Greg D Field

Greg D Field
Duke University Medical Center | DUMC · Department of Neurobiology

Ph.D.

About

83
Publications
7,566
Reads
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3,252
Citations
Citations since 2017
49 Research Items
1637 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Introduction
Greg D Field currently works at the Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center. Greg does research in Neuroscience and Physiology. Their most recent publication is 'Distribution and diversity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in tree shrew'.
Additional affiliations
March 2012 - December 2014
University of Southern California
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2005 - March 2012
Salk Institute for Biological Studies
January 2000 - December 2005
University of Washington Seattle
Education
August 1999 - July 2004
University of Washington Seattle
Field of study
  • Physiology and Biophysics
August 1995 - May 1999
University of Puget Sound
Field of study
  • Physics

Publications

Publications (83)
Preprint
Cell-specific pharmaceutical technologies promise mechanistic insight into clinical drugs―those that treat, and often define, human disease. In particular, DART (drug acutely restricted by tethering) achieves genetically programmable control of drug concentration over cellular dimensions. The method is compatible with clinical pharmaceuticals and a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most defects causing retinal degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are rod-specific mutations, but the subsequent degeneration of cones, which produces loss of daylight vision and high-acuity perception, is the most debilitating feature of the disease. To understand better why cones degenerate and how cone vi-sion might be restored, we have mad...
Preprint
Visual processing in the retina depends on the collective activity of large ensembles of neurons organized in different layers. Current techniques for measuring activity of layer-specific neural ensembles rely on expensive pulsed infrared lasers to drive 2-photon activation of calcium-dependent fluorescent reporters. Here, we present a 1-photon lig...
Preprint
Full-text available
Two major functions performed by the retina are to establish the parallel processing of visual information and to adapt visual encoding to the trillion-fold range of light intensities encountered in the environment. Previous work has highlighted many specialized cell types and circuits that instantiate parallel processing and light adaptation. Howe...
Preprint
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Among the most striking features of retinal organization is the grouping of its output neurons, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), into a diversity of functional types. Each of these types exhibits a mosaic-like organization of receptive fields (RFs) that tiles the retina and visual space. Previous work has shown that many features of RGC organizat...
Article
Full-text available
Rod photoreceptor degeneration causes deterioration in the morphology and physiology of cone photoreceptors along with changes in retinal circuits. These changes could diminish visual signaling at cone-mediated light levels, thereby limiting the efficacy of treatments such as gene therapy for rescuing normal, cone-mediated vision. However, the impa...
Preprint
Full-text available
An important problem in systems neuroscience is to characterize how a neuron integrates sensory inputs across space and time. The linear receptive field provides a mathematical characterization of this weighting function, and is commonly used to quantify neural response properties and classify cell types. However, estimating receptive fields is dif...
Article
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In the current issue of Cell Reports Methods, Spampinato et al. demonstrate a multiplexed system combining holographic photo-stimulation and functional imaging that may offer a generalizable approach for revealing how signals interact in complex neural circuits.
Preprint
Full-text available
Rod photoreceptor degeneration causes deterioration in the morphology and physiology of cone photoreceptors along with changes in retinal circuits. These changes could diminish visual signaling at cone-mediated light levels, thereby limiting the efficacy of treatments such as gene therapy for rescuing normal, cone-mediated vision. However, the impa...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Across a wide variety of species, cells in the retina specialized for signaling either increases (ON) or decreases (OFF) in light represent one of the most basic building blocks of visual computation. These cells coordinate to form mosaics, with each cell responsible for a small, minimally overlapping portion of visual space, but the w...
Article
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Light-field fluorescence microscopy can record large-scale population activity of neurons expressing genetically-encoded fluorescent indicators within volumes of tissue. Conventional light-field microscopy (LFM) suffers from poor lateral resolution when using wide-field illumination. Here, we demonstrate a structured-illumination light-field micros...
Article
Full-text available
The output of the retina is organized into many detector grids, called ‘mosaics’, that signal different features of visual scenes to the brain1–4. Each mosaic comprises a single type of retinal ganglion cell (RGC), whose receptive fields tile visual space. Many mosaics arise as pairs, signalling increments (ON) and decrements (OFF), respectively, o...
Article
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Vision under starlight requires rod photoreceptors transduce and transmit single photon responses to the visual system. Small single photon voltage changes must therefore cause detectable reductions in glutamate release. We found that rods achieve this by employing mechanisms that enhance release regularity and its sensitivity to small voltage chan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many sensory systems utilize parallel ON and OFF pathways that signal stimulus increments and decrements, respectively. These pathways consist of ensembles or grids of ON and OFF detectors spanning sensory space. Yet encoding by opponent pathways raises a question: How should grids of ON and OFF detectors be arranged to optimally encode natural sti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vision under starlight requires rod photoreceptors to transduce and transmit single photon responses to the visual system. This remarkable sensitivity depends on a small voltage change reliably reducing glutamate release such that post-synaptic rod bipolar cells can robustly detect the signal. To transmit this small signal, we have found that rod v...
