Gregory R Carmichael

Gregory R Carmichael
University of Iowa | UI · Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

About

625
Publications
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37,313
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Publications

Publications (625)
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization took place rapidly over recent decades and is expected to continue in the future, producing a series of environmental issues, including heat stress. Cool roof and green roof strategies have been adopted in a number of megacities to mitigate urban heat and carbon emissions, yet China is lagging behind developed countries in the implemen...
Article
Ozone (O3) dry deposition is a major O3 sink. As a follow-up study of Huang et al. (2021), we quantify the impact of satellite soil moisture (SM) on model representations of this process when different dry-deposition parameterizations are implemented, based on which the implications for interpreting O3 air pollution levels and assessing the O3 impa...
Preprint
Accompanied by the continuous declines of PM2.5, O3 pollution has become increasingly prominent and has been targeted by the Government of China to protect climate, ecosystem, and human health. Although satellite retrievals of column O3 have been operated for decades and nationwide monitoring of ground-level O3 has been offered since 2013 in China,...
Article
Earth system and environmental impact studies need high quality and up-to-date estimates of atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates the methodological benefits of multimodel ensemble and measurement-model fusion mapping approaches for atmospheric deposition focusing on 2010, a year for which several studies were conducted. Global model-only...
Preprint
Ozone (O3) dry deposition is a major O3 sink. Realistically representing this process in models is important for accurately simulating O3 concentrations and exceedances, as well as assessing the O3 impacts on human and ecosystem health. As a follow-up study of Huang et al. (2021), soil moisture (SM) data from NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive mis...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass burning smoke is advected over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean between July and October of each year. This smoke plume overlies and mixes into a region of persistent low marine clouds. Model calculations of climate forcing by this plume vary significantly in both magnitude and sign. NASA EVS-2 (Earth Venture Suborbital-2) ORACLES (ObseRvati...
Article
To improve PM2.5 predictions in Northeast Asia, we estimated a new background error covariance matrix (BEC) for aerosol data assimilation using surface PM2.5 observations. In contrast to the conventional method of BEC estimation that uses perturbations in meteorological data, this method additionally considered the perturbations using two different...
Article
Full-text available
Light absorption and radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) is influenced by both BC itself and its interactions with other aerosol chemical compositions. Although the changes in BC concentrations in response to emission reduction measures have been well documented, the influence of emission reductions on the light absorption properties of BC and i...
Article
Full-text available
In southern Africa, widespread agricultural fires produce substantial biomass burning (BB) emissions over the region. The seasonal smoke plumes associated with these emissions are then advected westward over the persistent stratocumulus cloud deck in the southeast Atlantic (SEA) Ocean, resulting in aerosol effects which vary with time and location....
Article
Full-text available
The Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017 (LMOS 2017) was a collaborative multi-agency field study targeting ozone chemistry, meteorology, and air quality observations in the southern Lake Michigan area. The primary objective of LMOS 2017 was to provide measurements to improve air quality modeling of the complex meteorological and chemical environment in...
Article
Full-text available
Asia has attracted research attention because it has the highest anthropogenic emissions in the world, and the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III was carried out to foster our understanding of the status of air quality over Asia. This study analyzed wet deposition in southeast Asian countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Lao People'...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biomass burning smoke is advected over the southeast Atlantic Ocean between July and October of each year. This smoke plume overlies and mixes into a region of persistent low marine clouds. Model calculations of climate forcing by this plume vary significantly, in both magnitude and sign. The NASA EVS-2 (Earth Venture Suborbital-2) ORACLES (ObseRva...
Preprint
Full-text available
Light absorption and radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) is influenced by both BC itself and its interactions with other aerosol chemical compositions. Although the changes in BC concentrations in response to emission reduction measures have been well documented, the influence of emission reductions on the light absorption properties of BC and i...
Article
The Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017 (LMOS 2017) in May and June 2017 enabled study of transport, emissions, and chemical evolution related to ozone air pollution in the Lake Michigan airshed. Two highly instrumented ground sampling sites were part of a wider sampling strategy of aircraft, shipborne, and ground-based mobile sampling. The Zion, Illino...
Article
Full-text available
The Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) experienced an intensive air pollution episode during November 2017. Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to Chemistry (WRF-Chem), a coupled meteorology–chemistry model, was used to simulate this episode. In order to capture PM2.5 peaks, we modified input chemical boundary conditions and biomass burning emiss...
