Greg Dipple

Greg Dipple
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences

PhD

About

160
Publications
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5,357
Citations

Publications

Publications (160)
Article
Mineral carbonation with steel slag reduces greenhouse gas emissions and steel slag stockpiles. The mineral carbonation potential of steel slag was investigated by comparing fresh and weathered steel slag. Brownmillerite was discovered to be the most abundant inactive Ca-bearing mineral in steel slag, and the theoretical labile Ca was calculated us...
Article
Full-text available
Mineral carbonation of alkaline mine residues is a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy that can be employed by the mining industry. Here, we describe the mineralogy and reactivity of processed kimberlites and kimberlite ore from Venetia (South Africa) and Gahcho Kué (Canada) diamond mines, which are smectite-rich (2.3–44.1 wt.%). Whereas, serpent...
Article
Solid wastes produced during hard-rock mining have capacity to capture and store atmospheric CO2 via dissolution and precipitation of Mg-bearing carbonate minerals. However, there is a discrepancy in our understanding of weathering and dissolution in these wastes, with dissolution and reaction rates in field studies exceeding those predicted by exp...
Article
Full-text available
Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks is fundamental to modern plate tectonics and for volatile (re-)cycling into the mantle and magmatic arcs. Serpentinites are also highly reactive with CO2 such that they are prime targets for carbon sequestration. Serpentinization and carbonation of ultramafic rocks results in changes in their physical properties...
Article
Full-text available
Global efforts to combat climate change call for methods to capture and store CO2. Meanwhile, the global transition away from fossil energy will result in increased production of tailings (i.e., wastes) from the mining of nickel and platinum group metals (PGMs). Through carbon mineralization, CO2 can be permanently stored in calcium- and magnesium-...
Article
The alkaline playas near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada are likely one of the few surface environments on Earth where contemporaneous formation of hydromagnesite and magnesite occurs at temperatures that do not exceed 15 °C. This environment offers a unique opportunity to examine the impact of different formation mechanisms on Mg isotope compositi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
British Columbia contains extensive volumes of ultramafic rock that can sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) into solid magnesium carbonate minerals to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Serpentinites, altered hydrated ultramafic rocks, are of particular interest because they can be highly reactive to carbon dioxide at Earth’s surface conditions. S...
Article
Full-text available
To avoid dangerous climate change, new technologies must remove billions of tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere every year by mid-century. Here we detail a land-based enhanced weathering cycle utilizing magnesite (MgCO3) feedstock to repeatedly capture CO2 from the atmosphere. In this process, MgCO3 is calcined, producing caustic magnesia (MgO) and h...
Article
Hydrothermal white mica in the Highland Valley district, British Columbia, is present in high-temperature alteration assemblages in early halo veins and in intermediate-temperature sericitic alteration assemblages in D-type veins. Pale-gray white micas characterize early halo veins in the Valley and Bethsaida zone porphyry Cu-Mo deposits, whereas p...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon Dioxide removal from air (CDR) combined with permanent solid storage can be accomplished via carbon mineralization in ultramafic rocks in at least four ways: 1. Surficial CDR: CO2-bearing air and surface waters are reacted with crushed and or ground mine tailings, alkaline industrial wastes, or sedimentary formations rich in reactive rock fr...
Article
The Baptiste deposit is located within the Decar nickel district in British Columbia, Canada and is a promising candidate for a CO2 sequestration demonstration project. The deposit contains awaruite (nickel-iron alloy) hosted in an ultramafic complex, which is dominated by serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4; ∼80 wt.%] and contains reactive brucite [Mg(OH)2;...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerated carbonation of ultramafic mine tailings has the potential to offset CO2 emissions produced by mining ores from Cu-Ni-platinum group element, podiform chromite, diamondiferous kimberlite, and historical chrysotile deposits. Treatments such as acid leaching, reaction of tailings with elevated concentrations of gaseous CO2, and optimizatio...
Article
Full-text available
Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks can produce alteration minerals such as brucite (Mg(OH) 2), which has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide, and awaruite (Ni3Fe), a potential source of nickel. The Trembleur ultramafite is part of a dismembered ophiolite in central British Columbia. Field and petrographic data indicate that it is heterogene...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ultramafic rocks commonly host Ni ± Cu-PGE mineralization and can additionally be used to sequester CO2 through mineral carbonation. In general, highly serpentinized rocks have the highest fraction of labile Mg for carbonation at ‘ambient’ earth surface conditions. Serpentinization and carbonation result in detectable changes in the physical proper...
Article
