Gregory Brown

Gregory Brown
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Cal Poly · Department of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

Ph.D. University of Idaho

About

148
Publications
83,947
Reads
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11,327
Citations
Introduction
Greg Brown is Professor and Department Head for the Department of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California. Greg does research in participatory mapping, applied geography, and quantitative social research. He is founder of the Landscape Values and PPGIS Institute (www.landscapevalues.org), an international consortium of researchers and planners interested in advancing knowledge about participatory mapping to improve land and marine planning and management.
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - present
California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Position
  • Professor
July 2010 - August 2016
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Professor
July 2008 - July 2010
Central Washington University
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (148)
Article
Land-use conflicts can be costly and time-consuming and cause social burden to all parties. In this study, we developed an approach for mapping synergy and conflict potential between land uses and tested it on nature protection, nature-based tourism, forestry and mining. First, we calculated the ecological and socio-cultural values for the study ar...
Article
Comprehensive or general plans are long-range documents intended to guide future urban or regional land use, growth, and development. Structured and periodic monitoring and evaluation of plan implementation is important to identifying when plans should be revised or updated based on changed planning assumptions or conditions, but such monitoring is...
Article
Consideration of social and cultural dimensions in coastal and marine planning has increased and ecosystem services provide important framing to investigate values and priorities associated with these systems. Research efforts in coastal communities offer insights on social dimensions of ocean and coastal management decisions, but questions remain...
Article
Full-text available
Today, various methods are applied to analyze the data collected through participatory mapping, including public participation GIS (PPGIS), participatory GIS (PGIS), and collecting volunteered geographic information (VGI). However, these methods lack an organized framework to describe and guide their systematic applications. Majority of the publish...
Article
Full-text available
Crowdsourced data can provide spatially explicit data on the contribution of nature to people. Spatial information is essential for effectively managing the diverse relationships that people have with nature, but the potential and limits of using crowdsourcing data to generate maps for conservation purposes need further research. Passive crowdsourc...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of “place” links people to their environment and is foundational to disciplines such as geography, environmental psychology, and urban studies. With growth in geographic information systems (GIS) in the 1990s, research began to operationalize place concepts using GIS to better inform land use decisions. After two decades, participatory...
Article
Urban parks provide numerous cultural ecosystem services that are essential to the wellbeing of residents. However, our understanding of the key variables that determine the provisioning each of these services remains limited, affecting our ability to design greenspaces that provide the unique combination of cultural services required by local resi...
Article
Public participation in the form of public meetings and written submissions has been criticised as a democratic ritual that fails to give citizens a real voice in government decisions. Participatory mapping and community surveys are alternative public participation (PP) methods that can augment legally required processes for land use planning. To d...
Article
Geographic citizen science has much potential to assist in wildlife research and conservation, but the quality of observation data is a key concern. We examined the effects of sampling design on the quality of spatial data collected for a koala citizen science project in Australia. Data were collected from three samples—volunteers (n = 454), an Int...
Article
Effective wildlife conservation requires consideration of ecological and social factors, including social acceptability of conservation actions. Using the threatened koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) as a case study, we demonstrate a novel, socio-ecological approach for identifying conservation opportunity that spatially connects landscapes with commu...
Article
Full-text available
Nature-based tourism is increasingly encouraged to support local socioeconomic development in and around protected areas, but managing protected areas for tourism could challenge existing park uses associated with self-organized outdoor recreation and local resource use. We used a web-based Public Participatory Geographic Information System (PPGIS)...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of residential housing preferences has been studied across multiple disciplines, with extensive literature supporting both stated and revealed preference methods. This study argues that both preference types, stated and revealed, should be assessed concurrently to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of residential housing choices...
Article
We conducted a statewide survey of forestry employers and forestry students in three California universities to assess whether forestry degree programs are providing students with the knowledge and skills needed for contemporary forestry careers. The survey contained a comprehensive list of general skills and technical competencies identified from...
Article
The integration of spatial concepts with social science data in natural resource management has progressed rapidly over the past 15 years. There is now a foundational understanding, and supporting empirical work, that recreational use at parks and protected areas (PPAs) is a spatially conditioned process. To better understand visitor’s spatial beha...
Preprint
Effective wildlife conservation requires consideration of ecological and social factors, including the social acceptability of conservation actions. Using the threatened koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia as a case study, we demonstrate a novel, socio-ecological approach for identifying conservation opportunity that spatially connects land...
Article
Public participatory mapping is a method of crowdsourcing where the lay public can contribute spatial information for a range of applications including conservation planning. When used to collect wildlife observation data, participatory mapping becomes a type of "geographic citizen science" that involves collaboration with members of the public. Wh...
Article
The terms NIMBY (Not-In-My-Back-Yard) and YIMBY (Yes-In-My-Back-Yard) describe negative and positive attitudes toward proposed development projects respectively. These attitudes are posited to be influenced by geographic (spatial) discounting wherein the distance from domicile may contribute to local opposition or support. In contrast to specific d...
