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Grant L Northcott

Grant L Northcott
Northcott Research Consultants Limited

PhD

About

86
Publications
12,689
Reads
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2,908
Citations
Education
January 1996 - February 2000
Lancaster University, Institute of Environmental and Biological Science
Field of study
  • Environmental Chemistry
February 1983 - December 1985
The University of Waikato
Field of study
  • Chemistry

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Microplastics (MPs) can negatively impact freshwater organisms via physical effects of the polymer itself and/or exposure to chemicals added to plastic during production to achieve desired characteristics. Effects on organisms may result from direct exposure to plastic particles and/or chemical additives or effects may manifest as indirect effects...
Article
Full-text available
Internationally, the environmental damage caused by the improper disposal of approximately 100 Mt of plastic waste per annum is of growing concern. Attempts to address this issue have generated many hundreds of scientific studies announcing the discovery of novel plastic-degrading microorganisms and their respective enzymes. On closer inspection, h...
Article
Full-text available
The fate and potential risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in treated sewage effluents remain to be fully characterised. This study applied a combination of chemical analysis and in vitro and in vivo bioassays to assess the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant to remove EDCs. Samples from all treatment stages contained...
Article
Profiles of 33 PFAS analytes and 12 essential and non-essential trace elements were measured in livers of stranded common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) from New Zealand. PFAS concentrations reported were largely comparable to those measured in other marine mammal species globally and composed mostly of long-chain compounds including perfluorooctanes...
Article
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Pharmaceuticals are an important class of micropollutants within the freshwater environment. There is sufficient evidence of their impacts on exposed biota to warrant further research to better assess their risk. We reviewed ecotoxicological freshwater studies conducted from 2010-2020 on carbamazepine, diclofenac, and ibuprofen, three high-use phar...
Article
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New Zealand has a reputation for having a comparatively clean environment but there is growing recognition that the freshwater ecosystems are under threat and continue to decline. Many monitoring frameworks use ecosystem-based assessments to demonstrate adverse impacts, but this approach has limitations to identify causalities. The aim of this stud...
Article
Full-text available
New Zealand has a reputation for having a comparatively clean environment but there is growing recognition that the freshwater ecosystems are under threat and continue to decline. Many monitoring frameworks use ecosystem-based assessments to demonstrate adverse impacts, but this approach has limitations to identify causalities. The aim of this stud...
Article
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as a source of microplastics, an emerging contaminant class of increasing concern, to the environment. Three WWTPs in the Canterbury region, New Zealand, were sampled bi-monthly from winter (June) to summer (December), to assess the variability of the abundance, morphology and polymer type of...
Article
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The risk of plastic debris, and specifically micro(nano)plastic particles, to ecosystems remains to be fully characterized. One particular issue that warrants further characterization is the hazards associated with chemical additives within micro(nano)plastic as they are not chemically bound within the polymers and can be persistent and biologicall...
Article
Plastic pollution is prevalent worldwide and has been highlighted as an issue of global concern due to its harmful impacts on wildlife. The extent and mechanism by which plastic pollution effects organisms is poorly understood, especially for microplastics. One proposed mechanism by which plastics may exert a harmful effect is through the leaching...
Article
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Coastal ecosystems are receiving environments for micropollutants due to high levels of associated anthropogenic activities. Effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants are a significant source of micropollutants to coastal environments. Wastewater effluents, seawater, sediments, and green-lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus) in Lyttelton Ha...
Article
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The Matāura River is the sixth largest river system in New Zealand and has long been subject to agricultural, industrial, and residential land use activities. The catchment has economic value and is of great cultural importance for local Māori, who have concerns over potential adverse impacts that anthropogenic stressors exert on the health of the...
Article
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The Mataura River is the sixth largest river system in New Zealand and has long been subject to agricultural, industrial, and residential land use activities. The catchment has economic value and is of great cultural importance for local Maori, who have concerns over potential adverse impacts that anthropogenic stressors exert on the health of the...
Article
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The risks associated with the presence of organic contaminants represent a barrier to the application of biosolids as a soil amendment. The characterisation of the risk of complex mixtures to receiving soil ecosystems remains challenging. In this study, triclosan, carbamazepine, and bisphenol A were selected as micro-contaminants frequently found i...
