Greg Richards

Greg Richards
Tilburg University | UVT · Department of Leisure Studies

PhD

About

414
Publications
648,614
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12,547
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Introduction
Greg Richards is Professor of Placemaking and Events at Breda University of Applied Sciences and Professor of Leisure Studies at the University of Tilburg in The Netherlands. He has worked on projects for numerous national governments, national tourism organisations and municipalities, and he has extensive experience in tourism research and education. His current research focuses on cultural and creative tourism and the role of events in placemaking.
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
Breda University of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Professor of Placemaking and Events
January 2006 - December 2009
University of the West of England, Bristol
Position
  • Research Associate
January 2004 - December 2004
Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (414)
Article
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This article presents art as a tool in the construction of place narrative. Discussing that place narrative is beyond city marketing or city branding in the sense that it strives to take into account the relationship between visitors and locals, place narrative can explore the variety of rhizomatic dimensions of art. In this sense, and using the pr...
Chapter
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A powerful and unique case-study focused, theoretically rigorous and pan-European approach to our most ubiquitous cultural phenomena - festivals.
Article
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Experiences are becoming increasingly important in events and festivals, which are prime manifestations of the experience economy. However, research on event experiences has generally been concerned with economic impacts and visitor motivations [Gursoy, D., Kim, K., & Uysal, M. (2004). Perceived impacts of festivals and special events by organizers...
Article
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Article
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This paper provides an introduction to the special issue of the Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events on Festival Cities and Tourism. It provides a contextualisation of the conversations surrounding the relationship between cities and their festivals during the Covid-19 pandemic. Focussing on the ‘festival city’ of Edinburgh, we...
Article
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This interview presents a conversation between Greg Richards and Jorge Piqué on the development of creative districts and their links to creative tourism. The discussion ranged from the genesis of creative districts and creative tourism to contemporary challenges of creative place-making. It includes a consideration of the development of cultural t...
Article
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This paper presents a conversation between Greg Richards and Jorge Piqué on the development of creative districts and their links to creative tourism. The discussion ranged from the genesis of creative districts and creative tourism to contemporary challenges of creative placemaking. It includes a consideration of the development of cultural touris...
Preprint
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The growth of 'mass cultural tourism' has been stimulated by the growing numbers of tourists consuming cultural attractions, particularly in historic cities. Whereas in the past destinations had the challenge of trying to sell themselves to visitors and generate interest among a broad public, just before Covid-19 the challenge became trying to mana...
Preprint
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The Covid-19 pandemic has hastened the shift of leisure experiences from physical to digital environments. What effect does this have on our experience of leisure events? This paper examines the theory and practice of leisure experiences in events, and speculate on the likely implications of growing digitalisation of events for audiences and organi...
Preprint
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This paper analyses the evolution of cultural tourism from the Grand Tour to the present, paying particular attention to the emergence of "Cultural Tourism 4.0" as a hybridised, creolised form of cultural consumption.
Preprint
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Expos, festivals and events have become increasingly important as tools of urban development in recent decades. The competitive drive to put cities on the global map has led many to adopt event-based strategies, including the creation of 'eventful cities', 'festival cities' and 'event portfolios'. World Expos have taken on a particular significance...
Research
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As Richards (2021) has noted, one of the most significant changes in the field of cultural tourism has been the shift from tangible to intangible cultural heritage (ICH) as targets for tourism experiences. The continuing imbalances in the UNESCO designations for World Heritage means that many areas of the world remain without significant cultural h...
Book
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The line that joins. Cultural manager, journalist and entrepreneur, specialized in transnational cooperation and european projects. Has developed cultural initiatives in cooperation with over 25 countries in Europe and the Middle East. A vision for the future created from the inside out could be limited in scope and capability, due to being ti...
Chapter
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Cultural Tourism is a key sector of the global tourism market, accounting for just under 40% of all international travel (UNWTO, 2018). Cities have played a central role in the recent development of the cultural tourism market, particularly as the focus of cultural consumption has shifted from high culture (Culture 1.0) to popular or everyday cultu...
Experiment Findings
We will compare measurements of online, offline and hybrid Carnival experiences using the Event Experience Scale (EES).