Article
The theory and practice of participatory mapping (PM) has expanded significantly over the last two decades with proliferation of a wide range of methods and applications. The potential for synthesis and integration across four broad domains of PM (indigenous/rural/community, urban/regional, environmental/natural resource, and mapping technology) wa...
Article
Traditional urban park research has used self-reported surveys and activity logs to examine relationships be-tween health benefits, park use, and park features. An alternative approach uses participating mapping methods. This study sought to validate and expand on previous participatory mapping research methods and findings and address spatial scalin...
Article
Zoning is a ubiquitous land use planning and regulatory mechanism whose purpose is to provide for orderly community growth and development by segregating land uses that are deemed incompatible. The delineation of zones and related land use ordinances are traditional components of an expert-driven, local government process that produces a general or...
Article
Since the launch of economic reform and openness policy in the late 1970s, Chinese cities have witnessed significant growth and sprawl, resulting in a large amount of farmland converted for urban construction. Given the need to both protect farmland and provide options for urban development, the central government proposed the Link Policy in 2005....
Article
Protected area management can be highly contentious. Information about the acceptability of conservation actions can help environmental authorities design policies that are accepted locally, and identify potential areas of conflict between land users and conservation objectives. In this study, we implemented a spatially-explicit method for elicitin...
Article
Planning and management for marine and coastal areas is often contentious, with competing interests claiming their preferences are in the ‘public interest’. Defining the public interest for marine and coastal areas remains a wicked problem, however, resistant to resolution. A focus on more tangible ‘public values’ offers an alternative for policy a...
Article
Cultural ecosystem services have received increasing attention in land/marine use planning but remain poorly known, expressed, and utilised in planning processes. Progress in marine spatial planning requires better information regarding the full range of values and benefits received from ecosystem services, including cultural ecosystem values. This...
Article
Public participation for land use planning in developing countries is challenged by multiple barriers including low public awareness and engagement with the process. This paper evaluates the capacity of the general public to effectively contribute to land use planning outcomes in Malaysia using Participatory GIS (PGIS). Spatial attributes that iden...
Article
Managing visitor conflict is an important task in protected areas. This study used public participation GIS (PPGIS) mapping and a visitor survey to research conflicts between mountain bikers and horse riders, and other groups frequenting trails for tourism and recreation in national parks in northern Sydney (Australia). The goal was to evaluate the...
Article
Spatial social data collected through participatory mapping are increasingly used to assess social dimensions for land use planning and management. However, there has been limited research to evaluate alternative approaches to identify potential land-use conflict. Using data from Queensland, Australia, we applied multiple approaches (land-use prefe...
Article
Ineffective public participation in land-use planning contributes to the lack of communication and understanding between the public and experts, acting as a barrier to successful planning outcomes. In this study, we assess whether Participatory GIS (PGIS) is a suitable method to bridge the communication gap between the public and expert knowledge f...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial participatory methods called “participatory GIS” (PGIS) are intended to improve public participation for land use planning. An internet PGIS was implemented in Perlis, Malaysia, to examine the public capacity-building effects of PGIS. Two delivery modes (facilitated and self-administered) were evaluated. We found that PGIS significantly enh...
Article
Methods have been proposed for identifying land use conflict potential using participatory mapping data and models. In a case study from Finland, we extend conflict mapping research by evaluating the capacity for participatory mapping to identify conflict for land uses that include mining, tourism development, commercial forestry, recreation, and n...
Article
Planning for coastal and marine environments is often characterized by conflict over current and proposed uses. Marine spatial planning has been proposed as a way forward, however, social data are often missing impeding decision-making. Participatory mapping, a technique useful for providing social data and predict conflict potential, is being used...
Article
Conservation success is contingent on assessing social as well as environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially-explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of s...
Article
Coastal areas are especially important to human well-being with half the world's population living within 60 km of the sea and three-quarters of all large cities located in the coastal zone. Supporting and regulatory ecosystem services in coastal areas have received considerable research attention given human vulnerability to climate change, but cu...
Article
Understanding the nature and relative importance of various drivers of change is crucial for sustainable management of natural resources and in prioritizing management efforts, allocating limited resources, and understanding cumulative effects. For this article, we employed structured an expert judgments approach to identify, characterize, and asse...
Article
Although our understanding of water resource problems has grown in recent years, our ability to improve decision-making is still limited. Participatory modelling and stakeholder engagement is seen as an important tool that can facilitate strategic decision-making in environmental/natural resource management systems. This paper presents the particip...
Article
Full-text available
Regional planning approaches to mining infrastructure aim to reduce the conflict associated with mining operations and existing land uses, such as urban areas and biodiversity conservation, as well as the cumulative impacts that occur offsite. In this paper, we describe a method for conducting Geographical Information System (GIS) least-cost path a...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes the type and spatial distribution of landscape values Alaskans identify with Prince William Sound (PWS). Data was collected from two separate public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) studies conducted in 1998 and 2000. The results indicate that Alaskans value PWS for multiple reasons, but of greatest import...
