Gregor Borg

Gregor Borg
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg | MLU · Institute of Geosciences and Geography

Dipl. geol., PhD, Dr. rer. nat.

About

138
Publications
69,381
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1,181
Citations
Citations since 2016
38 Research Items
643 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
Gregor Borg holds a double-affiliation as Professor of Economic Geology at Halle-University, Germany and Honorary Professor at the Camborne School of Mines, Cornwall. Gregor has over 30 years of experience in academic research and industrial exploration of ore deposits of base, precious and battery metals. Gregor also consults to the exploration, mining, and mineral processing industry. He acts also a scientific advisor to the Institute for Technologies and Economics of Lithium.

Publications

Publications (138)
Chapter
Full-text available
Das Mansfelder Land in Mitteldeutschland zählt mit seinen Kupfervorkommen zu den ältesten Bergbauregionen Europas und der Welt. Die Entdeckung und der bergmännische Abbau der Kupfererze sowie die metallurgische Gewinnung von metallischem Kupfer und weiterer assoziierter Begleitmetalle wurde ermöglicht und begleitet von einer Vielzahl von Innovation...
Article
Near-surface supergene ores of the Merensky Reef in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, contain economic grades of platinum-group elements, however, these are currently uneconomic due to low recovery rates. This is the first study that investigates the variation in platinum-group elements in pristine and supergene samples of the Merensky Reef from...
Chapter
Full-text available
Rödel, T., Kiefer, S., Borg, G. (2021). Rare earth elements in phosphogypsum and mineral processing residues from phosphate-rich weathered alkaline ultramafic rocks, Brazil. In: Pöllmann, H. (Ed.) Industrial Waste, De Gruyter (Berlin), Chapter 16, 505-540. Abstract: Phosphogypsum is regarded today mainly as a by-product or waste generated during i...
Article
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Jahresschrift für Mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte 98, 2021, 9-62. Abstract Why the Nebra Sky Disc Dates to the Early Bronze Age. An Overview of the Interdisciplinary Research Results It is not unusual that archaeological finds come under renewed scrutiny. This is an important part in the progress of scientific research. All the more so when importan...
Chapter
Full-text available
Full citation: Borg, G. and Meller, H. (2021) From the Mountaiuns through the Rivers to the Sky – the Carnon River Mining District as source for the gold of the Sky Disk of Nebra. Forschungsberichte des Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle, vol. 20, p. 7 – 22. The chapter gives an illustrated description of the Carnon River, which drains the Corn...
Article
Full-text available
It is not unusual that archaeological finds come under renewed scrutiny. This is actually an important part in the progress of scientific research. All the more so when important and ground-breaking discoveries are involved, like the Nebra Sky Disc, which is listed among the UNESCO “Memory of the World”. However, in most cases a new assessment is b...
Chapter
Full-text available
This short chapter of a catalogue (in German) to the Museum Exhibition "Die Welt der Himmelsscheibe von Nebra - Neue Horizonte" (4. June 2021 to 9. January 2022 at the Museum für Vorschichte in Halle, Germany) gives a brief summary of the provenance of the gold of the Sky Disk from Cornwall. The illustrations show natural gold nuggets from Cornwall...
Article
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Article in: Lapis, 45, 7-8, p. 54-64 The article in German language summarises for a wider readership the search for the source of the gold for the Bronze Age Sky Disk of Nebra. The gold was stems from Cornwall and more precisely from the Carnon River and its tributaries. A large collection of historical gold nuggets, rediscovered at Caerhays Castl...
Article
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Mining and mineral processing industry are under pressure from political and social stakeholders to deliver products more sustainably with a much smaller environmental impact. Technical innovations to achieve these goals include reduction in energy consumption, waterless mineral processing, coarse particle liberation, and safe dry stacking of taili...
Book
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The Storkwitz-Carbonatite is a Late Cretaceous intrusive complex, which is well-explored by a relatively large number of exploration bore holes both from the 1970ies, 1980ies and from one more recent bore hole, SES-1/2012. The carbonatite complex hosts a (cur-rently) marginally economic mineralisation of rare earth elements (REE) and niobium, which...
Conference Paper
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Advanced tropical weathering of alkaline-carbonatite rock led to the accumulation of increased amounts of economically important minerals and elements-such as apatite, anatase, and rare earth elements within the supergene profile from the Catalão Region, Brazil. Whole rock geochemical analyses reveal a vertical zonation of the phosphate ore, trendi...
