Greg W Rouse

Greg W Rouse
University of California, San Diego | UCSD · Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)

Ph.D.

About

571
Publications
124,369
Reads
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13,930
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2006 - present
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1994 - December 2000
The University of Sydney
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
August 1986 - August 1991
The University of Sydney
Field of study
  • Zoology

Publications

Publications (571)
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden1,2, but their taxonomic placement remains unstable3,4. Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs5,6, but the tissues can be contaminated with prey7,8....
Article
Full-text available
The exploration of Earth's biodiversity is an exciting and ongoing endeavour. Here, we report a new species of seadragon from Western Australia with substantial morphological and genetic differences to the only two other known species. We describe it as Phyllopteryx dewysea n. sp. Although the leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques) and the common seadr...
Article
Full-text available
Darwin [1] hypothesized that sexes in a species should be similar unless sexual selection, fecundity selection, or resource partitioning has driven them apart. Male dwarfism has evolved multiple times in a range of animals, raising questions about factors that drive such extreme size dimor-phism [2–4]. Ghiselin [5] noted that dwarf males are more c...
Article
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We describe a new genus, Osedax, and two new species of annelids with females that consume the bones of dead whales via ramifying roots. Molecular and morphological evidence revealed that Osedax belongs to the Siboglinidae, which includes pogonophoran and vestimentiferan worms from deep-sea vents, seeps, and anoxic basins. Osedax has skewed sex rat...
Article
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Here, we present the first mitochondrial genome of Eiconaxius baja. The mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The total length of the complete E. baja mitochondrial genome is 16,212 base pairs, and the GC content is 26.82%. The gene order is consistent with that of Eiconaxius serratus, and most other...
Article
Full-text available
Continental margins host methane seeps, animal falls and wood falls, with chemosynthetic communities that may share or exchange species. The goal of this study was to examine the existence and nature of linkages among chemosynthesis-based ecosystems by deploying organic fall mimics (bone and wood) alongside defaunated carbonate rocks within high an...
Article
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Specimens of a new species of torquaratorid acorn worm (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) were video recorded and subsequently collected at abyssal depths in the eastern North Pacific at sites ranging from Oregon to northern Mexico. These worms are described here as Yoda demiankoopi n. sp. by molecular and morphological methods. The new species differs...
Article
The Antarctic marine environment, although rich in life, is predicted to experience rapid and significant effects from climate change. Despite a revolution in the approaches used to document biodiversity, less than one percent of Antarctic marine invertebrates are represented by DNA barcodes and we are at risk of losing biodiversity before discover...
Article
Galapagomystides is an exclusively deep-sea group of Phyllodocidae, originally erected for Galapagomystides aristata from hydrothermal vents of the Galapagos Rift. In this study, Phyllodocidae collected from hydrothermal vents and methane seeps from the Pacific Ocean, including specimens from vents of the East Pacific Rise identified as Galapagomys...
Article
Full-text available
Background Seahorses, seadragons, pygmy pipehorses, and pipefishes (Syngnathidae, Syngnathiformes) are among the most recognizable groups of fishes because of their derived morphology, unusual life history, and worldwide distribution. Despite previous phylogenetic studies and recent new species descriptions of syngnathids, the evolutionary relation...
Article
Full-text available
Echinoids are key components of modern marine ecosystems. Despite a remarkable fossil record, the emergence of their crown group is documented by few specimens of unclear affinities, rendering their early history uncertain. The origin of sand dollars, one of its most distinctive clades, is also unclear due to an unstable phylogenetic context. We em...
Chapter
Oenonidae are an unusual group of annelids in that many of them are parasitic or have a parasitic phase in their life, often in other polychaetes. Most Oenonidae adults are medium- to large-sized annelids, ranging from 1 to 90 cm long with over 1000 segments (Paxton, 2000a) but usually thin. Externally many of them resemble Lumbrineridae , from whi...
Chapter
Lumbrineridae adults are medium sized to large annelids, ranging from a few centimetres to over half a metre in length and several hundred segments (Pl. 6a).
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Pilargidae is part of Phyllodocida , with adult sizes of the animals usually one to a few centimetres long but having up to several hundred segments. Many live Pilargidae lack specific pigmentation patterns and are of a whitish colour, although the posterior half of some (e.g. Pilargis ) is reddish with darker spots.