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the past thrity years of research on events and festivals from the perspective of the ATLAS Events Group, including the work of the ATLAS Event Experiences project.
Article
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Cultural festivals can attract cultural tourists, extend the tourist season and add vibrancy to the cultural scene. However, there is relatively little research on how festivals affect tourist experience of the destination or outcomes such as satisfaction or repeat visitation. This study used the Event Experience Scale to measure tourist experience...
Article
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The ATLAS Events Group has been involved in the development of the Event Management Languages Project, which aims to examine the literature produced in languages other than English. One of the challenges for researchers working in English as a second language is the lack of leading academic journals in other languages. Even so, an initial analysis...
Data
Video summary of Rethinking Authenticity through the Complexity Paradigm by Mariana Bueno
Chapter
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In a year marked by Covid-19, the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Group (ACTRG) faced challenges in collecting data for the long-running survey of cultural attractions and events. As tourism and culture were two of the sectors most severely impacted by the Pandemic, cultural tourism all but disappeared in 2020. The group therefore adapted their dat...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews 30 years of research on cultural tourism, and in particular the role of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Group in bringing this tourism segment into focus.
Article
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How will cultural tourism develop in the post-pandemic world? In order to look forward, this paper first looks back at the historical development of cultural tourism, from the rarified world of high culture to the mass consumption of pre-covid 'overtourism'. This also mirrors a growing debate about the function of cultural tourism in cities, from a...
Article
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This paper proposes an epistemological transition based on Edgar Morin's complexity paradigm to analyse authenticity in a complex tourism environment, avoiding fragmentation, and integrating relevant actors and relationships. The results show that storytelling is an important element of these tourism experiences, legitimising and unifying the authe...
Preprint
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The big question on everybody’s lips at the moment is ‘what will happen in the post-Pandemic era?’ Answering this question is far from easy, because we are at a unique moment in history. One way to gather a picture of potential ways forward is to ask the experts. A recent session at the TIAC conference brought together experts from different sector...
Conference Paper
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An interview about creative districts and tourism directed by Jorge Piqué with Greg Richards. Piqué is director of UrbsNova — Social Innovation Agency in Porto Alegre (RS), and Richards is a professor of Placemaking and Events, at the University of Applied Sciences of Breda, and Leisure Studies at the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands. The c...
Conference Paper
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Cultural tourism has traditionally been viewed as a means of attracting visitors to places with culture, so that they stimulate economic growth through passive consumption. New views of the relationship between culture, people and places are emerging that emphasize the potential for tourists, visitors, residents and other place users to actively co...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we briefly outline what we envision as 12 major trajectories in creative tourism, organized into four general categories: taking home creative skills as well as souvenirs, finding space for creativity, cultivating meaningful travel, and connecting with creative networks and hubs.
Article
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Creative tourism has grown and diversified in recent years, but little attention has been paid to changing business models. We use the Business Model Canvas to compare creative tourism business models linked to the evolution of creative tourism from basic arts and crafts learning experiences to the incorporation of creative experiences in global pl...
Article
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Zaino in spalla tra arte, natura e buon bere: arriva il turismo della birra Una nuova forma di viaggio esperienziale si sta consolidando dando vita a percorsi fortemente legati alla terra. Guide d'eccezione, i mastri birrai del volume "Le Birre d'Italia" La voglia di esplorare, scoprire e muoversi è ancora ben radicata in ognuno di noi nonostante...
Conference Paper
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On the 30 th anniversary of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Project we will be re-visiting some of the central themes of the ATLAS research over the years. When the project was launched, cultural tourism was a relatively new segment of global tourism, but it rapidly developed from a niche market into a mass tourism product, driven by low cost flights an...
Article
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Public space is where all citizens, regardless of their income and personal circumstances, can feel both equal and cared for.
Article
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The pandemic has forced us to re-think tourism. With travel bans in place worldwide, the idea of tourism as an almost natural part of leisure is being re-assessed. There is little doubt that post-pandemic tourism will look different. In particular, one might expect challenges for forms of tourism based on close personal contact, such as creative to...