Conference Paper
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The Carnon River Mining District, part of the Cornubian Ore Field in SW-England, hosts polymetallic and multi-phase tin and base metal vein mineralisation in the cupolae of Variscian granites. Geologically, the study area is composed of Devonian clastic metasedimentary rocks with intercalations of amphibolite, intruded by Late Variscian granites. M...
Article
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Published in the Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, Volume 2019, page 38-57 The article is a summary of the geoarchaeological research into the provenance of the gold used for the Bronze Age Sky Disk of Nebra and the rationale that the gold originates from the Carnon River in Cornwall. The research takes a holistic approach and combines...
Poster
Full-text available
The Hashim Abad magnetite-skarn occurrence is situated in the Urumieh-Dokthar-Magmatic -Arc, Central Iran. It is located in a transition zone of cretaceous, dolomitic limestone and a miocene, dioritic intrusion along a NW-SE striking fault. A contact metamorphic influence of the wall rock is marked by the formation of green amphiboles in the magmat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Hashim Abad magnetite-skarn occurrence is situated in the Urumieh-Dokthar-Magmatic-Arc, Central Iran. It is located in a transition zone of cretaceous, dolomitic limestone and a miocene, dioritic intrusion along a NW-SE striking fault. A contact metamorphic influence of the wall rock is marked by the formation of green amphiboles in the magmati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this ongoing study, raw materials are being investigated for their potential as rare earth element (REE) sources. Amongst other sample groups, REE-mineral-bearing phosphate stockpile ore is analysed with respect to its quantitative mineralogical distribution and geochemical composition. Laser granulometry, ICP-MS geochemistry, SEM-EDX, and autom...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Efficiency improvement in the comminution of ores has been on the international agenda of the mining industry for some time but substantial advances are still relatively scarce. It is generally agreed upon that major goals include a substantially reduced energy consumption, improved particle liberation, and the move from ultra-fine grinding to coar...
Article
Full-text available
Hormuz Island is a salt diapir in southern Iran, which also comprises transported blocks of rhyolitic and rhyodacitic rocks, which were brought to the surface during the island's diapiric emergence from the Persian Gulf. The rhyolites (558 ± 7 Ma) and rhyodacites, have both formed from the same peraluminous calc-alkaline I-type magma, in a volcanic...
Article
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The recently discovered giant Huoshaoyun zinc-lead deposit in the Karakorum Range, northwestern Tibet, China, consists of a major zinc-lead carbonate and a minor lead-dominant sulfide mineralization with metal reserves of zinc and lead of over 16 million tons. The zinc-lead carbonate mineralization is composed of smithsonite and cerussite, with lam...
Article
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Accuracy incretion and search space reduction are the main purposes in production of mineral prospectivity maps. Choice of the suitable method for information integration in the geographical information system which has the most consistent with the nature of the used data, is the first step in achieving to this goal. Due to the fact that explorator...
Article
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The main purpose of this study is to introduce a geographic information system (GIS)-based, multi-criteria decision analysis method for selection of favourable environments for Besshi-type volcanic-hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) deposits. The approach integrates two multi-criteria decision methods (analytical hierarchy process and ordered weighted...
Conference Paper
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The brief paper gives a summary of the working principle behind the break-through technology of the VeRo Liberator high velocity impact comminution system. Highly reduced energy consumption and more efficient breakage in the comminution of ores have been predicted based on theoretical modelling for some time. The VeRo Liberator achieves these goals...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present the latest results on our research on the provenance of the gold of the Sky Disk of Nebra, which originates from Cornwall. We also present our research on the geological and metallogenetic plausibility of the origin of the gold in the Carnon River near Falmouth. Suprising finds of macro nuggets and their characteristic cassiterite inclus...
Article
Full-text available
The efficiency improvement in the comminution of ores has been on the international agenda of the mining industry for some time but substantial advances are still relatively scarce. It is generally agreed upon that major goals include a substantially reduced energy consumption, systems that operate dry, markedly enhanced particle size reduction, an...
Chapter
The African portion of Southwest Gondwana is endowed with an enormous wealth of mineral resources. Certain types of ore deposits occur in metallotects that share common geological and metallogenetic features. These can include host rocks, the age and mode of origin of the mineralisation, the commodity elements or minerals, and the geodynamic signif...
