Graham P Taylor

Graham P Taylor
Imperial College London | Imperial · Division of Infectious Diseases

MB ChB, DSc

About

473
Publications
32,569
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12,654
Citations
Citations since 2017
109 Research Items
5826 Citations
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (473)
Article
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Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of long-term sample storage on the concentrations of neopterin and neurofilament light (Nfl) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. These are useful markers of neuroinflammation and neuronal damage and have been applied as biomarkers for several neurological diseases. However, different pre...
Preprint
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Infections by Human T cell Leukaemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) persist for the lifetime of the host by integrating into the genome of CD4 ⁺ T cells. Proviral gene expression is core to proviral survival and the maintenance of the proviral load, through the pro-proliferative changes it induces in infected cells. Despite their role in HTLV-1 infection an...
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Although alterations in myeloid cells have been observed in COVID-19, the specific underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we examine the function of classical CD14+ monocytes in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 during the acute phase of infection and in healthy individuals. Monocytes from COVID-19 patients display altere...
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Human T lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) may be transmitted from mother to child and affects at least 5–10 million individuals worldwide, with severe consequences on health. Strategies to prevent transmission are important, as there is no treatment or vaccine. This systematic review aimed to identify interventions to prevent HTLV-1 mother-to-child tra...
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Background The Omicron wave of COVID-19 in England peaked in January 2022 resulting from the rapid transmission of the Omicron BA.1 variant. We investigate the spread and dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the population of England during February 2022, by region, age and main SARS-CoV-2 sub-lineage. Methods In the REal-time Assessment of Comm...
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Rapid transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has led to record-breaking case incidence rates around the world. Since May 2020, the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study tracked the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection in England through RT-PCR of self-administered throat and nose swabs from randomly-selected participant...
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Demand for accurate SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics is high. Most samples in the UK are collected in the community and rely on the postal service for delivery to the laboratories. The current recommendation remains that swabs should be collected in Viral Transport Media (VTM) and transported with a cold chain to the laboratory for RNA extraction and RT-qPCR...
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The viral transactivator Tax plays a key role in HTLV-1 reactivation and de novo infection. Previous approaches focused on the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Valproate as a latency-reversing agent to boost Tax expression and expose infected cells to the host’s immune response. However, following treatment with Valproate proviral load decreas...
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Background Knowledge of the window of SARS-CoV-2 infectiousness is crucial in developing policies to curb transmission. Mathematical modelling based on scarce empirical evidence and key assumptions has driven isolation and testing policy, but real-world data are needed. We aimed to characterise infectiousness across the full course of infection in...
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Background Assessing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children in schools is of crucial importance to inform public health action. We assessed frequency of acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 by contacts of pupils with COVID-19 in schools and households, and quantified SARS-CoV-2 shedding into air and onto fomites in both settings. Methods We did a prospective...
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The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been characterised by the regular emergence of genomic variants. With natural and vaccine-induced population immunity at high levels, evolutionary pressure favours variants better able to evade SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies. The Omicron variant (first detected in November 2021) exhibited a high degree of immune evas...
Preprint
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Unresolved HIV statuses lead to individual distress, uncertainty around risk of transmission and there remains a lack of consensus on how best clinically manage such individuals, especially with regards to ART. Added value of this study We present a summary of how we have provided to a definitive HIV diagnosis for individuals with persistently inde...
Article
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) is a chronic disabling inflammatory disorder of the spinal cord caused by HTLV-1 infection. The diagnosis of HAM is based on clinical and laboratorial findings. The disease is characterized by the presence of spastic paraparesis associated with the demonstration of anti-HTLV-1 antibodies or HTLV-1 genomes in blood...
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Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that is endemic in a number of regions across the world. There are an estimated 5–10 million people infected worldwide. Japan is currently the only country with a national antenatal screening programme in place. HTLV-1 is primarily transmitted sexually in adulthood, however it ca...