Article
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From starlight to sunlight, adaptation alters retinal output, changing both the signal and noise among populations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we determine how these light level-dependent changes impact decoding of retinal output, testing the importance of accounting for RGC noise correlations to optimally read out retinal activity. We f...
Article
Full-text available
Simple stimuli have been critical to understanding neural population codes in sensory systems. Yet it remains necessary to determine the extent to which this understanding generalizes to more complex conditions. To examine this problem, we measured how populations of direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) from the retinas of male and female mic...
Preprint
Full-text available
The retina encodes visual stimuli across light intensities spanning 10-12 orders of magnitude from starlight to sunlight. To accommodate this enormous range, adaptation alters retinal output, changing both the signal and noise among populations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we determine how these light level-dependent changes in signal and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Glial cells regulate synaptic connectivity during development, but whether they selectively instruct the formation of specific synaptic circuits is not known. Here we show that the major perisynaptic glia of the retina, the Muller glia (MG), control the proper establishment of the direction-selective (DS) circuit by a synaptogenic protein, Thrombos...
Article
Daylight vision begins when light activates cone photoreceptors in the retina, creating spatial patterns of neural activity. These cone signals are then combined and processed in downstream neural circuits, ultimately producing visual perception. Recent technical advances have made it possible to deliver visual stimuli to the retina that probe this...
Article
Full-text available
A major cause of human blindness is the death of rod photoreceptors. As rods degenerate, synaptic structures between rod and rod bipolar cells disappear and the rod bipolar cells extend their dendrites and occasionally make aberrant contacts. Such changes are broadly observed in blinding disorders caused by photoreceptor cell death and are thought...
Preprint
Full-text available
Information about motion is encoded by direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DSGCs). These cells reliably transmit this information across a broad range of light levels, spanning moonlight to sunlight. Previous work indicates that adaptation to low light levels causes heterogeneous changes to the direction tuning of ON-OFF (oo)DSGCs and sugge...
Article
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Neuromodulators such as dopamine, enable context-dependent plasticity of neural circuit function throughout the central nervous system. For example, in the retina, dopamine tunes visual processing for daylight and nightlight conditions. Specifically, high levels of dopamine release in the retina tune vision for daylight (photopic) conditions, while...
Article
Full-text available
The stream of visual information sent from photoreceptors to second-order bipolar cells is intercepted by laterally interacting horizontal cells that generate feedback to optimize and improve the efficiency of signal transmission. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of graded photoreceptor synaptic output in this nonspiking network have remain...
Data
Chemogenetic modulation of mouse horizontal cells. (A) Conductance increase with PSEM308 (10 μM) application to PSAM-GlyR–expressing isolated, transduced horizontal cells identified via the viral construct’s GFP reporter. Voltage ramp I–V relations recorded before and during PSEM superfusion, showing increased conductance at all voltages, reversing...
Data
Specific immunolabeling by the GABAR ρ2 subunit antibody is completely blocked by preadsorption with the antigenic peptide. (A) GABAR ρ2 immunolabeling in the OPL of mouse retina with 1:1,000 dilution of the ρ2 antibody (AGA-007, Alomone, Jerusalem, Israel). (B) Immunolabeling by GABAR ρ2 antibody (1:1,000) preincubated with the 10−5 to 10−7 M (sho...
Data
Species guide to patch clamp data figures. The species stated were used in electrophysiological experiments in cell types listed for the listed figure. In all immunohistochemical investigations, mouse retina was used. (DOCX)
Data
Change of cone conductance (ΔG) in response to GABAergic drugs. Picrotoxin did not cause a change in the resting cone conductance measured between −90 and −60 mV in rats, mice, or guinea pigs. The same result (no change in conductance) was obtained in rats when Hepes was present in the bath. Muscimol, TPMPA, gabazine, and strychnine tested on guine...
Data
GABAR ρ2 subunits remain expressed and localized to horizontal cell endings in the Cx57-VGAT-KO mouse. (A) Calbindin immunolabeling in the OPL identifies horizontal cells, including cell bodies (*), processes (dendrites and axons), and endings. (B) GABAR ρ2 subunit immunoreactivity in the OPL. (C) Merge image depicts colocalization of GABAR ρ2 subu...
Data
Modulation of surround light-response current amplitude by picrotoxin and GABA in macaque cones. (Redrawn from Figure 4 of Verweij and colleagues [2003] [14]). Macaque cones, voltage clamped near −40 mV, respond with an inward current when full field illumination (“full;” 0.5 s) was added to continuous spot illumination (“spot”). The control curren...