Article
Captan (a trichloromethyl sulfenyl fungicide) is commonly used for control of Neonectria ditissima in apple. In New Zealand, picking and leaf scars are the main source of new infections. The captan concentrations required for wound protection of leaf scars, picking and rasp wounds was determined in planta. Fresh wounds, inoculated with N. ditissima...
Article
There is increasing interest in induced resistance for crop protection. This study investigated effects of growth environment on inducible defences in developing radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) seedlings. Seedling were grown in the presence or absence of Trichoderma in either a temperature‐controlled growth room or in a greenhouse. After three,...
Article
Well validated and reliable biological assays using local and native species are required to characterise the impacts of pollution on ecosystem health. We identified a native estuarine pelagic copepod species suitable for assessing the ecotoxicological impact of anthropogenic contaminants. Gladioferens pectinatus fulfilled the necessary-selection c...
Article
The use of biosolids as a soil conditioner and fertiliser is hindered by the limited knowledge on the risks of micro-contaminants they contain. This study investigated the binding of six organic contaminants commonly found in biosolids, to the estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), and transthyretin (TTR) receptors and their redox ac...
Article
Steroid estrogens contamination has been linked to adverse effects on exposed aquatic biota. Steroid estrogens are excreted by all mammals and are found in most agricultural wastes including dairy manure and dairy shed effluent (DSE). Some previous studies have demonstrated elevated levels of free and conjugated estrogenic steroids in DSE and this...
Article
The effect of Trichoderma (T. atrobrunneumFCC320 and T. atrovirideLU633) and/or methyl jasmonate (MJ) on resistance to terminal crook (Colletotrichum acutatum) and on seedling biochemistry was investigated in radiata pine (Pinus radiata) seedlings. Seedlings were germinated and grown in Trichoderma-amended or non-amended media for 3 months and then...
Article
Stormwater contaminants are a major source of often neglected environmental stressors because of the emphasis placed on the management of municipal and industrial wastewaters. Stormwater-derived pollutants in sediments from two New Zealand estuaries was characterised by analytical chemistry and bioassays. Contaminants were extracted from sediment u...
Article
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Sediments represent a major sink for contaminants resulting from industrial and agricultural activities — especially lipophilic substances. This study exclusively used in vitro methodologies to characterize specific toxicity effects of contaminants in sediment extracts from two urban New Zealand estuaries. Sediment extracts were prepared and tested...
Article
The impact of changes in influent load on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by sewage treatment has not been fully characterised. This study assessed the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) to remove EDCs during normal and peak flow events of sewage influent using trace chemical analysis of selected EDCs...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Sewage sludge and biosolid application to land is a common approach to fertilise soils, but sewage-derived contaminants like the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and heavy metals zinc and copper, are known to affect soil microbial communities. In this study, the tolerance to triclosan was examined for soil microbial communities chronically pr...
Article
The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of orga...
Article
The degradation rate of sodium fluoroacetate (SFA) was assessed in a laboratory microcosm study incorporating three NZ soil types under different temperature (5, 10 or 20 °C) and soil moisture (35% or 60% water holding capacity) conditions using OECD Guideline 307. A combination of non-labelled and radio-labelled (14) C-SFA was added to soil microc...
Article
Autumn leaf scars are an important pathogen infection site for European canker on apples. Trials were undertaken to evaluate the effects of adjuvants on spray coverage of new leaf scars, and determine if adjuvants could (1) impart any significant rainfastness to protectant captan sprays and (2) provide any redistribution of captan during a rain eve...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of the environmental fate of organic micropollutants in Antarctica is limited, especially with respect to photolysis. The Antarctic is characterised by extreme light conditions of either continuous sunshine or darkness depending on the season. The photolytic degradation of benzophenone-3 (BP-3), bisphenol A (BPA), 17 alpha-ethinylestradio...
Article
Orchard soils can contain elevated concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), and heavy metals as a result of historical agrichemical applications. The bioavailability of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, As, Cd, Cu, and Pb from five field-aged New Zealand orchards and thre...
Article
Worldwide, estuaries are under increasing pressure from numerous contaminants. This study aimed to identify a suitable marine harpacticoid copepod species for toxicity testing of New Zealand estuaries. Multiple aspects were considered for species selection and included: a broad regional distribution, ease of culture, reproductive rate under laborat...