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Up to 3.8% of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-infected asymptomatic carriers (AC) eventually develop HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM). HAM occurs in patients with high (> 1%) HTLV proviral load (PVL). However, this cut-off includes more than 50% of ACs and therefore the risk needs to be refined. As HAM is additionally characterised by...
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Background Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection with Delta variant was increasing in England in late summer 2021 among children aged 5 to 17 years, and adults who had received two vaccine doses. In September 2021, a third (booster) dose was offered to vaccinated adults aged 50 years and over, vulnerable adults and healthcare/care-home workers, and a...
Article
Introduction Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection remains asymptomatic in >90% of the 20-million people infected worldwide. However in 3%, chronic inflammation within the thoracic spinal cord leads to progressive spastic paraparesis; HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM). This pathological process is not limited to the thoracic co...
Preprint
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Alterations in the myeloid immune compartment have been observed in COVID-19, but the specific mechanisms underlying these impairments are not completely understood. Here we examined the functionality of classical CD14+ monocytes as a main myeloid cell component in well-defined cohorts of patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 during the acute ph...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The third wave of COVID-19 in England peaked in January 2022 resulting from the rapid transmission of the Omicron variant. However, rates of hospitalisations and deaths were substantially lower than in the first and second waves Methods: In the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study we obtained data from a rand...
Article
The unprecedented rise in SARS-CoV-2 infections during December 2021 was concurrent with rapid spread of the Omicron variant in England and globally. We analyzed prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and its dynamics in England from end November to mid-December 2021 among almost 100,000 participants from the REACT-1 study. Prevalence was high with rapid growth...
Preprint
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Background Rapid transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has led to the highest ever recorded case incidence levels in many countries around the world. Methods The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study has been characterising the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus using RT-PCR test results from self-administered...
Article
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Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes lifelong T-cell infection in humans, impacting the host immune response. This virus causes a range of clinical manifestations, from inflammatory conditions, including neuronal damage (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy, HAM) to life-threatening leukemia (adult T-cell leukemia, ATL). H...
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At-home sampling is key to large scale seroprevalence studies. Dried blood spot (DBS) self-sampling removes the need for medical personnel for specimen collection but facilitates specimen referral to an appropriately accredited laboratory for accurate sample analysis. To establish a highly sensitive and specific antibody assay that would facilitate...
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Background England has experienced a third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic since the end of May, 2021, coinciding with the rapid spread of the delta (B.1.617.2) variant, despite high levels of vaccination among adults. Vaccination rates (single dose) in England are lower among children aged 16–17 years and 12–15 years, whose vaccination in England co...
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Accurate and sensitive detection of antibody to SARS-CoV-2 remains an essential component of the pandemic response. Measuring antibody that predicts neutralising activity and the vaccine response is an absolute requirement for laboratory-based confirmatory and reference activity. The viral receptor binding domain (RBD) constitutes the prime target...
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Corticosteroids are most commonly used to treat HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM); however, their clinical efficacy has not been tested in randomized clinical trials. This randomized controlled trial included 8 and 30 HAM patients with rapidly and slowly progressing walking disabilities, respectively. Rapid progressors were assigned (1:1) to recei...
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Cross-reactive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 have been observed in pre-pandemic cohorts and proposed to contribute to host protection. Here we assess 52 COVID-19 household contacts to capture immune responses at the earliest timepoints after SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Using a dual cytokine FLISpot assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we enumerat...
Preprint
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Background The highest-ever recorded numbers of daily severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in England has been observed during December 2021 and have coincided with a rapid rise in the highly transmissible Omicron variant despite high levels of vaccination in the population. Although additional COVID-19 measures h...
Preprint
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Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, evolutionary pressure has driven large increases in the transmissibility of the virus. However, with increasing levels of immunity through vaccination and natural infection the evolutionary pressure will switch towards immune escape. Here we present phylogenetic relationships and lineage dynamics within England (a...
