it as an improvised form of a biol...
Article
Background The rapid popularization of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs; also referred to as drones), in both the recreational and industrial sectors, has paved the way for rapid developments in drone capabilities. Although the threat of UAVs used by terrorists has been recognized by specialists in both Counter-Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Medicin...
Article
Background The modern concept of terrorism has its roots in the “old continent” of Western Europe, more specifically in France, during the “Reign of Terror” period of the French Revolution. At the time, this form of state terror had a positive connotation: it was a legitimate means of defending the young state. While no single accepted definition o...
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With the increasing number and range of crisis events, disaster and emergency management has become an growing responsibility of healthcare administration. And yet, among Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME)-accredited programs, only one university requires a course in emergency and disaster management. In a survey...
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Aim of the study In the context of the worldwide vaccination campaign against COVID-19, France has been deploying multiple sites for mass vaccination. This study aimed to assess the perceived usefulness of a prototype decontamination mobile unit (UMDEO) for COVID-19 vaccination among both the patient and healthcare providers perspectives. Methods...
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Introduction While suicide bombings in the context of warfare have existed throughout history, there was an exponential rise in such attacks in the decade following the initiation of the War on Terror. The health care implications of such attacks are a growing concern across the emergency response sector, and this study is an epidemiological examin...
Article
Purpose: Telemedical applications have only recently begun to coalesce into the field of telemedicine due to varying definitions of telemedicine and issues around reimbursement. This process has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing expansion of telemedicine delivery. This article demonstrates the development of a set of propos...
Article
While the opioid epidemic engulfing the United States and the globe is well-documented, the potential use of powerful fentanyl derivatives as a weapon of terror is increasingly a concern. Carfentanyl, a powerful and deadly fentanyl derivative, is seeing a surge in popularity as an illegal street drug, and there is increasing congressional interest...
Article
Background: Terrorist attacks are growing in frequency, increasing concerns about chemical warfare agents (CWAs). As-phyxiants (e.g., cyanide), opioids (e.g., carfentanyl), and nerve agents (e.g., ricin) represent some of the most lethal CWAs. Our aim was to define the epidemiology of CWA use in terrorism and detail specific agents used to allow fo...
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Potential risks for public health incidents, outbreaks, and casualties are inferred at association football events, especially if event organizers have not taken appropriate preventative measures. This review explores the potential risks imposed by mass gathering (MG) football events, with particular emphasis on tools and methodologies to manage th...
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Background A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV...
Article
Background: High profile terrorist attacks in major capital cities have seemingly become a regular occurrence and the resultant mass-casualty events continue to challenge health care systems. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) addresses unique terrorism-related issues relating to the mitigation, preparedness, and response measures to asymmetric, mul...
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Background Terrorism-related deaths have fallen year after year since peaking in 2014, and whilst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted terrorist organizations capacity to conduct attacks and limited their potential targets, counter-terrorism experts believe this is a short-term phenomenon with serious concerns of an escala...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused the greatest global loss of life and economic impact due to a respiratory virus since the 1918 influenza pandemic. While health care systems around the world faced the enormous challenges of managing COVID-19 patients, health care workers in the Republic of Armenia were further tasked with...
Article
The mass proliferation and increasing affordability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in recent years has given rise to weaponized UAV use by terrorists, leading to mounting and credible concerns this attack methodology will be the next terrorism modus operandi. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) specialists need to consider how UAVs alter or create...
Article
Healthcare facilities play an essential role in response to terrorist attacks, but they also can be "soft targets" due to their accessibility and limited security. In this review, the authors used the Global Terrorism Database to conduct a search on terrorist attacks directed against hospitals and healthcare facilities between 1970 and 2018. Search...
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Objectives: Road traffic collisions (RTC) result in a significant number of preventable deaths worldwide. In 2010, the United Nations General Assembly launched, "The Decade of Action for Road Safety (2011-2020)" with the stated goal to "reduce road traffic deaths and injuries by 50% by 2020." This study aims to analyze trends in RTC numbers and su...
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Objectives The goal of this study is to determine the impact of the Holy Month of Ramadan on emergency department (ED) and hospital resource utilization in comparison to the time of Hajj and the rest of the year, so as to better define future resource needs of hospitals responding to events of this large size and duration. Methods A retrospective...
Article
Background Terrorist attacks are growing in complexity, increasing concerns around the use of chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) agents. This has led to increasing interest in Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) as a Disaster Medicine (DM) sub-specialty. This study aims to provide the epidemiology of CBRN use in terrorism, to detail s...
