Gregoire Borst

Gregoire Borst
Paris Descartes, CPSC | Paris 5 · Laboratoire de Psychologie du Développement et de l'Education de l'Enfant (UMR 8240)

Ph.D.

About

179
Publications
45,109
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,191
Citations
Citations since 2017
109 Research Items
1610 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
Introduction
Gregoire Borst currently works at the Laboratoire de Psychologie du Développement et de l'Education de l'Enfant (UMR 8240), Paris Descartes, CPSC. Gregoire works on the role of cognitive (inhibitory) control in neurocognitive development and school learning from childhood to adulthood.
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - present
Paris Descartes, CPSC
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2010 - August 2014
Paris Descartes, CPSC
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2006 - August 2010
Harvard University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
December 2001 - December 2004
Université Paris-Sud 11
Field of study
  • Cognitive Science - Cognitive Psychology

Publications

Publications (179)
Article
Background: One in 7 children will need general anesthesia (GA) before the age of 3. Brain toxicity of anesthetics is controversial. Our objective was to clarify whether exposure of GA to the developing brain could lead to lasting behavioral and structural brain changes. Methods: A first study was performed in mice. The behaviors (fear condition...
Article
Executive functions (EFs), including inhibitory control (IC), updating, and switching, are important for academic achievement, physical and mental health. Several cognitive training programs have tested the possibility of improving EFs and have reported variable findings, particularly for transfer effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects o...
Article
Recent studies have shown that the ability to process number in the face of conflicting dimensions of magnitude is a crucial aspect of numerosity judgments, relying in part on the inhibition of the non-numerical dimensions. Here we report, for the first time, that these inhibitory control processes are specific to the conflicting dimension of magni...
Article
Full-text available
Executive functions (EFs) play a key role in cognitive and socioemotional development. Factor analyses have revealed an age dependent structure of EFs spanning from a single common factor in early childhood to three factors in adults corresponding to inhibitory control (IC), switching and updating. IC performances change not only with age but also...
Chapter
The overall goal of the ISEE Assessment is to pool multi-disciplinary expertise on educational systems and reforms from a range of stakeholders in an open and inclusive manner, and to undertake a scientifically robust and evidence based assessment that can inform education policy-making at all levels and on all scales. Its aim is not to be policy p...
Chapter
Theories have ventured to explain how the human brain has gained the unique ability to develop mathematical concepts and theories. One theory states that mathematics has appeared as a by-product of the human language faculty (Chomsky, 2006). Alternatively, recent cognitive neuroscience research have postulated that mathematics arose from non-lingui...
Article
For more than three decades, researchers have characterized the dramatic changes in early cognitive development and the learning mechanisms that underlie those changes by analogy to the thinking of professional scientists. This “child-as-scientist” view has emphasized the parallels between: (1) the evidence-based, theoretical nature of both childre...
Article
Fifteen years ago, the triadic neural systems model was proposed as a heuristic tool to study and clarify the neural mechanisms accounting for distinct typical adolescent behaviors. Whereas aspects of the models have been validated, the overall theory has not been comprehensively tested, mainly because of the lack of appropriate samples (i.e., larg...
Article
Few ideas are in greater need of correction than the common-sense notion that cultures are born exclusively of the human mind and constitute an entire novelty in the history of life. Somewhat distractedly and with the usual high regard that humans reserve for themselves, cultures are frequently thought of as purely human creations. For example, beh...
Article
As in other sciences, formal modeling and simulation have assumed an important role in organizing and explaining cognitive development and providing a more unified account of its computational underpinnings. This chapter reviews research using two of the most influential approaches to such modeling: Bayesian and artificial neural networks. The tech...
Article
Human social cognition is the human capacity to process social stimuli, to intentionally convey socially relevant information to others, and to make use of socially transmitted information. Several human social cognitive capacities are special and set humans apart from non-human animals. Thanks to these capacities, humans are unique in their abilit...
Article
The desire to understand and explain patterns and regularities in terms of causal laws is part of human nature. This search for knowledge contributes to making the world predictable as well as controllable, and it enables the invention and production of technologies that help to improve quality-of-life. Although debates about criteria for good caus...