Chapter
Acoetidae are large annelids with many segments and are unusual among scale-worms in being tubiculous (Fig. 8.1a).
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Nephtyidae have a well-deserved difficult reputation among workers involved in benthic monitoring who try to identify them. They can be very abundant in shallow water sediments and there are often several different nephtyids in the same sample.
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Named for their strange anatomy, Aberranta is a small, rare, and morphologically homogenous and characteristic group of free-living annelids, with adult length up to near 7 mm for about 40 chaetigers.
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Fauveliopsidae is a small group of only around 30 species, best known for some Fauveliopsis taxa living in the empty shells of gastropods or scaphopods.
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The first members of Annelida were named by Linnaeus (1758) and in the intervening period there have been thousands of others added. We estimate that the current number of accepted species level taxa is just under 21,000, though several thousand more have been named and are considered invalid. This is based on a count of the estimates presented in...
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Hesionidae is named after the mythical Hesione, princess of Troy, who was rescued from a sea monster by Hercules. This group of beautiful worms are not uncommon in the sublittoral, especially on rocky and mixed bottoms, and they also seem to thrive in deep-sea environments with many species described from hydrothermal vents (Fig. 15.2c), whalefalls...
Chapter
Ampharetidae are tubicolous, as are most members of Terebelliformia , and share with Alvinellidae and Melinnidae the feature that their multiple grooved palps, usually called tentacles, can be retracted into the mouth. Typically, Ampharetidae are 10 to 60 mm long, though some adults are only a few millimetres long.
Chapter
The name Chrysopetalidae , from the Latin for ‘golden petals’, refers to the shape and the colour of the shiny, flattened notochaetae which cover the dorsum in one of the three major clades in the group, Chrysopetalinae (Pl. 3c).
Chapter
Alvinellidae (‘Pompeii worms’ or ‘palm worms’), are a relatively recently discovered group known only from sites associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
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Aeolosomatidae is a group of minute worms living almost exclusively in freshwater habitats.
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Melinnidae (Pl. 12c, d) is a small taxon of tubicolous Terebelliformia , containing only around 50 accepted species that are generally found in deeper waters. The group’s name is seemingly derived from an ancient Greek women’s name, Melinna, and this was the first genus name for the group (Read and Fauchald, 2021).
Chapter
Trichobranchidae have multiple grooved palps (‘tentacles’), often of two kinds, and resemble their close relatives Terebellidae in several ways, though Melinnidae is actually closer to Terebellidae. Historically, they have often been included within the latter taxon.
Chapter
Sphaerodoridae is a relatively small annelid group, with around 138 nominal species. The animals can be easily recognized by the conspicuous spherical macro- and microtubercles that give sphaerodorids their name (Figs. 19.1b, c).
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Polynoidae is the largest group of Aphroditiformia , and one of the more species-rich of annelid clades covered in a chapter here. The body is dorso-ventrally flattened and often has an oval shape, but some can be long and slender (e.g. Polynoe scolopendrina ; Pl. 2e).
Chapter
Members of Sabellidae (feather-duster worms) are among the most easily recognizable of annelid groups due to their possession of an often spectacularly colourful radiolar crown and by the mucus/ parchment/ sediment tubes that they generally inhabit (Pl. 8a–d).
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Eunicidae is a well-known group of annelids, mainly for being one of the few groups that are regularly eaten by humans. Their exposed complex and intimidating jaws can often be observed in some giant Eunicidae waiting for their prey in Indonesia. This has resulted in the common name ‘sand striker worms’ for these majestic, avid predators.
Chapter
The multiple grooved palps (‘tentacles’) of Terebellidae gives rise to their common name, spaghetti worms. These tentacles are a common sight extending out over the substrate in shallow marine waters worldwide. When disturbed the tentacles, often brightly coloured, can be seen coiling and looping as they are retracted back towards the worm.
Chapter
Amphinomida includes two major groups: Amphinomidae and Euphrosinidae . Amphinomidae occur mainly in littoral warm waters. Some are called fireworms and are known for their brittle chaetae that easily break when touched and produce a burning sensation.