Article
Background The United States (US) is ranked 22 nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While the global number of deaths from terrorism over the past five years is down, the number of countries affected by terrorism is growing and the health care repercussions remain significant. Counter-Terrorism Medicine...
Article
Background: The early conversations on social media by emergency physicians offers a window into the ongoing response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: This retrospective observational study of emergency physician Twitter use details how the healthcare crisis has influenced emergency physician discourse online, and may have use as a harbing...
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The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 placed human health at the centre of disaster risk reduction, calling for the global community to enhance local and national health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM). The Health EDRM Framework, published in 2019, describes the functions required for comprehensive disaster...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Early conversations on social media by emergency physicians offer a window into the ongoing response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. OBJECTIVE This retrospective observational study of emergency physician Twitter use details how the healthcare crisis has influenced emergency physician discourse online, and may have use as a harbinger of ens...
Article
Background China is ranked 42nd on the Global Terrorism Index (2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While China has a relatively low terrorism risk, events globally have wide-ranging repercussions for future attacks, putting first responders and emergency health workers at risk. This study aims to provide the epidemiological context for...
Article
Background Australia is ranked 71st on the Global Terrorism Index (GTI; 2019), a scoring system of terrorist activities. While it has a relatively low terrorist risk, events globally have wide-ranging repercussions putting first responders and emergency health workers at risk. Counter-Terrorism Medicine (CTM) is rapidly emerging as a sub-specialty...
Article
The scale of the Covid19 pandemic has changed the landscape of healthcare services around the world. Quarantine is one of many non- pharmaceutical interventions historically used in managing pandemics but there is currently no global medical consensus on the best format, with most countries employing a continuously reviewed system to determine need...
Article
Terrorist attacks fall under a unique category within the disaster medicine (DM) spectrum. Unlike accidental man-made disasters where there is an inherent pre-disaster objective to reduce risk and mitigate potential hazards, terrorist events have the aim of intentionally inflicting maximum casualties and disrupting the day to day functioning of soc...
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Background: Dignitary medicine is an emerging field of training that involves the specialized care of diplomats, heads of state, and other high-ranking officials. In an effort to provide guidance on training in this nascent field, we convened a panel of experts in dignitary medicine and using the Delphi methodology, created a consensus curriculum...
Article
Rethinking disaster vulnerabilities Accurately predicting disasters has been an elusive and complex task for many decades, but anticipating the aftermath of an event can be based on historic precedence and forward thinking. The response challenges, mechanisms of injury and complexities of a specific event type are well documented and can be antic...
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State governments and hospital facilities are often unprepared to handle a complex medical crisis, despite a moral and ethical obligation to be prepared for disaster. The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has drawn attention to the lack of state guidance on how hospitals should provide care in a crisis. When the resources available are insu...
Article
The vulnerability of hospitals as “soft targets,” defined as publicly accessible locations unprotected or vulnerable to terrorist attacks, is historically well documented, and remains a significant issue in modern day counter-terrorism considerations. “Hardening” these targets is essential to lessen the vulnerability and impact of attack, and is...
Article
Introduction Using an ambulance as an attack modality offers many advantages to a terrorist organization. Ambulances can carry more explosives than most vehicles and can often bypass security. Yet, studies examining how terrorist organizations have incorporated ambulances into their attacks are lacking. Study Objective This article seeks to identi...
Article
The black summer bushfires and the current COVID-19 pandemic have accelerated the establishment of Disaster Medicine (DM) into a mainstream medical subspecialty. The systematic healthcare flaws exposed by these two unprecedented events have reiterated the importance of disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. As a resu...
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The global community needs to be aware of the potential psychosocial consequences that may be experienced by health care workers who are actively managing patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). These health care workers are at increased risk for experiencing mood and trauma-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). I...
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Introduction: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine published guidelines for implementation of Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) at the state level in the United States (US). Based in part on the then concern for H1N1 pandemic, there was a recognized need for additional planning at the state level to maintain health system preparedness and conventional...
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Why Every US Hospital Needs a Disaster Medicine Physician Now - Alexander Hart, Attila Hertelendy, Gregory R. Ciottone
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Introduction Since 2001, a burgeoning interest by health care professionals in the growing asymmetrical terrorist threat and its impact on health care preparation and response has seen significantly increased academic output around this nebulous subject. Despite this, there has failed to be a consolidation of this sub-specialty. Discussion This ed...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused clinicians at the frontlines to confront difficult decisions regarding resource allocation, treatment options, and ultimately the life-saving measures that must be taken at the point of care. This article addresses the importance of enacting Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) as a policy mechanism to facilitate the shif...