Article
Full-text available
The Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) field study was conducted during May–June 2016 to understand the factors controlling air quality in South Korea. Extensive aircraft and ground network observations from the campaign offer an opportunity to address issues in current air quality models and reduce model-observation disagreements. This stu...
Article
Full-text available
A 6-year-long high-resolution Chinese air quality reanalysis (CAQRA) dataset is presented in this study obtained from the assimilation of surface observations from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC) using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS).This dataset contains surfac...
Article
Full-text available
Ammonia (NH3) emissions have large impacts on air quality and nitrogen deposition, influencing human health and the well-being of sensitive ecosystems. Large uncertainties exist in the “bottom-up” NH3 emission inventories due to limited source information and a historical lack of measurements, hindering the assessment of NH3-related environmental i...
Article
Full-text available
Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA EVS-2 (Earth Venture Suborbital-2) investigation with three in...
Preprint
Full-text available
In southern Africa, widespread agricultural fires produce substantial biomass burning (BB) emissions over the region. The seasonal smoke plumes associated with these emissions are then advected westward over the persistent stratocumulus cloud deck in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) Ocean, resulting in aerosol effects which vary with time and location....
Preprint
Full-text available
Asia has attracted research attention because it has the highest anthropogenic emissions in the world, and the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III was carried out to foster our understanding on the status of air quality over Asia. This study analyzed wet deposition in Southeast Asian countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Lao People'...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, oil and natural gas (O&NG) production activities in the Denver-Julesburg Basin have expanded rapidly. Associated nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions contribute to photochemical formation of ground-level ozone and include benzene as well as other hazardous air pollutants. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and chemical mass bala...
Article
Full-text available
The Chinese “coal-to-gas” and “coal-to-electricity” strategies aim at reducing dispersed coal consumption and related air pollution by promoting the use of clean and low-carbon fuels in northern China. Here, we show that on top of meteorological influences, the effective emission mitigation measures achieved an average decrease of fine particulate...
Article
Full-text available
In the southeast Atlantic, well-defined smoke plumes from Africa advect over marine boundary layer cloud decks; both are most extensive around September, when most of the smoke resides in the free troposphere. A framework is put forth for evaluating the performance of a range of global and regional atmospheric composition models against observation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) experienced an intensive air pollution episode during November 2017. Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), a coupled meteorology–chemistry model, was used to simulate this episode. In order to capture PM2.5 peaks, we modified input chemical boundary conditions and biomass burning emissions. CAM-...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study evaluates the impact of satellite soil moisture data assimilation (SM DA) on regional weather and ozone (O3) modeling over the southeastern US during the summer. Satellite SM data are assimilated into the Noah land surface model using an ensemble Kalman filter approach within National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Land Informati...
Article
Full-text available
We present the development of a multiphase adjoint for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, a widely used chemical transport model. The adjoint model provides location- and time-specific gradients that can be used in various applications such as backward sensitivity analysis, source attribution, optimal pollution control, data assimil...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ammonia (NH3) emissions have large impacts on air quality and nitrogen deposition, influencing human health and the well-being of sensitive ecosystems. Large uncertainties exist in the bottom-up NH3 emission inventories due to limited source information and a historical lack of measurements, hindering the assessment of NH3-related environmental imp...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the performance of 12 regional chemical transport models (CTMs) from the third phase of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia III) on simulating the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia (EA) in 2010. The participating models include the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Community Multiscale Air...
Preprint
Full-text available
Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth’s biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a five-year NASA EVS-2 (Earth Venture Suborbital-2) investigation with three...
Article
Full-text available
KORUS-AQ was an international cooperative air quality field study in South Korea that measured local and remote sources of air pollution affecting the Korean Peninsula during May–June 2016. Some of the largest aerosol mass concentrations were measured during a Chinese haze transport event (24 May). Air quality forecasts using the WRF-Chem model wit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Air pollution in China has changed substantially since 2013, and the effects such changes bring to the human health and environment has been an increasingly hot topic in many scientific fields. Such studies, however, are often hindered by a lack of long-term air quality dataset in China of high accuracy and spatiotemporal resolutions. In this study...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. For the purpose of improving PM prediction skills in East Asia, we estimated a new background error covariance matrix (BEC) for aerosol data assimilation using surface PM<sub>2.5</sub> observations that accounts for the uncertainties in anthropogenic emissions. In contrast to the conventional method to estimate the BEC that uses perturbat...
Preprint
The Chinese "coal-to-gas" strategy aims at reducing coal consumption and related air pollution by promoting the use of clean and low carbon fuels in northern China. Here we show that on top of meteorological influences, these measures achieved an average decrease of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations of ~14% during winter 2017 in Beijin...