Article
Executive attention is a brain network that includes the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the anterior insula and adjacent areas of the mid-prefrontal cortex and underlying striatum. In adult studies it is often activated by requiring a person to withhold a dominant response in order to perform a subdominant response (Posner & Rothbart, 2007a, 2007...
Article
The timing and ordering of learning experience play a critical role in developmental processes. To make sense and learn skills out of the initial “buzzy blooming confusion,” multiple mechanisms interact to canalize the infant through such ordered and progressively more complex learning experiences, harnessing the complexity of the world.
Article
Executive functions (EFs) comprise a set of cognitive skills harnessed for the regulation of behaviour and the pursuit of long-term goals. Sometimes referred to as cognitive control, this set of processes enables one to stay focused on a particular task and ignore distractions along the way (Diamond, 2013). There is some consensus that EFs can be d...
Article
Relations are ubiquitous in mathematics, from the understanding of measurement and patterns to the acquisition of algebra and fractions. In line with this observation, a growing body of literature indicate that individual differences in mathematical skills are associated with individual differences in the ability to reason about relations. In the p...
Article
William James once famously wrote in his Principles of Psychology (1890 [2013]) that the infant “assailed by eyes, ears, nose, skin, and entrails at once, feels it all as one great blooming, buzzing confusion.” According to James, infants are overwhelmed by the bombardment of information available to the senses, and consequently their ability to pe...
Article
Adolescence is primarily characterized by puberty (Vijayakumar et al., 2018) which demarcates sexual maturation that can start as young as 10–12 years of age (Parent et al., 2003) and proceeds until adult independence, which may continue until the mid-twenties (National Research Council, 2013). Adolescence is characterized as a time of a peak in se...
Article
Traditionally, research on early physical reasoning has focused on the simple types of physical events our distant human ancestors routinely observed and produced as they interacted with objects. These types include, for example, occlusion, containment, support, and collision events. Over the first two years of life, infants become increasingly sop...
Article
If you are racing toward a cliff or a steep mountain drop-off, the sensible thing to do is to slow yourself down and stop – and as a matter of some urgency. Braking in this case is natural and intuitive. Yet, when you are hang gliding, not only should you not slow down as you approach a cliff, it is important that you accelerate, gaining velocity w...
Article
Children with below average school entry mathematics knowledge are likely to remain behind their peers throughout schooling, and go on to face poor employment prospects and low wage-earning potential as adults. Previous research has identified key skills (number system knowledge) in the first-grade that predict math achievement ten years later. Rec...
Article
In the past three decades, cognitive neuroscience has made substantial progress toward the understanding of how brain areas are associated with essential classroom skills – such as reading and arithmetic. This growing knowledge has inspired the possibility that these findings can be used to improve educational policy and practices. Indeed, ample en...
Article
How do children learn to read? How do deficits in various components of the reading network affect learning outcomes? How does remediating one or several components change reading performance? In this chapter, we summarize what we know about learning-to-read and how previous computational models have tackled this issue. We then present our developm...
Article
This chapter examines the role of language in children’s categorization. Children categorize every time they treat discriminably different items as in some way the same. A nine-month-old tosses a foam ball, a round candle, and American football, treating them all as throwable objects. A toddler points to a cow and calls it a “dog,” treating all fou...
Article
Throughout human history and across all human cultures, civilizations have organized themselves into social collectives, to the extent that it seems fair to say that social groups are the natural ecology of our species. In many ways, these groups play the same role as do categories in other domains; after all, the world is an incredibly complex pla...
Article
Theories have ventured to explain how the human brain has gained the unique ability to develop mathematical concepts and theories. One theory states that mathematics has appeared as a by-product of the human language faculty (Chomsky, 2006). Alternatively, recent cognitive neuroscience research have postulated that mathematics arose from non-lingui...
Article
The first part of this chapter focuses on the development of our theory of mind or folk psychology. The second part gives a brief overview of how counterfactual reasoning develops and how this development interacts with theory of mind development. In both parts our focus is on developmental research that speaks to basic issues: What is the nature o...
Article
The human brain is neither John Locke’s “blank slate” deprived of any pre-existing innate structure – or, in a modern AI language, a random network of undifferentiated neurons fully instructed by experience – nor a fully genetically determined, irrevocably hard-wired neuronal architecture. Neither is it represented by the simplistic yet very popula...