Chapter
Capitellidae are commonly found, and it is a bit surprising there is no common name for the group. They are easily recognized, for the most part, by the division of the body into an anterior region with capillary chaetae only and a posterior region with long-handled hooks.
Chapter
Members of Sternaspidae (from the Greek words for breast and shield) are instantly recognizable in their remarkable yellow, reddish, violet, or even black shield that lies ventro-posteriorly, and the posterior veil of branchiae.
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Acrocirridae is a small taxonomic group comprising around 40 accepted species that are generally found in intertidal or shallow coarse sediments and muds. They often will also be found attached to the undersurface of stones or rubble. Some extraordinary holopelagic members of Acrocirridae ( Swima and Teuthidodrilus ) have also been described in rec...
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Heterospio is a small group with only nine named species and no common name. Usually placed under the redundant names Longosomatidae or Heterospionidae , the systematic position of Heterospio is uncertain, though a relationship with Cirratulida is now apparent.
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Chaetopteridae is a clade with small membership of around 75 valid species and nearly all are tubicolous. The taxon name is derived from the Greek for ‘chaetae’ and ‘wing’ and refers to the long aliform notopodia with aciculae in some taxa.
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Paraonidae (no common name, but jesting students often call them ‘paranoids’) is a relatively small group in taxonomic terms and, because they tend to be found in deeper waters, there is little known about them.
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Flabelligeridae, with a common name of bristle-cage worms, are generally recognizable by their papillose body, often coated with thick covering of sediment and the fact that the head is retractable between anterior segments which may project forward a ‘cage’ of chaetae (Pl. 14b–d).
Chapter
Apistobranchus has small membership and has had a long period of uncertain affinity, though it is now apparent it is part of Chaetopteriformia .
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Opheliidae are commonly found in sandy or muddy substrates from intertidal regions down to more than 7000 m. They are often noticed when disturbed by rapidly swimming in an energetic way and some
Chapter
Lobatocerebrum is a small, exclusively meiofaunal clade with only three known species. The placement of these enigmatic animals has long been problematic, but recent molecular work establishes their placement within Annelida . The animals have an unsegmented, slender, and elongate body with a length of 1–3 mm.
Chapter
Sabellariidae (known as honeycomb worms or sandcastle worms) build distinctive hard tubes from glued sand or other coarse particles and are commonly seen forming colonies on rocky surfaces in intertidal marine environments (Pl. 9a).
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Dinophilus was erected by Schmidt (1848) and the name refers to the whirling motion these worms can show owing to their ciliary movement. Dinophilidae are all small, at less than 3 mm long as adults, and lack chaetae and obvious segmentation.
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Syllidae constitutes a large and variable, but nevertheless highly characteristic group of polychaetes. The name comes from Syllis , a nymph in Greek mythology, who was the lover of the god Apollo and the mother of king Zeuxippos of Sikyon.
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Serpulidae (fanworms), like Sabellidae , are very well-known owing to their colourful radiolar crown (Pl. 8e–g). Serpulidae are usually easily distinguished from Fabriciidae and Sabellidae in that they live in a calcareous tube, though this is sometimes embedded in coral.
Chapter
The annelid body consists of three fundamental regions. There is always a presegmental region derived from the larval episphere, anterior to the prototroch region around the mouth.
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Clitellata is clade of hermaphroditic, direct-developing Annelida found worldwide in most aquatic and terrestrial habitats. They comprise nearly half of the total known species diversity of Annelida , with an estimated 8800 accepted species.
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Sipuncula is a group of animals that for a long time was considered a distinct clade outside Annelida and the issue of their phylogenetic affinity has been a controversial and much disputed subject (Saiz-Salinas, 2018, for references).
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Orthonectida , from the Greek for ‘straight’ and ‘swimming’, is a small group of marine Annelida that are parasites of Acoela , other Annelida , Echinodermata , Mollusca , Nemertea , Platyhelminthes , and Xenoturbella (Kozloff, 1992; Nakano and Miyazawa, 2019).
Chapter
Lacydonia is a small and morphologically very homogenous group in Phyllodocida about which we know very little. The adults have a relatively small number of segments, and the reported length is up to 8 mm; the body shape in dorsal view is cylindrical with tapering anterior and posterior ends (Pl. 5c).