Article
Full-text available
The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III was conducted to promote understanding of regional air quality and climate change in Asia, which have received growing attention due to the huge amount of anthropogenic emissions worldwide. This study provides an overview of acid deposition. Specifically, dry and wet deposition of the...
Article
Full-text available
Horizontal grid resolution has a profound effect on model performances on meteorology and air quality simulations. In contribution to MICS-Asia Phase III, one of whose goals was to identify and reduce model uncertainty in air quality prediction, this study examined the impact of grid resolution on meteorology and air quality simulation over East As...
Article
Full-text available
Severe wintertime PM2.5 pollution in Beijing has been receiving increasing worldwide attention, yet the decadal variations remain relatively unexplored. Combining field measurements and model simulations, we quantified the relative influences of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing over the winter...
Article
Full-text available
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating wintertime haze events in the North China Plain region and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing, aerosol feedbacks, and po...
Article
Full-text available
This study quantifies the immediate influences of aerosols from urban anthropogenic and shipping emission sources on carbon and water fluxes in East Asia on a cloudy day in spring 2016 when strong regional pollution transport occurred and intensive field campaign measurements are available. Within National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the significant progress in improving chemical transport models (CTMs), applications of these modeling endeavors are still subject to large and complex model uncertainty. The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia III (MICS-Asia III) has provided the opportunity to assess the capability and uncertainty of current CTMs in East Asian applicati...
Article
Full-text available
Ground-level ozone, which forms photochemically in the atmosphere from precursor emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, is a criteria pollutant that harms human health and public welfare. For a representative summer episode, premature mortality and potential productivity losses (PPLs) of selected crops and trees attri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. We present the development of a multiphase adjoint for the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, a widely used chemical transport model. The adjoint provides location- and time-specific gradients that can be used in various applications such as backward sensitivity analysis, source attribution, optimal pollution control, data ass...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. KORUS-AQ was an international cooperative air quality field study in South Korea that measured local and remote sources of air pollution affecting the Korean peninsula during May–June 2016. Some of the largest aerosol mass concentrations were measured during a Chinese haze transport event (May 24th). Air quality forecasts using the WRF-Ch...
Article
Full-text available
Spatiotemporal variations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) mixing ratios from 14 state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs) are intercompared and evaluated with O3 observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia III). This study was designed to evaluate the capabilities...
Preprint
Full-text available
The southeast Atlantic is home to well-defined smoke outflow from Africa coinciding vertically with extensive marine boundary-layer cloud decks, both reaching their climatological maxima in spatial extent around September. A framework is put forth for evaluating the performance of a range of global and regional aerosol models against observations m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Horizontal grid resolution has a profound effect on model performances on meteorology and air quality simulations. In contribution to MICS-Asia Phase III, one of whose goals was to identify and reduce model uncertainty in air quality prediction, this study examined the impact of grid resolution on meteorology and air quality over East Asia, focusin...
Article
Full-text available
Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III examines how online coupled air quality models perform in simulating high aerosol pollution in the North China Plain region during wintertime haze events and evaluates the importance of aerosol radiative and microphysical feedbacks. This paper discusses the estimates of aero...
Article
Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is scheduled for launch in late 2019 - early 2020 to monitor Air Quality (AQ) at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution from a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) for the first time. With the development of UV-visible spectrometers at sub-nm spectral resolution and sophisticated retriev...
Article
Full-text available
The Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) Phase III was conducted to promote understanding of regional air quality and climate change in Asia, which have received growing attention due to the huge amount of anthropogenic emissions worldwide. This study provides an overview of acid depositions. Specifically, dry and wet depositions of th...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the performances of twelve regional chemical transport models (CTM) from the third phase of Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia III) on simulating the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia (EA) in 2010. The participating models include WRF-CMAQ (v4.7.1 and v5.0.2), WRF-Chem (v3.6.1 and v3.7.1), GEOS-Chem, NHM-Chem,...
Article
Full-text available
Despite significant progress in improving chemical transport models (CTMs), applications of these modeling endeavours are still subject to the large and complex model uncertainty. Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia III (MICS-Asia III) provides the opportunity to assess the capability and uncertainty of current CTMs in East Asia applications. In...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term ozone (O3) and nitric oxide (NOx) from fourteen state-of-the-art chemical transport models are evaluated and intercompared to ozone observations in East Asia, within the framework of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for ASIA phase III (MICS-ASIA III), designed to evaluate the capabilities and uncertainties of current chemical transport mo...