Article
Whereas performance on intelligence tests and their associated IQ indices are typically considered by parents and teachers as a visa for school success, research over the last couple of decades has revealed an even better predictor of life success than intelligence: cognitive control, that is, the goal-directed regulation of attention, thoughts and...
Article
As commonly defined in psychology, working memory (WM) is the ability to maintain and manipulate information in active attention. It includes narrow abilities such as auditory short-term storage, visual-spatial short-term storage, and attentional control. Despite a common definition, working memory is still quite a heterogeneous concept, and it can...
Article
This chapter describes basic principles and key findings regarding the development and maturation of the human brain, the former referring to the pre-natal and early post-natal periods, and the latter concerning childhood and adolescence. In both cases, we focus on brain structure as revealed in vivo with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...
Article
Executive function (EF) skills are a set of neurocognitive skills required for the conscious, goal-directed control of thought, action, and emotion. These skills make it possible to sustain attention, keep goals and information in mind, refrain from responding immediately, resist distraction, tolerate frustration, consider the consequence of differ...
Article
Numerical knowledge is of great and growing importance. While children are attending school, numerical knowledge is essential for learning more advanced mathematics and science, and eventually for learning computer science, psychology, sociology, economics, and a host of other subjects. After children leave school, numerical knowledge is essential...
Article
In this chapter, we consider computational approaches to understanding learning and teaching. We consider the utility of computational methods in two senses, which we address in separate sections. In Section 32.1, we consider the use of computers to build models of cognition, focusing on the one hand on how they allow us to understand the developme...
Article
Adolescence, which is defined as the transition phase between childhood and adulthood, roughly between ten and twenty-two years of age, is marked by pronounced behavioral changes in cognitive control and decision-making (Crone & Dahl, 2012). For instance, adolescents show with advancing age an increased ability to control impulses and increases in...
Article
Imagine the following scenario (inspired by true events): We are grocery shopping with our friend Anita, who notices a woman down the aisle and waves and smiles at her. The woman looks confused and walks away. Perplexed, Anita tells us that she spent the previous day training the woman, a new employee at their firm, and is surprised by her behavior...
Article
The comparative psychology of human and nonhuman primates’ cognition, communication, language and morality is a prime area of study for understanding not only the roots of these abilities in our cousins, but also their place in human evolution. The groundbreaking work in this area was undertaken by Yerkes (1916) and Koehler (1925). Both scientists...
Article
Human brain development is a complex and dynamic process that begins during the first weeks of pregnancy and lasts until early adulthood. This chapter will focus on the developmental window from the prenatal period to infancy, probably the most dynamic period across the entire lifespan. The availability of non-invasive three-dimensional Magnetic Re...
Article
Full-text available
Attributing affectively neutral mental states such as thoughts (i.e., cool theory of mind, cool ToM) to others appears to be rooted in different processes than the ones involved in attributing affectively charged mental states such as emotions (i.e., hot ToM) to others. However, no study has investigated the developmental pattern of hot and cool To...
Article
Attentional resources are limited, and resistance to interference plays a critical role during cognitive tasks and learning. Previous studies have shown that participants find it difficult to avoid being distracted by global visual information when processing local details. In this study, we investigated an innovative approach for enhancing the pro...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study is to examine whether in Hot, i.e., affectively charged contexts, or cool, i.e., affectively neutral contexts, inhibitory control capacity increases or decreases under social evaluation in adolescents and adults. In two experiments, adolescents and young adults completed two Stroop -like tasks under either a social eval...
Article
Full-text available
Classical neuropsychological assessments are designed to explore cognitive brain functions using paper-and-pencil or digital tests. The purpose of this study was to design and to test a new protocol named the "Virtual House Locomotor Maze" (VHLM) for studying inhibitory control as well as mental flexibility using a visuo-spatial locomotor memory te...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence supports that prenatal processes play an important role for cognitive ability in normal and clinical conditions. In this context, several neuroimaging studies searched for features in postnatal life that could serve as a proxy for earlier developmental events. A very interesting candidate is the sulcal, or sulco-gyral, patterns, ma...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the constraints, including biological ones, that may influence mathematical development is of great importance because math ability is a key predictor of career success, income and even psychological well-being. While research in developmental cognitive neuroscience of mathematics has extensively studied the key functional regions for...