Mineral carbonation represents a promising way of reducing the emission of anthropogenic GHG emissions, particularly in the Province of Québec where large amounts of serpentine mining residues are waiting for remediation. However, when used in reactors, serpentine minerals need to be activated to promote Mg2+ leaching. In this study, ground and ung...
Article
The Au-rich polymetallic massive sulfide orebodies of the Kassandra mining district belong to the intrusion-related carbonate-hosted replacement deposit class. Marble lenses contained within the Stratoni fault zone host the Madem Lakkos and Mavres Petres deposits at the eastern end of the fault system, where paragenetically early skarn and massive...
Article
The hydromagnesite–magnesite playas near Atlin, British Columba, Canada are unique Mg-carbonate depositional environments that have formed at Earth's surface since the end of the last deglaciation. This study elucidates the mechanisms, pathways, and rates of magnesite (MgCO 3 ) formation in these near-surface environments, which are challenging to...
Article
Carbonate-hosted hydrothermal deposits typically show narrow visible mineralogical and textural alteration halos, which inhibit exploration targeting. In contrast, hydrothermal odification of the country rock’s stable isotope composition usually extends far beyond the limited visible alteration. Hence, stable isotope studies should be an effective...
Chapter
Carbonate‐hosted ore deposits often have very limited mineralogical and lithogeochemical alteration halos, as the highly reactive carbonate host rocks neutralize acidic hydrothermal fluids, limiting the ability of those fluids to cause hydrothermal alteration or transport pathfinder elements into the surrounding rocks. However, carbon and oxygen st...
Article
The stability and longevity of carbonate minerals make them an ideal sink for surplus atmospheric carbon dioxide. Biogenic magnesium carbonate mineral precipitation from the magnesium-rich tailings generated by many mining operations could offset net mining greenhouse gas emissions, while simultaneously giving value to mine waste products. In this...
Article
Full-text available
De Beers kimberlite mine operations in South Africa (Venetia and Voorspoed) and Canada (Gahcho Kué, Victor, and Snap Lake) have the potential to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) through weathering of kimberlite mine tailings, which can store carbon in secondary carbonate minerals (mineral carbonation). Carbonation of ca. 4.7 to 24.0 wt% (average = 13...
Article
Full-text available
Better tools are needed to map the thermal structure of ore deposits. Here, carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is applied for the first time in epithermal, skarn, and carbonate-hosted deposits to identify the conditions involved in metal transport and deposition. Clumped isotope temperature calibrations were tested by measurement of carbonates f...
Article
Carbon mineralisation of ultramafic mine tailings can reduce net emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide by reacting Mg-silicate and hydroxide minerals with atmospheric CO2 to produce carbonate minerals. We investigate the controls on carbonate mineral formation at the derelict Woodsreef chrysotile mine (New South Wales, Australia). Quantitative...
Article
In this invited review, we summarize the main results of ongoing research on “in situ” carbon mineralization in ultramafic rocks, including outcrop studies in Oman, investigation of carbon mass transfer in subduction zones from the Oman Drilling Project, laboratory investigations and numerical modeling of the pressure of crystallization and reactio...
Article
Additions of carbon dioxide to hydrating concrete have been observed to result in performance benefits. In this study, oil-well cement (selected for its very low initial carbonate content) was hydrated in the presence and absence of pure CO2 gas. The evolution of the products and reactants was assessed through isothermal calorimetry, Quantitative X...
Article
Magnesite (MgCO3) is one of the most stable sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) and is therefore of great interest for long-term carbon storage. Although magnesite is the thermodynamically stable form of magnesium carbonate, the kinetic inhibition of low-temperature precipitation has hindered the development of carbon sequestration strategies that can b...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrothermally altered country rocks surrounding hydrothermal ore deposits are commonly characterized by altered δ18O and δ13C values relative to distal, unaltered rocks. Stable isotopes have been recognized as a powerful tool to complement traditional geochemical and geophysical approaches during mineral exploration, particularly in carbonate repl...
Article
Microfluidics experiments were used to examine mineral dissolution-precipitation reactions under evaporative conditions and identify pore-scale processes that control reaction rate. The entrainment of reacting mineral particles by a mobile water-gas interface driven by evaporation dramatically altered the relative abundance of reactive mineral surf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ultramafic mine tailings are being investigated for their potential to trap and store atmospheric CO 2. The anion exchange properties of hydrotalcite minerals, and their presence within many ultramafic mineral deposits, make them a potentially important resource for CO 2 sequestration. To this purpose we have investigated the formation mechanisms o...
Article
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to rapidly catalyze the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes...
Conference Paper
Mineral exploration programs can yield unparalleled access to fossil hydrothermal systems, but the pace and scale of these activities pose challenges for conventional approaches to documenting fluid-rock interactions. We have paired conventional carbonate mineral acidification preparations with new approaches in cavity-enhanced laser absorption spe...