Preprint
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Background: It has been nearly a year since the first vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 were delivered in England. The third wave of COVID-19 in England began in May 2021 as the Delta variant began to outcompete and largely replace other strains. The REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) series of community surveys for SARS-CoV-2...
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The lung is one of several organs that can be affected by HTLV-1 mediated inflammation. Pulmonary inflammation associated with HTLV-1 infection involves the interstitium, airways and alveoli, resulting in several clinical entities including interstitial pneumonias, bronchiolitis and alveolitis, depending on which structures are most affected. Augme...
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Background Pregnant women living with HIV infection (PWLWH) have elevated rates of preterm birth (PTB) in which HIV and cART are implicated. PWLWH also have a high prevalence of adverse vaginal microbiota, which associate with genital tract inflammation. The mechanism underlying PTB in PWLWH is unknown. We present the first data in PWLWH on genital...
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Introduction The success of case isolation and contact tracing for the control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission depends on the accuracy and speed of case identification. We assessed whether inclusion of additional symptoms alongside three canonical symptoms (CS) - fever; cough; loss or change in smell or taste – could improve case definitions and acceler...
Preprint
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Background: The third wave of COVID-19 in England coincided with the rapid spread of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 from the end of May 2021. Case incidence data from the national testing programme (Pillar 2) in England may be affected by changes in testing behaviour and other biases. Community surveys may provide important contextual information...
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Background and Objectives To evaluate the usefulness of CSF and plasma neurofilament light (Nf-L) as a biomarker for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM). Methods Nf-L, CXCL10, and neopterin were measured by ELISA in 83 CSF samples obtained from 49 individuals living with HTLV-1/2. Plasma Nf-L was also measur...
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Background The SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant is highly transmissible and spreading globally, including in populations with high vaccination rates. We aimed to investigate transmission and viral load kinetics in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals with mild delta variant infection in the community. Methods Between Sept 13, 2020, and Sept...
Article
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Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are relatively common in Brazil but remain silent and neglected infections. HTLV-1 is associated with a range of diseases with high morbidity and mortality. There is no curative treatment for this lifelong infection, so measures to prevent transmission are essential. This narrative review discuss...
Preprint
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Background The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to drive rates of illness and hospitalisations despite high levels of vaccination, with the proportion of cases caused by the Delta lineage increasing in many populations. As vaccination programs roll out globally and social distancing is relaxed, future SARS-CoV-2 trends are uncertain. Me...
Article
A 53-year-old woman developed subacute onset of upper limb weakness, sensory loss and cerebellar dysfunction. She was known to have human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy. MR scan of the brain showed extensive T2 hyperintensity within the deep and subcortical white matter, with punctate contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal...
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Background: HTLV-1/2 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is an important route for the maintenance of HTLV-1/2 within populations and disproportionally contributes to the burden of HTLV-1-associated diseases. Avoidance of breastfeeding is the safest recommendation to prevent MTCT. Due to the benefits of breastfeeding, alternative methods that woul...
Article
There is growing evidence that measurement of SARS-CoV-2 viral copy number can inform clinical and public health management of SARS-CoV-2 carriers and COVID-19 patients. Here we show that quantification of SARS-CoV-2 is feasible in a clinical setting, using a duplex RT-qPCR assay which targets both the E gene (Charité assay) and a human RNA transcr...
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The coronaviral spike is the dominant viral antigen and the target of neutralizing antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 spike binds biliverdin and bilirubin, the tetrapyrrole products of haem metabolism, with nanomolar affinity. Using cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we mapped the tetrapyrrole interaction pocket to a deep cleft on...
Article
Background Coinfection with HIV-1 and HTLV-1 diminishes the value of the CD4 + T-cell count in diagnosing AIDS, and increases the rate of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. It remains elusive how HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection is related to such clinical characteristics. Here, we investigated the mutual effect of HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection on their integration...