Article
Root drench application of Trichoderma atroviride isolates R32, R33, R40 and R84 promoted the growth of potted radiata pine seedlings. After 6 weeks, seedlings treated with R33 and R84 had thicker stems and greater stem and root biomass (p Diplodia pinea and reduced dieback incidence by 20% compared with untreated controls. To our knowledge, this i...
Article
Irradiation of Pinus radiata seedlings with ultraviolet‐C (UV‐C) radiation or spray application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) each resulted in induced resistance to subsequent wound inoculation with Diplodia pinea. Induced resistance was expressed by lower incidence of disease and by reduced size of stem lesions than in untreated seedlings. UV‐C was m...
Article
Steroid estrogens are found at high concentrations in untreated dairy shed effluents. Reduction of estrogenic activity and steroid estrogen concentrations was assessed in two systems used to treat dairy shed effluents: the two-pond system and the advanced pond system. Both include anaerobic and aerobic treatment stages. Samples of effluent were col...
Article
Increased environmental awareness has motivated retailers to label products with carbon footprints. This allows consumers to choose products according to their global warming potential. Public concern is also targeting pesticides. Heightened customer sensitivity to residues has already led to a ban on using certain pesticides by European retailers....
Article
The presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), in surface waters has been associated with physiological dysfunction in a number of aquatic organisms. One source of surface and groundwater contamination with E1 and E2 is the land application of animal wastes. The processes involved in the transport...
Article
Agricultural wastes are a source of steroid estrogens and, if present, conjugated estrogens may add to the estrogen load released to soil and aquatic environments. Dairy shed effluent samples were collected from 18 farms for analysis of steroid estrogens by GC-MS, conjugated estrogens by LC-MS-MS, and estrogenic activity by E-screen in vitro bioass...
Article
Organic carbon is the backbone of the soils ecosystem service to protect ground and surface water bodies against the contamination with pesticides. Our objective was to study the long-term effects of organic carbon (OC) inputs on the soil's generic filtering capacity for organic pesticides. We defined the generic filtering capacity of an aggregated...
Article
Recently, the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) has been reported for some pastoral NZ soils. The impact of decreased SOC on soil filtering capacity for pesticides was investigated using 2,4-D. The hypothesis was that in aggregated soils the filtering capacity for organic compounds depends on physical, chemical and biological properties at the aggr...
Article
Effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) concentration and number of applications on the resistance of Pinus radiata to Diplodia pinea infection were investigated. Associated changes in defence-related enzymes and chemicals in stem tissue, shoot water relations, photosynthesis and plant growth are also reported. One foliar application of 1.0 mM or 4.5 mM...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Mataura River is in the South Island (Southland Region) of New Zealand. It is 190 km long and flows through several towns whose industries and sewage treatment plants have outputs into it. Management of a 10 km section was returned to Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) who have engaged with researchers to investigate the health status...
Article
Horticultural soils can contain elevated concentrations of selected trace elements and organochlorine pesticides as a result of long-term use of agrichemicals and soil amendments. A glasshouse study was undertaken to assess the uptake of weathered SigmaDDT {sum of the p, p'- and o, p-isomers of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis( p-chlorophenyl)ethane],...
Article
We investigated the degradation of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)), bisphenol-A (BPA), and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) in river water-sediment and groundwater-aquifer material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results showed rapid degradation of all four compounds in both media with >90% of the four compounds degrad...
Article
We performed batch sorption experiments for 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) on selected soils collected from dairy farming regions of New Zealand. Isotherms were constructed by measuring the liquid phase concentration and extracting the solid phase with dichloromethane, followed by an exchange step, and analysis by HPLC and...
Article
We investigated the degradation of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol-A (BPA) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) in river water-sediment, and groundwater-aquifer material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results showed rapid degradation of all four compounds in both media with > 90% of the four compounds degraded...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to improve the ability of indigenous New Zealand white-rot fungi to remove pentachlorophenol (PCP) from contaminated field soil. The effects of different bioaugmentation conditions on PCP removal and extracellular enzyme expression were measured in the laboratory. The conditions were fungal growth substrate and co-substrate...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to improve the pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioremediation ability of white-rot fungi in highly contaminated field soils by manipulating bioaugmentation variables. These were the dry weight percentage of fungal inoculum addition (31-175 g kg(-1)), PCP concentration (100-2137 mg kg(-1) PCP), fungal inoculum formulation, and time...