Book
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Small Cities with Big Dreams (Korean translation) 《가디언(The Guardian)》이 기적이라 평가했던, 즉 스헤르토헨보스가 뚜렷한 수단도 없이 어떻게 세계적인 문화 프로그램을 성공적으로 개최할 수 있었는지를 이야기한다. 이것은 창조적인 장소만들기가 어떤 방식으로 소도시의 발전에 도움이 되는지를 보여 준다. 또한 이 책은 스헤르토헨보스의 경험뿐만 아니라, 전 세계 다른 도시의 사례와 다양한 주제를 다루면서 현재 상황에서 작은 도시들이 재고해야 할 점을 문화 전략 중심으로 성찰하고, 작은 도시가 지향해야 할 점을 제시해 준다. 실용적인 정책 안내서
Article
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We explore the role of restaurants and food events in promoting local and regional gastronomy in the Minho region in Northern Portugal. Interviews with restaurant owners and event organizers in this mainly rural region reveal that innovation is driven mainly by changing consumer tastes, but also constrained by consumer expectations of low prices. R...
Article
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This paper examines the position of crafts within the creative industries and considers how this has been affected by the growing links between the creative industries and tourism. A review of the creative industries concept indicates that crafts occupy an ambiguous position between art and tradition, which problematises their relationship with the...
Article
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This paper examines the position of crafts within the creative industries and considers how this has been affected by the growing links between the creative industries and tourism. A review of the creative industries concept indicates that crafts occupy an ambiguous position between art and tradition, which problematises their relationship with the...
Chapter
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This paper traces the evolution of 'beerscapes' as an example of the development of entire 'gastroscapes' linking entire food cultures with the production and co-creation of gastronomic experiences. Craft beer, an important signifier of hipster culture, has developed as an important area of cultural and gastronomic tourism. Stone, Garibaldi and Poz...
Presentation
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This is the third of a series of three International Creative Tourism Webinars in Spring 2021 within the umbrella of CREATOUR International. Conceived as “global conversations,” the webinars aim to create a platform for connecting research and practice in a spirit of co-learning. As we look forward to “re-emergence” phases of social life and trave...
Article
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This conceptual paper re-evaluates the concept of niches in tourism markets. As many regions are now attempting to address niche markets in tourism as a development strategy, understanding of the dynamics of niche markets is crucial. Current approaches are often limited to seeing niche markets as simple subsectors of larger consumer markets. We arg...
Preprint
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The updated ATLAS Creative Tourism Bibliography includes a wide rang eof resources related this rapidly growing field of research. We welcome suggestions for additions to the bibliography, including sources in languages other than English. More information about creative tourism research activities can be found on ResearchGate: https://www.resear...
Book
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Since the early 1980s cultural tourism has undergone a tremendous growth. Parallel to this evolution the relationship between tourism and culture has created an increasing interest from academic researchers. From the beginning an important area of research has been the development of theoretical models helping to understand the phenomena, processes...
Article
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In transformational travel, the journey itself changes the tourist. They not only experience things, but those experiences change them as people. This is the challenge that faces us now. We have left the world as we knew it (the pre-Covid normal), we have been through the journey of the pandemic (social distancing, travel bans, vaccinations), and n...
Preprint
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Creativity has become a strategy in the making of places, with cities and regions seeking to increase their attractiveness to the creative class, support the creative industries or to become ‘creative cities’. We examine how creativity has been utilised in placemaking in tourism destinations through different design strategies. A shift in theoretic...
Book
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This bibliography is a work in progress rather than a comprehensive listing of cultural tourism research sources. All suggestions for additional references gratefully received. In line with the multilingual nature of ATLAS, we are happy to receive suggested references in languages other than English, preferably with an English language translation...
Chapter
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This concluding chapter reviews the main themes of the book "Creative Tourism in Smaller Communities: Place, Culture, and Local Representation and contextualizes them within emerging trends of creative tourism" (Scherf, ed. 2021), and situates them within the larger field of creative placemaking. It reviews the range of analyses of creative tourism...