Chapter
Compared with most annelid groups, Cirratulidae has been well studied in terms of biology, physiology, and population structure, but the overall systematics and taxonomy of the group remains quite problematic.
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Named after Spio, one of the Nereids from Greek mythology, Spionidae represents one of the larger taxonomic groupings and currently is poorly understood in a phylogenetic sense and hence needs substantial revision.
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For many years this group was referred to as Echiura , with the rank of phylum following Newby’s (1940) embryological study. The group is now consistently recognized as the sister group to
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Oweniidae is a taxon with small membership that, until recently, was more famous for its larval form, the unusual and beautiful ‘mitraria’ (Fig. 77.1g), than for the adults.
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Protodrilida (‘first’ or ‘original’ ‘worms’) is a clade that currently comprises around 65 accepted species that are known historically for being members of the now defunct taxon Archiannelida .
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Hrabeiella is an enigmatic terrestrial member of Annelida that appears to be the sister group to Aeolosomatidae .
Book
Full-text available
Annelids (the segmented worms) exist in a remarkably diverse range of mostly marine but also freshwater and terrestrial habitats, varying greatly in size and form. Annelida provides a fully updated and expanded taxonomic reference work which broadens the scope of the classic Polychaetes (OUP, 2001) to encompass wider groups including Clitellata (co...
Chapter
Microphthalmidae is a small group within Phyllodocida. Herein, we follow the delineation of the group by Salazar-Vallejo (2019a) and include Hesionides as well as Struwela . Both Microphthalmus and Hesionides are interstitial animals.
Chapter
Despite its minute size, the first member of Nerillidae ( Nerilla antennata ) was described in 1848 by Schmidt. In his original description he admits initially mistaking Nerilla for the juvenile of a known worm and becoming aware of his discovery only after finding mature specimens.
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Tomopteridae with the charming common name ‘gossamer worms’, is an easily recognized group of transparent holoplanktonic annelids that lack external chaetae (Pl. 5b).
Chapter
Myzostomida (from the Latin myzo to suck and stomum for mouth) is an unusual and in some ways diverse group of worms(Figs. 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 35.5), comprised of more than 180 nominal species (Read and Fauchald, 2021. Lacking a common name, they are generally referred to as ‘myzostomes’.
Chapter
Described by Linnaeus (1758), Aphrodita is among the oldest introduced generic annelid names. One characteristic feature of Aphrodita is the presence of fine capillary notochaetae that form a felt over the dorsum.
Book
Annelids (the segmented worms) exist in a remarkably diverse range of mostly marine but also freshwater and terrestrial habitats, varying greatly in size and form. This text provides. This text begins with an introduction to the phylum and an outline of annelid taxonomy. The book describes their collection and the methods to ensure their optimal pr...
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The first described Eulepethidae was Eulepis hamifera by Grube (1875). However, since the generic name was preoccupied
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Typhloscolecidae are all holoplanktonic and have a cylindrical body. Adult animals range from 0.5 to 4 cm in length with up to 50 segments, although many taxa have a segment number not exceeding 20–25. This suggests a fixed adult number of segments in some taxa.
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Dorvilleidae is a morphologically heterogeneous group, including some of the smallest described annelids with adult length of only a few hundred µm and only a few segments ( Neotenotrocha ). Others may attain a size up to 10 cm and have many segments (e.g. Dorvillea ). The colour of live animals is variable, transparent to whitish being common (Pl....
Chapter
Pontodora is a small and poorly known holopelagic group including only the two described taxa Pontodora pelagica Greeff, 1879 and Epitoka pelagica Treadwell, 1943.
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Spinther is a small group of easily recognized annelids, all living as ectoparasites or commensals on sponges. The name means spark/sparkling in Greek and most-likely refers to the shimmering appearance of the worm.
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Paralacydonia is a small and morphologically homogenous group of Phyllodocida . As may be guessed from the name they were thought by Fauvel to be close to Lacydonia , yet their position within Phyllodocida still remains unresolved today.
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Magelona (‘shovelhead worms’), contains over 70 described nominal species that are relatively uniform in appearance. They have a somewhat unusual morphology and have historically been difficult to relate with other annelids. They are now regarded as sister group to Oweniidae , and as Oweniida , are the sister group to all other living Annelida (see...