Article
Inhibitory control involves different types of inhibition processes, such as interference control and response inhibition. In an affectively neutral context, both inhibition processes develop linearly with age. In an affectively charged context, however, the development of these inhibition processes is still debated, and no study has investigated t...
Article
Recent reasoning accounts suggest that people can process elementary logical principles intuitively. These controversial “logical intuitions” are believed to result from a learning process in which developing reasoners automatize their application. To verify this automatization hypothesis, we contrasted the reasoning performance of younger (7th gra...
Article
Intuitive conceptions represent common obstacles to conceptual learning in science. A growing number of studies demonstrate that when learning occurs, these intuitive conceptions are not replaced by scientific conceptions but rather coexist with them and thus need to be inhibited to prevent systematic errors. However, to date no study has demonstra...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine how social evaluation influences creative idea generation, and whether this effect develops with age. To do so, early adolescents, middle adolescents, and late adolescents performed a creative task either alone or under the supervision of an adult examiner. Three major findings emerged: 1) the social eval...
Article
Full-text available
Education is indispensable for the flourishing of people from all backgrounds and stages of life. However, given the accelerating demographic, environmental, economical, socio-political, and technological changes—and their associated risks and opportunities—there is increasing consensus that our current educational systems are falling short and tha...
Article
Full-text available
Very preterm (VPT; < 33 gestational weeks) children are at risk of developing visuospatial deficits, including local/global attention deficits. They are also more likely to develop poorer inhibitory control. Here, we investigated, using the same stimuli, the potential local/global attention and inhibitory control deficits of VPT children using thre...
Chapter
Inhibitory control refers to the ability to resist temptations, automatisms, and motor routines and to adapt to cognitive, perceptual, and socio-emotional conflicts. In this chapter, we argue that inhibitory control is one of the core mechanisms of cognitive development from childhood to adulthood in various cognitive domains from numerical cogniti...
Article
Online citizen science allows us to bridge the gap between researchers and nonresearchers and to improve the scientific literacy of nonresearchers. The aims of the present study were (a) to determine whether a 5‐week randomized control trial conducted by teachers in their classroom could improve 7‐ to 12‐year‐old children's inhibitory control (IC)...
Article
Full-text available
Visual scenes are processed in terms of spatial frequencies. Low spatial frequencies (LSF) carry coarse information, whereas high spatial frequencies (HSF) subsequently carry information about fine details. The present magnetic resonance imaging study investigated how cortical thickness covaried with LSF/HSF processing abilities in ten-year-old chi...
Preprint
Online citizen science allows to bridge the gap between researchers and non-researchers and to improve scientific literacy of non-researchers. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a 5-week randomized control trial conducted by the teachers in their classroom could improve 6 to 12-year-old children’s inhibitory control (IC). As expe...
Article
Full-text available
For children, adolescents and educated adults, comparing fractions with common numerators (e.g., 4/5 vs. 4/9) is more challenging than comparing fractions with common denominators (e.g., 3/4 vs. 6/4) or fractions with no common components (e.g., 5/7 vs. 6/2). Errors are related to the tendency to rely on the “greater the whole number, the greater t...
Article
Full-text available
There is a close relation between spatial and numerical representations which can lead to interference as in Piaget’s number conservation task or in the numerical Stroop task. Using a negative priming (NP) paradigm, we investigated whether the interference between spatial and numerical processing extends to more complex arithmetic processing by ask...
Article
Adapting a numerical comparison task to a negative priming paradigm, we aimed to provide new evidence that inhibitory control processes are involved in numerical comparison. We observed negative priming effects in both 7- to 8-year-olds (n = 47, Mage = 7.92 years) and adults (n = 33, Mage = 27.86 years), confirming that inhibition of irrelevant dim...
Article
In Piaget’s theory of number development, children do not possess a true concept of number until they are able to reason on numerical quantity regardless of changes in other nonnumerical magnitudes, such as length. Recent studies have echoed this result by arguing that abstracting number from nonnumerical dimensions of magnitude is a developmental...