Research Proposal
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In 2021, just as in 2020, the ATLAS Events Group will be staging its events online. Like communities around the world, our group will need to adjust to the new reality of online and hybrid events. What effects will these developments have for events in the future, and what impact will these have on the communities that shape and are shaped by event...
Book
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Rethinking Cultural Tourism by Greg Richards has just been published by Edward Elgar as the first title in their Rethinking Tourism series. It provides a radical re-haul of cultural tourism theory and practice, charting the development of the field from early high culture approaches to the recent emergence of everyday culture and mass cultural tour...
Conference Paper
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This presentation to the World Monuments Fund meeting on Urban Regeneration for Historic Cairo discusses the role of creativity in developing a more positive relationship between heritage and tourism.
Article
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Countries are making progress in vaccinating their residents against COVID-19, but travel restrictions remain for much of the world. The travel and tourism industry is eager to get back to business and service the pent-up consumer demand to travel again. When will the industry get back to meaningful levels of business? This paper reviews recent res...
Article
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This paper comments on the analysis by Leung and Thomas (2021) on the role of specialist event journals in shaping the field of event management research. It agrees with their analysis of the distribution of papers, particularly in terms of the dominance of the English language, although it argues that a wider analysis of the literature reveals a w...
Article
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A review of the book Festival cities: culture, planning and urban life by John R. Gold and Margaret M. Gold
Article
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For definitive text, please refer to the published version in the journal. Purpose: This literature review analyses the development of research on gastronomic tourism experiences and chart its relationship to foundational management and marketing literature as well as the tourism and hospitality field. Design/methodology/approach: We develop a...
Article
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This special issue of Event Management, on ‘Events as platforms, networks and communities’ presents a selection of papers from the Association for Tourism and Leisure Research and Education (ATLAS) conference in Copenhagen in 2018. We are aware that networks in particular are a frequent subject of events research (e.g., Getz, Andersson & Larson, 20...
Article
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El espacio urbano está allí donde todos los ciudadanos, con independencia de sus ingresos y circunstancias personales, pueden sentirse cuidados e iguales.
Article
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In response to the Covid-19 pandemic, resilience is often seen as a key strategy. We argue that resilience, with its emphasis on a return to normality, needs to be reconsidered. We outline a development strategy based on creativity, which seeks to link local resources and communities with global flows of resources, knowledge, and people. Creativity...
Article
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This paper analyses the effects of the first seven months of the Covid-19 pandemic on youth travel. Surveys of youth travel businesses between March and September 2020 showed youth tourism businesses were severely impacted, with a 26% drop in business volume in Quarter 1 of 2020 falling to-70% by May 2020. Business prospects for the year 2020 were...
Chapter
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Transformational tourism is an emergent research field, reflecting a broader paradigm shift that encompasses changes in tourist profiles that challenge tourism businesses to deliver experiences that meet the expectations of tourists seeking opportunities for self-development and inner transformation. This chapter presents the outcomes of a computer...
Conference Paper
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A paper presented to the World Crafts Council Europe webinar on Craft and Tourism, November 27 th , 2020. This paper describes a journey taken over the past 20 years with the development of the creative tourism concept, and how this relates to crafts, creativity and making. Our journey began with craft. The EUROTEX Project, which started in 1996, a...
Article
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A special issue of the Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events on the measurement of event experiences. Papers are free to download until the end of 2020.
Conference Paper
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As numerous studies have shown, the pandemic has decimated the tourism sector and created increasing uncertainty about the future of tourism businesses worldwide. This has set many thinking about how tourism can find the road to recovery (Burini, 2020). What many are seeking is a return to some kind of 'normality', what now seems like a relatively...
Chapter
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An analysis of supply and demand for religious tourism in the Minho region of Northern Portugal.
Article
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With few signs of meaningful improvement for travel and tourism businesses, efforts have turned to the development of new products and markets as the global COVID-19 crisis continues. In September, 37% of respondents to WYSE Travel Confederation’s COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey reported developing new products for both domestic travellers a...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity has become a strategy in the making of places, with cities and regions seeking to increase their attractiveness to the creative class, support the creative industries or to become ‘creative cities’. We examine how creativity has been utilised in placemaking in tourism destinations through different design strategies. A shift in theoretic...