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Background The increase in mortality and total prehospital time (TPT) seen in Qatar appear to be realistic. However, existing reports on the influence of TPT on mortality in trauma patients are conflicting. This study aimed to explore the impact of prehospital time on the in-hospital outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis of data on patients t...
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The Coronavirus pandemic has led to physical distancing measures in numerous countries in an attempt to control the spread. However, these measures are not without cost to the health and economies of the nations in which they are enacted. Nations are now looking for methods to remove physical distancing measures and return to full functioning. To p...
Article
Introduction Colombia is the fourth largest country in South America. It is an upper middle-income country with an estimated population of 49.2 million people, and road traffic collisions (RTCs) are the second most common cause of traumatic death. The United Nations (UN) proclaimed 2011 to 2020 as the “Decade of Action for Road Safety.” In this con...
Article
Introduction Disasters are high-acuity, low-frequency events which require medical providers to respond in often chaotic settings. Due to this infrequency, skills can atrophy, so providers must train and drill to maintain them. Historically, drilling for disaster response has been costly, and thus infrequent. Virtual Reality Environments (VREs) hav...
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Dignitary medicine (DM) involves the provision of healthcare to government leaders and other high-profile individuals collectively referred to as "dignitaries." Due to the unique circumstances around their lifestyle, dignitaries often receive suboptimal healthcare. We define the requisite skills needed to practice DM based on the available literatu...
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Introduction Cultural awareness can be defined as an understanding of the differences that exist between cultures. This understanding is a crucial first step towards the development of cultural sensitivity, a willingness to accept those differences as having equal merit, and becoming operationally effective when working within different cultures. T...
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Objectives Disaster Medicine (DM) education for Emergency Medicine (EM) residents is highly variable due to time constraints, competing priorities, and program expertise. The investigators’ aim was to define and prioritize DM core competencies for EM residency programs through consensus opinion of experts and EM professional organization representa...
Article
Background Human stampedes (HS) may result in mass casualty incidents (MCI) that arise due to complex interactions between individuals, collective crowd, and space, which have yet to be described from a physics perspective. HS events were analyzed using basic physics principles to better understand the dynamic kinetic variables that give rise to HS...
Article
Objective The Society of Academic Emergency Medicine Disaster Medicine Interest Group, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response – Technical Resources, Assistance Center, and Information Exchange (ASPR TRACIE) team, and the National Institutes of Health Library searched disaster medicine peer-reviewed and gray literature t...
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Introduction Healthcare facilities frequently use disaster codes as a way to communicate with employees that an emergency or incident is occurring. As increasing numbers of providers work at multiple facilities, and healthcare systems continue to build disaster response teams and protocols covering multiple facilities, standardization of disaster c...
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Introduction Trauma bypass has been introduced successfully worldwide with sustained reductions in mortality/morbidity. Analyzing structure, process, and outcome individually and collectively in systems has been found to focus improvement efforts in the audit cycle. The second Irish report on Major Trauma Audit (MTA) was published in December 2017....
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Introduction Opioid overdose deaths in the United States are increasing. Time to restoration of ventilation is critical. Rapid bystander administration of opioid antidote (naloxone) is an effective interim response but is historically constrained by legal restrictions. Aim To review and contextualize development of legislation facilitating laypers...
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Introduction Disaster Medicine (DM) is a discipline arising from the marriage of emergency medicine and disaster management. The importance of DM has recently increased, with current wildfire situations throughout the world being examples of mass scale disasters with significant human morbidity and mortality. DM deals with preparedness, mitigation,...
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Introduction Human Stampedes (HS) occur at religious mass gatherings. Religious events have a higher rate of morbidity and mortality than other events that experience HS. This study is a subset analysis of religious event HS data regarding the physics principles involved in HS, and the associated event morbidity and mortality. Aim To analyze repor...
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Introduction Children represent a particularly vulnerable population in disasters. Disaster Risk Reduction refers to a systematic approach to identifying, assessing, and reducing risks of disaster through sets of interventions towards disaster causes and population vulnerabilities. Disaster Risk Reduction through the education of the population, an...
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Introduction Road traffic collisions (RTC) are the leading cause of preventable death among those aged 15–29 years worldwide. More than 1.2 million lives are lost each year on roads. Ninety percent of these deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries. The General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) proclaimed the period from 2011-2020 the...
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Introduction In the past five decades, the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has been subject to several types of terrorist attacks, with most committed by local terrorist organizations. However, there have also been attacks by international terrorist groups. Internationally, terrorist attacks are increasing in both frequency and comp...