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Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) arises from clonally expanded T cells that are infected with human T cell leukaemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1). Here, we show that ATL can be detected early in HTLV-1-carriers through quantification of T-cell receptor (TCR)Vβ subunit diversity on T-cells infected with HTLV-1 (CD3+ CCR4+ CD26− T-cells) using an ‘olig...
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While it is now widely accepted that host inflammatory responses contribute to lung injury, the pathways that drive severity and distinguish coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from other viral lung diseases remain poorly characterized. We analyzed plasma samples from 471 hospitalized patients recruited through the prospective multicenter ISARIC4C...
Preprint
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Background. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children and young people in school settings has not been directly evaluated, nor the main mechanisms of transmission identified. The study set out to undertake sequential longitudinal sampling of infected children, their contacts, and the environment. Methods. Cases of COVID-19 were identified through stat...
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Objective To evaluate the performance of new lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) suitable for use in a national coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) seroprevalence programme (real time assessment of community transmission 2—React 2). Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Laboratory analyses were performed in the United Kingdom at Imperial Colleg...
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It is currently unknown how Post-COVID-19 Syndrome (PCS) may affect those infected with SARS-CoV-2. This longitudinal study reports on healthcare staff who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between March-April 2020 and follows their antibody titres and symptomatology. Over half (n=21/38) had PCS at 7-8 months. There was no statistically significant di...
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Background Pregnant women living with HIV-1 infection (PWLWH) have an elevated risk of preterm birth (PTB) of unknown aetiology, which remains after successful suppression of HIV. Women at high risk for HIV have a common bacterial profile which has been associated with poor birth outcomes. We set out to explore factors associated with gestational a...
Article
The association between high proviral load (PVL) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cognitive disturbance and white matter brain lesions in HTLV-1-infected individuals is still undefined. A cross-sectional study included 62 participants: 22 asymptomatic carriers (mean age 43.4 ± 13.1 years old), 22 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopa...
Preprint
Full-text available
The coronaviral spike is the dominant viral antigen and the target of neutralizing antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 spike binds biliverdin and bilirubin, the tetrapyrrole products of haem metabolism, with nanomolar affinity. Using cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography we mapped the tetrapyrrole interaction pocket to a deep cleft on...
Article
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Background: Urinary dysfunction is one of the main features of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, a comprehensive assessment of the severity is difficult because a standardized assessment measure is unavailable. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a novel symptom score for t...
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Introduction Chronic infection with human T‐cell lymphotropic virus type‐1 (HTLV‐1) may result in aggressive adult T‐cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) in 4‐6% carriers. The majority of this risk arises in carriers infected during infancy, and so each infant has ∼25% lifetime risk. Other risk factors include a family history of ATL. Antenatal HTLV‐1 scr...
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At the start of the UK coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, this rare point prevalence study revealed that one-third of patients (15 of 45) in a London inpatient rehabilitation unit were found to be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) but asymptomatic. We report on 8 patients in detail, including their clinical...
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Background: Access to rapid diagnosis is key to the control and management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Laboratory RT-PCR testing is the current standard of care but usually requires a centralised laboratory and significant infrastructure. We describe our diagnostic accuracy assessment of a novel, rapid point-of...
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Information on the extent of drug exposure to mothers and infants during pregnancy and lactation normally becomes available years after regulatory approval of a drug. Clinicians face knowledge gaps on drug selection and dosing in pregnancy and infant exposure during breastfeeding. Physiological changes during pregnancy often result in lower drug ex...
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Background: In pregnancy, reduction of HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for the prevention of vertical transmission is time-constrained. The study primary objective is to investigate factors associated with faster initial HIV RNA half-life decay when combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) is initiated in pregnancy. Methods: This was a multicentr...
Preprint
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Background In pregnancy, reduction of HIV plasma viral load (pVL) for the prevention of vertical transmission is time-constrained. The study primary objective is to investigate factors associated with faster initial HIV RNA half-life decay when combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) is initiated in pregnancy. Methods This was a multicentre, r...