Chapter
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A report on the activities of the ATLAS Events Group over the past 12 months. including conferences, meetings and publications.
Article
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This paper provides an introduction to Special Issue on 'Event Experiences: Measurement and Meaning'. It reviews the research conducted by the ATLAS Event Group over the past decade, and highlights the interplay between qualititative and quantitative research on events during this period. Major research themes related to the event experience are an...
Article
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Digital nomads are online workers that are “location independent”. They can, and do, work from anywhere. They lead “asset-light” lives and are invested in experiences rather than things. This makes them a growing and important segment for the travel industry, and travel operators and governments alike are adapting their service offerings and visa p...
Article
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The paper reviews the challenges posed for hostel operations by the Covid-19 pandemic.
Article
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In September, the COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey asked youth travel and tourism businesses about their contribution to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While the potential for young travellers to become early-adopters and ambassadors of responsible, sustainable travel behaviours is often recognised, findings from various WYSE Tr...
Article
Purpose – Little is known about how tourists’ eating habits change between everyday life and holidays. This study aims to identify market segments based on changes in food consumption and experiences of a sun-and-sea destination’s local food. The authors evaluate to what extent tourists consume local food and assess the contribution of local food e...
Chapter
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This chapter examines the relationship between the study of urban places and events. were previously largely ignored by urban scholars, as ephemera with little impact on urban processes and structures. Recently more attention has been focused on events as strategic tools in urban policies, particularly with the rise of eventful city strategies. Eve...
Article
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The leisure sector (sports, events, cultural organizations) has been hit hard by the Covid-19 crisis. In the past, the sector has shown flexibility and adaptability in other crises. To what extent do you expect these sectors to be sufficiently resilient now? Previous crises were mainly economic in nature. The problem is that this crisis is also a...
Chapter
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Heritage and tourism: A shared concern for locals and visitors? Pre-publication version of Richards, G. (2020) Heritage and tourism: A shared concern for locals and visitors? In Luger, K. and Ripp, M. (eds) World Heritage Management, urban planning and sustainable tourism. Vienna: Studienverlag. https://www.studienverlag.at/ ISBN 978-3-7065-6091-7....
Article
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Uncover is een uitgave van het domein Leisure & Events van Breda University of Applied Sciences. Redactie Peter Horsten en Simon de Wijs Contactgegevens Peter Horsten horsten.p@buas.nl Simon de Wijs wijs.s@buas.nl Uncover Uncover staat voor samen ontdekken. Dit magazine biedt Breda University of Applied Sciences een platform om onderzoek en project...
Article
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After a bit of optimism in June about demand for travel and tourism services for the remainder of the year, youth travel businesses adjusted their expectations slightly in July, saying they expected, on average, a 71% drop in demand for 2020 over 2019. This expectation remained steady in August. This article, based on the August edition of WYSE Tra...
Article
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In spite of renewed attention for practices in tourism studies, the analysis of practices is often isolated from theories of practice. This theoretical paper identifies the main strands of practice theory and their relevance and application to tourism research, and develops a new approach to applying practice theory in the study of tourism particip...
Article
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Internships, language immersion courses, study abroad semesters and many other travel-based educational and cultural exchange programmes have adapted for virtual environments due to COVID-19. The August edition of WYSE Travel Confederation’s COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey takes a look at the extent to which these sectors of the youth travel...
Article
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Views from the editorial advisory board of the International Journal of Tourism Cities As our International Journal of Tourism Cities approaches its third “birthday”, we asked the members of IJTC’s editorial advisory board to share their views on trends likely to affect the future of urban tourism over the next ten years and the role of the Interna...
Article
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This paper develops a measurement scale for cultural experiences across different contexts, including attractions, events and tours, in Hong Kong. Four dimensions of experience (cognitive, conative, affective and novelty) are identified through structural equation modelling. The scale is applied to compare visitor- and context-related influences on...
Article
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Some providers of accommodation, tours, activities & attractions and youth travel programmes are back in operation with social distancing measures implemented and others are still anticipating the effects of distancing on their business. The July edition of WYSE Travel Confederation's COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey takes a look at how dista...