Article
Full-text available
A number of training interventions have been designed to improve executive functions and inhibitory control (IC) across the lifespan. Surprisingly, no study has investigated the structural neuroplasticity induced by IC training from childhood to late adolescence, a developmental period characterized by IC efficiency improvement and protracted matur...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibitory control (IC) plays a critical role in cognitive and socio-emotional development. Short-term IC training improves IC abilities in children and adults. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated the IC training effect during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by high neuroplasticity and the protracted development of IC abil...
Article
Full-text available
Since reasoning is often biased by intuitive heuristics, the development of sound reasoning has long been postulated to depend on successful bias monitoring and inhibition. The present fMRI study aimed to identify neural correlates of developmental changes in these processes. A group of adults and young adolescents were presented with ratio-bias pr...
Article
Mirror generalization for animals and objects but not buildings is delayed by the inhibition of mirror generalization for reversible letters (e.g., b/d). We behaviorally investigated whether this inhibition occurs at a perceptual stage of processing or at a higher associative stage. 50 adult readers performed a negative priming experiment in which...
Poster
Full-text available
Inhibitory control (IC: the ability to overcome conflicts and inhibit a dominant response) plays a critical role in academic success (Moffitt et al., 2011). Recent studies have shown that cognitive training can improve IC efficiency in healthy children and adults (Zhao et al., 2016). Surprisingly, IC training has been largely understudied in adoles...
Article
A major source of errors in decimal magnitude comparison tasks is the inappropriate application of whole number rules. Specifically, when comparing the magnitude of decimal numbers and the smallest number has the greatest number of digits after the decimal point (e.g., 0.9 vs. 0.476), using a property of whole numbers such as "the greater the numbe...
Article
Full-text available
Il est de plus en plus reconnu que les fonctions exécutives (contrôle inhibiteur, attention, mise à jour [updating], flexibilité mentale, raisonnement, planification) jouent un rôle important dans le parcours scolaire des élèves et des étudiants. En effet, les apprenants qui présentent les fonctions exécutives les mieux développées sont souvent ceu...
Article
Full-text available
It is increasingly recognized that executive functions (inhibitory control, attention, updating, mental flexibility, reasoning, planning) play an important role in the educational paths of pupils and students. Indeed, learners who present the most developed executive functions are often those who perform and succeed best in school and university, a...
Article
Most researchers assume that deception involves a conflict between a predominant truth response and a deliberate deceptive response. Such a view is consistent with dual process theories that state that high-order cognition operates through fast-automatic processes that may conflict with slow-deliberate ones. In the present study, we tested whether...
Article
Visual environments are composed of global shapes and local details that compete for attentional resources. In adults, the global level is processed more rapidly than the local level, and global information must be inhibited in order to process local information when the local information and global information are in conflict. Compared with adults...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity to read develops throughout intensive academic learning and training. Several studies have investigated the impact of reading on the brain, and particularly how the anatomy of the brain changes with reading acquisition. In the present study, we investigated the converse issue, namely whether and how reading acquisition is constrained b...
Article
Full-text available
Decades of problem solving and creativity research have converged to show that the ability to generate new and useful ideas can be blocked or impeded by intuitive biases leading to mental fixations. The present study aimed at investigating the neural bases of the processes involved in overcoming fixation effects during creative idea generation. Usi...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibitory control (IC) is a core executive function that enables humans to resist habits, temptations, or distractions. IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional success later in life. Based on analysis of the sulcal pattern, a qualitative feature of cortex anatomy determined during fetal life and stable during...
Article
In our comment to Kolinsky and Morais’ opinion paper, we argue that the literate glasses are one of the many glasses that we wear at all time. As an example, we provide evidence that developmental psychologist tend to wear teleological glasses interpreting cognitive development by the prism of the adult’s cognitive system. We, then, present a theor...
Article
The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in modulating the effect of bilingual experience on cognitive control has been reported at both functional and structural neural levels. Individual differences in the ACC sulcal patterns have been recently correlated with cognitive control efficiency in monolinguals. We aimed to investigate whether di...
Article
Full-text available
School-aged children erroneously think that 1.45 is larger 1.5 because 45 is larger than 5. Using a negative priming paradigm, we investigated whether the ability to compare the magnitude of decimal numbers in the context in which the smallest number has the greatest number of digits after the decimal point (1.45 vs. 1.5) is rooted in part on the a...