Article
Full-text available
Pasture vegetation plays an important role in the air-surface exchange and food chain transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Therefore, considerable research has been focused towards measuring PAHs in vegetation using different analytical methods. However, in most cases information on the efficiencies of the different extraction metho...
Article
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) previously used as a timber treatment chemical to prevent sap stain and wood rot. Commonly used in wood treatment industries for the last 50 years, there are now many sites worldwide that are contaminated with PCP. Although persistent, PCP is a mobile contaminant and therefore has a pr...
Article
We report the results of a recent survey of the concentration of natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-estradiol, estrone, estriol) and the synthetic estrogen, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol in representative animal wastes and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents in the Waikato region of New Zealand. Dairy farm effluent samples showed high level...
Article
The variable nature of field-contaminated soil requires reliable assessments or treatability studies to optimise the bioremediation process in the field. In a series of laboratory-based studies, experiments were developed and conducted to determine fungal isolate variations, optimum fungal inoculum concentration, optimum treatable contaminant conce...
Article
Full-text available
To understand more clearly the groundwater contamination potential of herbicides applied to New Zealand soils, experimental field plots were established on 2 different soil types: Himatangi, a sandy dune soil, and Kiripaka, a silty clay derived from basalt. A mix of triazine herbicides, containing atrazine, terbuthylazine, and hexazinone, was appli...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to optimize butanol solvent shake extraction, dichloromethane soxtec extraction, and methanolic saponification extraction for the selective extraction of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil. Extraction kinetics for these methods was established to determine the optimal time necessary to achieve exhaustive compou...
Article
A survey of the digested sludge from 14 U.K. wastewater treatment plants was carried out to obtain contemporary U.K. data on the concentrations of certain classes of persistent organic compounds for which data are scarce and to assess whether U.K. sludge was likely to comply with the sludge limits for PCBs and PAHs proposed by the European Union. T...
Article
This study was carried out to assess the influence of physicochemical properties on PAH sequestration in sterile sewage sludge-amended arable soil. Radiolabeled phenanthrene (14C-9-Phe), pyrene (14C-4,5,9,10-Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (14C-7-B[a]P) were spiked and aged for up to 525 days in sterile soil microcosms. The degree of compound sequestratio...
Article
This study was carried out to assess the influence of PAH sequestration in sterile sewage sludge-amended arable soil on their dissolution behavior. Radiolabeled phenanthrene (14C-9-Phe), pyrene (14C-4,5,9,10-Pyr), and benzo[a]pyrene (14C-7-B[a]P) were spiked and aged for up to 525 days in sterile soil microcosms. The dissolution behavior of the com...
Article
During September and October, 1998, the new Integrated Organic Gas and Particle Sampler (IOGAPS), was operated at Hazelrigg, UK, the field measurement station of the University of Lancaster. Gas/particle partition ratios of twenty-two 2–5 ring PAH were determined using both the IOGAPS (in which the gas phase is collected before the particle phase)...
Article
A detailed comparison of two inherently different ambient air samplers has been conducted to fully characterize and compare their performance in sampling and measuring the partitioning of a suite of 29 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). A high volume air sampler (hi-vol) utilizing polyurethane foam (PUF) adsorbent for vapor-phase trapping and...
Article
The purpose of this study was to reevaluate a number of spiking procedures we had previously investigated for spiking dry soil, determine their suitability for spiking radiolabeled hydrophobic organic compounds in field-wet soil, and identify the optimal spiking procedure. In the first part of this study, two radiolabeled polycyclic aromatic hydroc...
Article
Studies on the fate and effects of organic pollutants in soil and sediment are often carried out under laboratory conditions and often require the study compound to be introduced, or spiked, into the test substrate. The procedures adopted to spike relatively large amounts of hydrophobic organic compounds into soil and sediment can introduce interfe...
Article
Ambient air samples were taken concurrently at four sites in northwest England to assess the role of domestic burning of coal/wood on ambient levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs (including co-PCBs), and PAHs. Fifty-six samples (ca. 800 m3 each) were taken in January and February 1998 at an urban site, a rural reference site, and two village sites, which relied...