Article
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While some businesses active in the youth travel industry are slowly getting back in operation after COVID-19 closures, organisations facilitating travel for educational and cultural exchange experiences face significant obstacles related to visas. Visa challenges represent a delay to recovery for not only cultural exchange organisations directly,...
Article
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A slightly more optimistic view from travel and tourism companies operating in the youth market was detected in June after three months of increasingly negative outlooks. The fourth edition of the COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey conducted by WYSE Travel Confederation[1] revealed a small shift in business prospects for 2020, as well as a smal...
Article
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Marketing has obviously been on the back burner for many travel and tourism businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic because travel has been widely restricted. The decision of businesses to de-prioritise or make significant cuts to marketing over the last three months has been picked up by WYSE Travel Confederation’s COVID-19 Travel Business Impact...
Article
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The business outlook of travel and tourism companies continues to worsen, according to findings of WYSE Travel Confederation’s third COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey.[1] For the second quarter of this year, the average expected change in demand relative to the same period last year is -76%. For 2020 as a whole, respondents expect to see, on a...
Article
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Findings from WYSE Travel Confederation’s second COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey indicate that travel businesses have moved quickly to streamline operations in the face of declining business by cutting staff and closing locations – particularly businesses offering accommodation and activities, tours & attractions. Even so, the average expect...
Article
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Findings from WYSE Travel Confederation’s second COVID-19 Travel Business Impact Survey indicate that travel and tourism businesses experienced a 60% drop in business in Q1 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. Looking ahead to the rest of 2020, respondents expect things to remain the same, with an average 60% drop in business (year on year) an...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
We have been doing research on the development of hostels, and we are particularly interested in the development of 'art hostels', which seem to be present in many countries.
The furthest we came was a hostel in Buenos Aires that dates back to 2002. Does anybody know of an earlier one?
Question
A recent paper by Yeung and Thomas (2021) on journals in event management opens up an interesting debate on the role of journals as academic fora. They demonstrate that event management publishing is dominated by a handful of influential journals, which are in turn dominated by a few, predominantly English-speaking institutions and academics. How can we ensure that these journals help to stimulate debate rather that limiting it? How can we open up the debate to new and critical voices, particularly from other language areas and backgrounds? See some initial thoughts in my commentary on Yeung and Thomas, and let's open up the debate.

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Projects

Projects (20)
Project
Physical leisure events support enjoyment, social cohesion and identity formation, but Covid-19 forced events to go digital. This project aims to assess the effects of the digital shift, comparing the experience of offline (or physical) events, online events and hybrid events. Leisure experiences and event outcomes will be measured through surveys, observations and interviews, to generate comparative quantitative experience assessments as well as rich qualitative data on individual experiences. In collaboration with leisire researchers in other countries, we will assess the longitudinal and geographical effects of the digital shift on leisure event experiences. This project is part-funded by the World Leisure Organization under their Strategic Priorities Grant programme.
Project
The project is related to the book Eventful Cities: Cultural Management and Urban Revitalisation (Routledge, 2010). Here you can find chapters from the book as well as related material, including more recent discussions of the phenomenon of eventfulness.
Project
Our project aims to study Carnival in its different forms in any country that celebrates it. Surveys in different countries, regions and cities have been undertaken since 2014 to establish cross-comparative analysis. To date surveys have covered the profile of Carnival participants, their experience, behaviour and outcomes (spending, satisfaction). Over the past two years we have particularly focussed on the impact of Covid-19 on Carnival celebrations. How have people managed to celebrate Carnival among restrictions, social distancing and cancelled events? Surveys in 2020 and 2021 have shown that people have missed the social and celebratory aspects of the event, but in many cases they have also found creative ways to celebrate in public spaces, at home and online. The research has been undertaken primarily through online surveys distributed to Carnival participants in different countries. The research programme is coordindated by a research team in the Netherlands, drawn from Breda University of Applied Sciences and the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. In each country local research managers help with the organisation of the surveys and the interpretation of the results. For more information, please contact Greg Richards (richards.g@buas.nl).