Article
Full-text available
Golden Days? European gold deposits and their relation to the Nebra Sky Disc The discovery of the Bronze Age Nebra Sky Disc in 1999 and the subsequent interdisciplinary research group project 550, financed by the German Research Foundation, raised among other things the question of the origin of the gold objects applied to the Sky Disc. Although Ha...
Article
Full-text available
The known ore deposits and mineralization trends are important key exploration criteria in mineral exploration within a specific region. Fry analysis has conventionally been considered as a suitable method to determine the mineralization trends related to linear structures. Based upon literature sources, to date, no investigation has been carried o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The efficiency improvement in the comminution of ores has been on the international agenda of the mining industry for some time but substantial advances are still relatively scarce. It is generally agreed upon that major goals include a substantially reduced energy consumption, systems that operate dry, markedly enhanced particle size reduction, an...
Article
Full-text available
We appreciate the discussion by Atapour and Aftabi (2016) and would like to reply to their comments in detail. Atapour and Aftabi (2016) do not dispute our key findings concerning zircon geochronology, geochemistry, and thermometry. In fact, their criticism is focused on two topics: 1) our geological mapping, which they claim is not robust; 2) that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Improvements in geo-chemical anomaly detection is an important issue in geo-chemical exploration. In this article, the ability of wavelet transform in signal de-noising has been used for anomaly detection of copper from stream sediment data in Suryian region. With the use of logistic function, the membership degree of each image pixel series of cop...
Article
Full-text available
The European “Kupferschiefer” in Germany and Poland is Europe’s biggest copper resource with more than 60 million tons contained copper metal. Documented historical mining of this resource started already in 1120 A.D. but recent investigations suggest that prehistoric mining of rich oxidized copper ores possibly dates back to the Bronze Age. “Kupfe...
Article
Full-text available
Change is an intrinsic factor in societies, industry, and life in general, although the degree of change is neither constant nor does it develop in a linear pattern. If things go well, change results in innovation or increased efficiency or is generally regarded as a kind of improvement. However, in real life, phases of more intense change commonly...
Poster
The use of historical deep exploration drillings for previously classified strategic resources offers a unique opportunity to procure rare research material. Currently core samples of former state owned drilling programs are utilized for investigating unidentified characteristics of a tungsten skarn occurrence in the central part of Germany. The ai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The spatial distribution pattern of particular types of minerals can be used for the exploration of different mineral deposits. In this study, different alteration types detected in Bavanat satellite images were obtained using a matched filtering method and were correlated with known massive sulfide deposits and alteration mineral indicators. Accor...
Chapter
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Unter dem bisweilen irreführenden Namen Kupferschiefer verbergen sich zum Einen eine geringmächtige aber bedeutende litho- und chronostratigraphische Einheit bituminöser Ton- und Mergelsteine (der Kupferschiefer, T1) und zum Anderen Europas größte Kupferlagerstätte, deren Erzkörper in mehreren deutschen und polnischen Bergbaudistrikten mindestens s...
Presentation
The first geological investigations and systematic mapping of central East Greenland have been carried out by the “Lauge Koch Expeditions” from 1926 to 1958. Several surveys, including first mineral exploration programs (1956-82 by Nordisk Mineselskab A/S) followed over the last decades. The Danish mineral exploration company Avannaa Resources Ltd....
Article
Full-text available
Hormuz Island, a salt-gypsum dome in the Persian Gulf in southern Iran, is a complex halotectonic melange comprising evaporites, carbonates, volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as low-grade metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Based on trace element (including rare earth elements REE) compositions of whole rocks and zircon, Hormuz rhyolites ar...
Article
Full-text available
The comminution of commodity particles such as ore minerals in mining and metals from recycling of slags, armored concrete, and incinerator slags by crushing, grinding, and milling makes up the biggest single cost factor in mineral processing. The comminution of graphite in various innovative applications is a particular challenge to the mineral pr...
Article
Full-text available
This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted strataboun...
Data
This study synthesizes available information and estimates the location and quantity of undiscovered copper associated with a late Permian bituminous shale, the Kupferschiefer, of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe. The purpose of this study is to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered reduced-facies sediment-hosted strataboun...
Chapter
Full-text available
The paper reviews the characteristics of supergene nonsulphide zinc (SNSZ) deposits, the genetic processes that lead to their formation, and the parameters that control their location and preservation. SNSZ deposits form from near-surface or surface oxidation of pre-existing hypogene Zn-rich to at least Zn-bearing hypogene sulphide deposits, which...