Data
Blocking Na+/H+ exchangers with amiloride disinhibits cone CaV channels and eliminates the disinhibitory effect of TPMPA. A. Patch clamp recording of a mouse cone. B. Currents elicited by the voltage steps shown in the absence (top) and presence (bottom) of the NHE-blocker amiloride (30 μM). C. I–V relations show larger CaV channel currents, activa...
Data
The glutamate receptor antagonist CNQX disinhibits guinea pig cone CaV channels. A. Currents elicited by voltage steps shown in a cone before (top) and during (middle) 50 μM CNQX application and in both 100 μM muscimol and 50 μmM CNQX (bottom). B. I–V relations show larger CaV channel currents in the presence of CNQX. C. The cone CaV channel activa...
Data
Supplementary excel files for all cell analyses. Data for each cell represented in Figs 1F, 1G, 1I, 1J, 2B, 2C, 2E, 2F, 2H, 3I, 3J, 3M, 3N, 4G, 4H, 5H, 5I, 5L, 5M, 6C, 6D, 6G, 6H, 7B, 7C, 7E, 7F and 7H; S3B–S3E and S4B–S4E Figs are included in a single excel file as multiple sheets, labeled Figs 1 through 7, S3 and S4 Figs. Data from individual cel...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neural population codes discovered for simple artificial stimuli may not generalize to more naturalistic conditions. To explore this problem, we measured how populations of direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) from mouse retina respond to a dynamic global motion stimulus that mimics self-motion through the environment. We then examined the en...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory receptor noise corrupts sensory signals, contributing to imperfect perception and dictating central processing strategies. For example, noise in rod phototransduction limits our ability to detect light, and minimizing the impact of this noise requires precisely tuned nonlinear processing by the retina. But detection sensitivity is only one...
Preprint
A major cause of human blindness is the death of rod photoreceptors. As rods degenerate, synaptic structures between rod and rod bipolar cells dissolve and the rod bipolar cells extend their dendrites and occasionally make aberrant contacts. Such changes are broadly observed in blinding disorders caused by photoreceptor cell death and is thought to...
Article
Full-text available
Visual processing is largely organized into ON and OFF pathways that signal stimulus increments and decrements, respectively. These pathways exhibit natural pairings based on morphological and physiological similarities, such as ON and OFF -ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. Several studies have noted asymmetries in the properties of ON and O...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sensory receptor noise corrupts sensory signals, contributing to imperfect perception and dictating central processing strategies. For example, noise in rod phototransduction limits our ability to detect light and minimizing the impact of this noise requires precisely tuned nonlinear processing by the retina. But detection sensitivity is only one a...
Article
Direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) deliver signals from the retina to multiple brain areas to indicate the presence and direction of motion. Delivering reliable signals in response to motion is critical across light levels. Here we determine how populations of DSGCs adapt to changes in light level, from moonlight to daylight. Using large-sc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual processing is largely organized into ON and OFF pathways that signal stimulus increments and decrements, respectively. These pathways exhibit natural pairings based on morphological and physiological similarities, such as ON and OFF alpha ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. Several studies have noted asymmetries in the properties of ON a...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of conditions ranging from glaucoma to blunt force trauma lead to optic nerve atrophy. Identifying signaling pathways for stimulating axon growth in the optic nerve may lead to treatments for these pathologies. Inhibiting signaling by the nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1) promotes the re-extension of axons following a crush injury to the optic ne...
Article
Full-text available
A common strategy by which developing neurons locate their synaptic partners is through projections to circuit-specific neuropil sublayers. Once established, sublayers serve as a substrate for selective synapse formation, but how sublayers arise during neurodevelopment remains unknown. Here, we identify the earliest events that initiate formation o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Impact statement Selective synapse formation in a retinal motion-sensitive circuit is orchestrated by starburst amacrine cells, which use homotypic interactions to initiate formation of a dendritic scaffold that recruits projections from circuit partners. SUMMARY A common strategy by which developing neurons locate their synaptic partners is throu...
Article
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupillary light reflex, circadian entrainment, and may contribute to luminance and color perception. The diversity of ipRGCs varies from rodents to primates, suggesting differences in their contributions to retinal output. To further understand the variability in their organiz...
Article
Retinal direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) have the remarkable ability to encode motion over a wide range of contrasts, relying on well-coordinated excitation and inhibition (E/I). E/I is orchestrated by a diverse set of glutamatergic bipolar cells that drive DSGCs directly, as well as indirectly through feedforward GABAergic/cholinergic si...
Article
We have determined the impact of rod death and cone reorganization on the spatiotemporal receptive fields (RFs) and spontaneous activity of distinct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types. We compared RGC function between healthy and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) model rats (S334ter-3) at a time when nearly all rods were lost but cones remained. This allowe...