Article
Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the p...
Article
Carbonate minerals are one of the primary carbon sinks under investigation for sequestering anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2). Ultramafic rock has the potential to act as a magnesium source for carbonate precipitation reactions utilizing atmospheric CO2. This study characterizes the release of magnesium from chrysotile tailings from the Clinton Cr...
Article
Comprehension of the genesis of Pb-Zn ore sys- tems is currently limited by a poor understanding of where these metals are sourced from. Our study of metal mobility during regional metamorphism in the Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia, demonstrates that in staurolite-absent siliciclastic metasedimentary rocks, biotite contains >80 % of the bulk roc...
Article
Madame President, SEG members, and guests: It is a pleasure to introduce Dr. Shaun Barker for the SEG Lindgren Award. Shaun’s nomination for this award was led by Prof. Stephen Cox of The Australian National University. Unfortunately, Stephen could not be here today, so it is my pleasure to present this citation in his stead. Shaun Barker’s resear...
Article
The evolution of mineral reactive surface area is an important control on the progress of carbon mineralization reactions that sequester anthropogenic CO2. Dry conditions in unsaturated porous media and the passivation of reactive surface area by secondary phase precipitation complicate predictions of reactive surface during carbon mineralization r...
Article
A cyanobacteria dominated consortium collected from an alkaline wetland located near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada accelerated the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] in a linear flow-through experimental model wetland. The concentration of magnesium decreased rapidly within 2 m of the inflow point of the 10-m-long (∼1.5 m...
Article
The calcite marble-hosted gem corundum (ruby, sapphire) occurrence near Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada, occurs in the Monashee Complex of the Omineca Belt of the Canadian Cordillera. Corundum occurs in thin, folded and stretched layers with green muscovite+Ba-bearing K-feldspar+anorthite (An0.85-1)±phlogopite±Na-poor scapolite. Other silicate...
Article
Full-text available
Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization that should be used to offset carbon emissions generated by the mining industry. Although passive carbonation is occurring at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond and Mount Keith nickel mines, there remains untapped potential fo...
Article
The duration of hydrothermal activity required to form ore deposits is poorly constrained. We demonstrate that thermochronology data, coupled with thermal modeling, can be used to constrain the duration of hydrothermal fluid flow. Apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology data define a conductive halo around an Eocene hydrothermal system that fo...
Article
This study formulates a comprehensive depositional model for hydromagnesite–magnesite playas. Mineralogical, isotopic and hydrogeochemical data are coupled with electron microscopy and field observations of the hydromagnesite–magnesite playas near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada. Four surface environments are recognized: wetlands, grasslands, local...
Article
Mount Polley is a Late Triassic (∼205 Ma) alkalic porphyry Cu-Au-Ag deposit (226.3 thousand tonnes (t) Cu, 21.5 t Au, and 65.1 t Ag), hosted by silica-undersaturated to silica-saturated monzonitic intrusions of the Mount Polley Complex, located in British Columbia, Canada. The Northeast ore zone at Mount Polley is hosted by magmatic-hydrothermal br...
Article
Full-text available
Mineralogical characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a high throughput automated quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) was conducted on samples from a sulphate-reducing biochemical reactor (BCR) treating high concentrations of metals (As, Zn, Cu) in smelter waste landfill seepage. The samples were al...
Article
Carbon sequestration research and technology is motivated by concerns that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing changes to Earth's climate and ecosystems that have the potential to cause serious, negative impacts on human welfare (IPCC 2005, 2007). As a global society, we will need to greatly improve energy efficiency and conservat...
Article
Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestratio...
Article
Full-text available
Serpentinites offer a highly reactive feedstock for carbonation reactions and the capacity to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) on a global scale. CO2 can be sequestered in mined serpentinite using high-temperature carbonation reactors, by carbonating alkaline mine wastes, or by subsurface reaction through CO2 injection into serpentinite-hosted aquife...
Article
The stable isotope ratios of various elements (e.g., H, C, O, S) have numerous uses to improve the understanding of the genesis and formation of hydrothermal and magmatic ore deposits, as well as having various applications to mineral exploration. However, stable isotope data has not been routinely collected during mineral exploration for various r...
Article
Atmospheric CO(2) is sequestered within ultramafic mine tailings via carbonation of Mg-bearing minerals. The rate of carbon sequestration at some mine sites appears to be limited by the rate of CO(2) supply. If carbonation of bulk tailings were accelerated, large mines may have the capacity to sequester millions of tonnes of CO(2) annually, offsett...