Article
Full-text available
The new VeRo Liberator® has been recently developed by PMS, Hamburg, Germany, and represents a highly efficient impact crushing system for dry comminution of ore, slag, armoured concrete, and aggregate in the 100 t per hour throughput class. The VeRo Liberator® operates with a vertical axle-in-axle system, which is equipped with a total of up to 14...
Chapter
Full-text available
The comminution of commodity particles such as ore minerals in mining and metals from recycling of slags, armoured concrete, and incinerator slags by crushing, grinding, and milling makes up the biggest single cost factor in mineral processing. In spite of a marked lack in the development of new and significantly more efficient comminution equipmen...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrothermal fluids play a key role in the process of metalliferous mineralization such as gold deposits. The modern exploration indicators for such deposits are tectonic structures and characteristic alteration minerals observed as detectable halos adjacent to mineral deposits. Tectonic fractures are the conduits to these hydrothermal fluids and t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
ABSTRACT In the Bushveld Complex, platinum-group elemtens (PGE) are mainly recovered from pristine, unweathered ores of the Merensky Reef, UG-2 and the Platreef. Oxidized PGE ores are currently not mined due to uneconomic recovery rates achieved by conventional metallurgical methods. In order to understand the behavior of PGE during weathering, fiv...
Chapter
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Research in 2o11 and 2o12 which continue the initial pioneering geoarchaeological investigations of the Armenian- German cooperation project on gold deposits in Sotk and Fioletovo done in 2o1o, focused on the Sotk region. Based on the results of the first campaign a series of research priorities was developed in the Sotk region. Their focus was on...
Conference Paper
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The semi-nomadic Himba people of Northern Namibia and Southern Angola are one of the few African groups that use red ochre, i. e. red haematite pigment, as a red full-body make-up called otjize. The Himba originally belonged to the larger group of the Herero, who migrated into Southern Angola and particularly into Northern and then Central Namibia...
Article
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Until recently, heavy minerals in general and those of industrial and economic interest in particular from actively mined fluviatile sand and gravel deposits of Sachsen-Anhalt had not been investigated and analysed representatively.Wolf (2010) and Allenberg (2011) have provided such heavy mineral data for selected fluviatile terraces of the rivers...
Article
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Dumps in the Central German Mansfeld mining district have been investigated by a multi-disciplinary research team to develop a holistic concept for the recovery of base and trace metals from low-grade Kupferschiefer ore. Geochemical and mineralogical data from representative sampling indicate that the low-grade Kupferschiefer dumps contain signific...
Article
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This study uses the C–V fractal model to separate mineralization zones especially enriched supergene and hypogene protore in an Iranian Pb–Zn carbonate hosted deposit, based on subsurface data. The Tangedezan deposit is located in central Iran. In order to separate the two major mineralization zones in this deposit, log–log plots of major elements...
Article
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The Kupferschiefer of northern central Europe is not only one of the largest sediment-hosted accumulations of copper ores worldwide (largest 1% of deposits with >60 Mt contained Cu) but has also one of the longest continuously documented mining histories, starting from at least 1,199 A.D. in the Mansfeld district of Germany. Kupferschiefer ores are...
Article
Full-text available
The Early Bronze Age Nebra Sky Disk, central Germany, comprises different types of gold inlays which have been plated and punched onto a bronze disk in three phases. The present study aims at provenancing the gold, used for the first phase, which includes gold sheets in the shape of a sun or full moon, a crescent-shaped moon, and 32 stars. The geoc...
Article
Full-text available
The Kalahari Copperbelt stretches discontinuously for 800km from central Namibia to northern Botswana. In central Namibia, copper mineralization, hosted by slate and phyllite, is intermittently developed over more than 60km of strike of the Kagas Member of the Klein Aub Formation. The stratabound nature of copper occurrences led early explorers to...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the year 2o1o an Armenian-German survey took place in the Armenian goldfield near Sotk and Fioletovo, the largest gold source in the Caucasus. The goal of our research pro-gramme was to find evidence for fluvial gold deposits in local rivers and collecting samples in order to form the basis for future geochemical fingerprinting of archaeological...
Article
Full-text available
In the year 2o1o an Armenian-German survey took place in the Armenian goldfield near Sotk and Fioletovo, the largest gold source in the Caucasus. The goal of our research pro-gramme was to find evidence for fluvial gold deposits in local rivers and collecting samples in order to form the basis for future geochemical fingerprinting of archaeological...