Article
Full-text available
Human vision is exquisitely sensitive—a dark-adapted observer is capable of reliably detecting the absorption of a few quanta of light. Such sensitivity requires that the sensory receptors of the retina, rod photoreceptors, generate a reliable signal when single photons are absorbed. In addition, the retina must be able to extract this information...
Article
The mammalian retina is composed of ~80 distinct neuronal cell types. These neurons work in concert to parcel visual information into ~30 different RGC types, each of which transmits a different message about the visual scene to the brain. I will describe ongoing work in my lab to define the functional role of different cell types in the mammalian...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the function of modulatory interneuron networks is a major challenge, because such networks typically operate over long spatial scales and involve many neurons of different types. Here, we use an indirect electrical imaging method to reveal the function of a spatially extended, recurrent retinal circuit composed of two cell types. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
This study combines for the first time two major approaches to understanding the function and structure of neural circuits: large-scale multielectrode recordings, and confocal imaging of labeled neurons. To achieve this end, we develop a novel approach to the central problem of anatomically identifying recorded cells, based on the electrical image:...
Article
Full-text available
Amacrine cells are the most diverse and least understood cell class in the retina. Polyaxonal amacrine cells (PACs) are a unique subset identified by multiple long axonal processes. To explore their functional properties, populations of PACs were identified by their distinctive radially propagating spikes in large-scale high-density multielectrode...
Article
The propagation of visual signals from individual cone photoreceptors through parallel neural circuits was examined in the primate retina. Targeted stimulation of individual cones was combined with simultaneous recording from multiple retinal ganglion cells of identified types. The visual signal initiated by an individual cone produced strong respo...
Article
Full-text available
It has recently become possible to identify cone photoreceptors in primate retina from multi-electrode recordings of ganglion cell spiking driven by visual stimuli of sufficiently high spatial resolution. In this paper we present a statistical approach to the problem of identifying the number, locations, and color types of the cones observed in thi...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory neurons have been hypothesized to efficiently encode signals from the natural environment subject to resource constraints. The predictions of this efficient coding hypothesis regarding the spatial filtering properties of the visual system have been found consistent with human perception, but they have not been compared directly with neural...
Conference Paper
Early investigations of efficient coding with the linear-Gaussian model showed striking similarities to experimental data (Atick & Redlich, 1990; van Hateren, 1992). However, direct comparison with the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) receptive fields has been hampered by three limitations: (a) RGC receptive fields under photopic conditions should be wr...
Article
Full-text available
Color has become a premier model system for understanding how information is processed by neural circuits, and for investigating the relationships among genes, neural circuits, and perception. Both the physical stimulus for color and the perceptual output experienced as color are quite well characterized, but the neural mechanisms that underlie the...
Article
Retinal ganglion cells exhibit substantial correlated firing: a tendency to fire nearly synchronously at rates different from those expected by chance. These correlations suggest that network interactions significantly shape the visual signal transmitted from the eye to the brain. This study describes the degree and structure of correlated firing a...
Article
Full-text available
To understand a neural circuit requires knowledge of its connectivity. Here we report measurements of functional connectivity between the input and ouput layers of the macaque retina at single-cell resolution and the implications of these for colour vision. Multi-electrode technology was used to record simultaneously from complete populations of th...
Article
The sensitivity of receptor cells places a fundamental limit upon the sensitivity of sensory systems. For example, the signal-to-noise ratio of sensory receptors has been suggested to limit absolute thresholds in the visual and auditory systems. However, the necessity of optimally processing sensory receptor signals for behaviour to approach this l...
Article
Current understanding of visual processing in the retina and central visual system is largely driven by measurements of receptive field structure. However, relatively little is known about how receptive fields are assembled from their elementary inputs, the photoreceptors. Here we report the first measurements of complete receptive field structure...
Article
Full-text available
Small bistratified cells (SBCs) in the primate retina carry a major blue-yellow opponent signal to the brain. We found that SBCs also carry signals from rod photoreceptors, with the same sign as S cone input. SBCs exhibited robust responses under low scotopic conditions. Physiological and anatomical experiments indicated that this rod input arose f...
Article
Full-text available
Author Summary All visual information reaching the brain is transmitted by retinal ganglion cells, each of which is sensitive to a small region of space known as its receptive field. Each of the 20 or so distinct ganglion cell types is thought to transmit a complete visual image to the brain, because the receptive fields of each type form a regula...
Article
Full-text available
The collective representation of visual space in high resolution visual pathways was explored by simultaneously measuring the receptive fields of hundreds of ON and OFF midget and parasol ganglion cells in isolated primate retina. As expected, the receptive fields of all four cell types formed regular mosaics uniformly tiling the visual scene. Surp...