Article
A significant barrier to the assessment of ecosystem services is a lack of primary data, especially for cultural ecosystem services. Spatial value transfer, also known as benefits transfer, is a method to identify the probable locations of ecosystem services based on empirical spatial associations found in other geographic locations. To date, there...
Article
Full-text available
The remote Kimberley region in Western Australia presents a unique nature based tourism destination. One of the world’s last wildernesses, the Kimberley is one of the least-impacted marine environments in the world. Tourism in the region is growing rapidly, driven by stunning natural landscapes, unparalleled nature-based experiences and a vibrant I...
Article
Global interest in participatory mapping described as public participation GIS (PPGIS), participatory GIS (PGIS), and volunteered geographic information (VGI) continues to grow, but systematic study of spatial data quality and sampling effects is limited. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis of internet-based PPGIS studies conducted 2006–...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is the second report from the “Values and aspirations for coastal waters of the Kimberley” research project funded by the Western Australian Government and administered by the Western Australian Marine Science Institution (Kimberley Research Node Project 2.1.2). The study area extends from the south western end of Eighty Mile Beach to the Nort...
Conference Paper
The remote Kimberley region in Western Australia presents a unique nature-based tourism destination. One of the world's last wildernesses, the Kimberley is one of the least-impacted marine environments in the world. Tourism in the region is growing rapidly, driven by stunning natural landscapes, unparalleled nature-based experiences and a vibrant i...
Article
A significant barrier to the assessment of ecosystem services is a lack of primary data, especially for cultural ecosystem services. Spatial value transfer, also known as benefits transfer, is a method to identify the probable locations of ecosystem services based on empirical spatial associations found in other geographic locations. To date, there...
Article
Prior research has examined the relationship between physical landscapes and ecosystem services, but the distribution of ecosystem services by land tenure and protected areas is less developed. We analyze the spatial distribution of participatory mapped ecosystem values, as indicators of ecosystem services, to determine their relationship with land...
Article
Public lands provide significant environmental, economic, and social values to society across a range of classifications and tenures. Stakeholders representing multiple interests are presumed to hold different management preferences for these lands. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how stakeholder perspectives can influence place-based...
Article
More effective collaboration is a recurring theme to improve public participation in planning. But collaborative processes are constrained by the number of people that can participate, limiting the diversity and independence of planning participants resulting in suboptimal planning outcomes. This article argues that crowd sourcing and public judgem...
Article
Public lands provide significant environmental, economic, and social values to society across a range of classifications and tenures. Stakeholders representing multiple interests are presumed to hold different management preferences for these lands. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how stakeholder perspectives can influence place-based...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Recent papers on the spatial assessment of conservation opportunity have focused on how social values for conservation may change modeled conservation outcomes. Accounting for social factors is important for regional wildlife corridor initiatives as they often emphasize the collaborative aspects of conservation planning. Objectives: We pr...
Article
The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment in a regional study in South Australia. Our resear...
Article
Full-text available
With parks and protected areas insufficient to sustain global biodiversity, the role of private land in biodiversity conservation is becoming increasingly significant. This paper reviews global voluntary and involuntary strategies for private land conservation. Involuntary strategies can achieve effective conservation outcomes, but often lack socia...
Article
Land Use Policy j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / l a n d u s e p o l a b s t r a c t A significant barrier to the use of public participation GIS (PPGIS) and crowd-sourcing for conservation planning is uncertainty about the quality of the spatial data generated. This study examines the quality of PPGIS...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This project was undertaken to provide public input to assist Parks Victoria in better understanding the values and management preferences of Victorians in relation to public lands. A total of 1905 respondents provided information about the values they associated with public lands and their preferences for future management via an interactive, web-...
Article
Public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods have progressed over the last decade, but as a rapidly evolving practice and area of research, there are new challenges. To identify the key issues and research priorities in PPGIS, two researchers that have designed and implemented more than 40 empirical studies spanning both environmental and urban applica...
Article
Landscape values are a type of place value and are identified and mapped using public participation GIS (PPGIS). PPGIS engages nonexperts to identify important spatial information for environmental or natural resource planning. In 1998, we used PPGIS to identify landscape values for the Chugach National Forest (Alaska) plan revision process. In 201...
Article
Public participation is important to local planning outcomes but is seldom systematically evaluated using effectiveness criteria. This study evaluates the effectiveness of public participation using the Sherwood–Graceville Neighbourhood Plan in Brisbane as a case study. Effective participation criteria, both process and outcome, were identified fro...
Article
Considerable effort has been directed into separate but related research foci—the study of ecosystem services and participatory mapping methods. The two research foci intersect in the mapping of place-based values, an operational form of social values for ecosystem services that uses public participation GIS (PPGIS) methods. The social valuation of...
Article
The indigenous peoples of Southern Suriname depend on landscape services provided by intact, functioning ecosystems, but their use and reliance on natural landscapes is not well understood. In 2011, Conservation International Suriname (CIS) engaged in a participatory GIS (PGIS) mapping project to identify ecosystem services with the Trio and Wayana...