Chapter
Arenicolidae (lugworms and their smaller relatives) is a taxonomically small group that in the previous edition of this work was reported on as being relatively well studied, possibly because it represents one of the few groups of annelids of any direct economic importance. In recent decades, however, they have received little attention from anneli...
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Lopadorrhynchidae is a small group of holopelagic annelids. A common misspelling of the name is Lopadorhynchidae with a single ‘r’ (Read and Fauchald, 2021).
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Quillworms ( Hyalinoecia ) and the Australian beachworms ( Australonuphis ) are among the better known Onuphidae ; the former with highly characteristic tubes (Pl. 6f) and the latter for their size (up to several metres) and occurrence on sandy beaches and their importance as bait in fisheries. Overall, Onuphidae vary in size from a few millimetres...
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Parergodrilidae is a group of terrestrial or semi-terrestrial Annelida that are now known to be closely related to Orbiniidae . Parergodrilus heideri and the Stygocapitella species complex, comprise the clade, with the former living in damp terrestrial soils across Europe and the latter group of species found worldwide in coarse marine sands around...
Chapter
Fabriciidae were for many years considered to be part of Sabellidae and share similarities such as the radiolar crown and dwelling in a mucus/sediment tube (Figs. 40.2a, b)
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Siboglinidae is among the most famous and well-studied clades of Annelida , though until recently they were treated as one or two phyla, Pogonophora and Vestimentifera , separated from Annelida .
Chapter
Maldanidae (bamboo-worms) are easily recognizable in that the body is comprised of a set number of long cylindrical segments which, combined with low rows of hooked chaetae, results in a bamboo-like appearance. Depending on the group, adult Maldanidae range in size from 3 mm to more than 200 mm in length and usually have a fixed maximum number of s...
Chapter
Scalibregmatidae (sometimes called maggot worms and one group, Travisia are not too fondly, but appropriately, called stink worms) are not routinely encountered, though they can occur in huge numbers in shallow waters in Northern Europe. More often, they occur in muddy sediments at more than 1000 m depth.
Chapter
Psammodrilus , meaning ‘sand worm’, is a group of tiny Annelida containing eight named species and several yet to be described. All live among sand grains and can be loosely regarded as interstitial taxa. To date Psammodrilus have all been described from the Northern Hemisphere, with only two records from south of the equator.
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Pectinariidae , the aptly named ‘ice-cream cone’ worm, are an anatomically complex, if relatively uniform group that is known worldwide. They mainly occur in shallow marine sediments and are immediately recognizable from their elegant cone or tusk-shaped tubes, constructed from a single layer of sand grains, forams, shell fragments, spicules, or ot...
Chapter
Cossura live in some shallow marine sediments but are more common in mixed sand and mud sediments in deeper seas. Around 30 accepted species have been described to date. They are recognizable by the thin mid-dorsal branchia that can be nearly as long as the body originating from an anterior segment.
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Histriobdellidae (‘Charlie Chaplin worms’) are tiny members of Annelida that live as commensals on a variety of Crustacea . There are currently 13 nominal species placed into Histriobdella , Steineridrilus , and Stratiodrilus , with most of them known from rivers of South America. The name Histriobdella can be loosely translated as ‘clown animal’ a...
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Sigalionidae was first erected by Kinberg (1856) (note that the name was incorrectly referred to Malmgren (1867) by Fauchald and Rouse (1997)).
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Glyceroidea include two clades Glyceridae Grube, 1850 (often called‘bloodworms’) and Goniadidae Kinberg, 1866.
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Phyllodocidae are sometimes known as paddle-worms owing to their (usually) large and flattened dorsal cirri. The holopelagic Alciopidae (see Pl. 5h) are previously treated as a separate taxon in the literature but is here included in Phyllodocidae as Alciopini .
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Orbiniidae is a diverse group of over 200 named species that are mainly burrowers in shallow to deep marine sediments.
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Depending on your viewpoint, Polygordius is a famous, or infamous, member of Annelida . These worms, nicknamed ‘knot worms’ (Tustison et al ., 2020), are generally found in coarse, well-sorted sediments.
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Diurodrilus was erected by Remane (1925) and means ‘two-tailed worm’. Remane was referring to the unusual ‘toes’ at the posterior end of these minute worms