Graham J Hitch

Graham J Hitch
The University of York · Department of Psychology

MA MSc PhD

About

178
Publications
60,606
Reads
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19,233
Citations
Citations since 2016
34 Research Items
7120 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - present
The University of York
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
October 2000 - September 2011
The University of York
October 1991 - October 2000
Lancaster University

Publications

Publications (178)
Article
Full-text available
Research from a working memory perspective on the encoding and temporary maintenance of sequential instructions has established a consistent advantage for enacted over verbal recall. This is thought to reflect action planning for anticipated movements at the response phase. We describe five experiments investigating this, comparing verbal and enact...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research reported bilingual cognitive strengths in working memory, executive function and novel-word learning skills (Bialystok in Psychol Bull 143:233–262, 2017; Kaushanskaya and Marian in Psychon Bull Rev 16:705–710, 2009). These skills should also support bilingual children’s vocabulary and reading development, yet bilingual children sh...
Article
Full-text available
Research from a working memory perspective on the encoding and temporary maintenance of sequential instructions has established a consistent advantage for enacted over verbal recall. This is thought to reflect action planning for anticipated movements at the response phase. We describe five experiments investigating this, comparing verbal and enact...
Article
While many memory disorders occur with normal rates of forgetting, an accelerated rate of long-term forgetting (ALF) may occur, sometimes in the absence of a learning deficit. Detecting ALF presents a problem as it is desirable that the learned material is re-tested after each of several delays. This may result in earlier retrievals confounding lat...
Chapter
The multicomponent model aims to provide a broad theoretical framework enabling both more detailed fractionation and analysis of its components, and a capacity for it be used fruitfully beyond the laboratory. In its current form it comprises four interacting components. Two of these are modality-specific memory storage systems, one verbal-acoustic,...
Article
Full-text available
Though there is substantial evidence that individuals can prioritize more valuable information in visual working memory, little research has examined this in the verbal domain. Four experiments were conducted to investigate this and the conditions under which effects emerge. In each experiment, participants listened to digit sequences and then atte...
Article
Full-text available
We review our research on the episodic buffer in the multicomponent model of working memory (Baddeley, 2000), making explicit the influence of Anne Treisman’s work on the way our research has developed. The crucial linking theme concerns binding, whereby the individual features of an episode are combined as integrated representations. We summarize...
Article
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Working memory capacity is commonly measured in terms of its item span, and much less often in terms of its time span, or “period.” The former measures how many items can be stored in working memory when carrying out episodes of concurrent processing. The latter complements this by determining the duration of processing episodes that can be tolerat...
Article
Full-text available
Immediate serial recall of sentences has been shown to be superior to that of unrelated words. This study was designed to further explore how this effect might emerge in recall and to establish whether it also extends to serial recognition, a different form of response task that has relatively reduced output requirements. Using auditory or visual p...
Article
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The term “modal model” reflects the importance of Atkinson and Shiffrin’s paper in capturing the major developments in the cognitive psychology of memory that were achieved over the previous decade, providing an integrated framework that has formed the basis for many future developments. The fact that it is still the most cited model from that peri...
Article
We respond to the comments of Logie and Vandierendonck to our article proposing benchmark findings for evaluating theories and models of short-term and working memory. The response focuses on the two main points of criticism: (a) Logie and Vandierendonck argue that the scope of the set of benchmarks is too narrow. We explain why findings on how wor...
Article
Any mature field of research in psychology-such as short-term/working memory-is characterized by a wealth of empirical findings. It is currently unrealistic to expect a theory to explain them all; theorists must satisfice with explaining a subset of findings. The aim of the present article is to make the choice of that subset less arbitrary and idi...
Article
Multitasking, a common feature of everyday life, requires simultaneous maintenance and operation of a range of action-controlling task sets. We attempt to investigate the role of working memory in multitasking by means of the embedded task paradigm. This involves setting up a primary task with a variable task set, which then has to be maintained th...
Article
We regard our multicomponent model of working memory as reflecting a hierarchy of buffer stores with buffer storage providing an effective way of combining information from two or more streams that may differ in either the speed of input or in the features coded. We illustrate this through the case of the phonological loop component of the model. W...
Article
A central goal of research on short-term memory (STM) over the past 2 decades has been to identify the mechanisms that underpin the representation of serial order, and to establish whether these mechanisms are the same across different modalities and domains (e.g., verbal, visual, spatial). A fruitful approach to addressing this question has involv...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on memory for a short sequence of visual stimuli indicates that access to the focus of attention can be achieved in either of two ways. The first is automatic and is indexed by the recency effect, the enhanced retention of the final item. The second is strategic and based on instructions to prioritize items differentially, a proce...
Article
Studies of the effects of bilingualism on cognition have given results that do not consistently replicate, reflecting at least in part wide differences in criteria for bilingualism and heterogeneity of language combinations within studied samples. We examined the bilingual advantage in attention, working memory and novel-word learning in early sequ...
Article
Full-text available
In visual working memory tasks, memory for an item is enhanced if participants are told that item is relatively more valuable than others presented within the same trial. Experiment 1 explored whether these probe value boosts (termed prioritization effects in previous literature) are affected by probe frequency (i.e. how often the more valuable ite...
Article
Immediate serial recall of verbal material is highly sensitive to impairment due to phonological similarity. While this has traditionally been interpreted as a within-sequence similarity effect, Engle (2007) proposed an interpretation based on interference from prior sequences, a phenomenon analogous to that found in the Peterson short-term memory...
Preprint
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory, adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to non-prioritized items (e.g. Hu et al., 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory, adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to non- prioritized items (e.g. Hu et al., 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the...
Data
Hurlstone and Hitch (2017) used computational simulations to compare the transposition error latency predictions of five different models of serial order. This integral supplementary document reports detailed information about the generic network architecture used for the simulations; how the different representational principles and models were im...
Article
A central goal of research on short-term memory (STM) over the past two decades has been to identify the mechanisms that underpin the representation of serial order, and to establish whether these mechanisms are the same across different modalities and domains (e.g., verbal, visual, spatial). A fruitful approach to addressing this question has invo...
Article
The concept of Levels of Processing (LOP), proposing that deep coding enhances retention, has played a central role in the study of episodic memory. Evidence has however been based almost entirely on retention of individual words. Across five experiments, we compare LOP effects between visual and verbal stimuli, using judgments of pleasantness as a...
Article
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The contents of visual working memory are likely to reflect the influence of both executive control resources and information present in the environment. We investigated whether executive attention is critical in the ability to exclude unwanted stimuli by introducing concurrent potentially distracting irrelevant items to a visual working memory par...
Article
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The capacity of serially-ordered auditory-verbal short-term memory (AVSTM) is sensitive to the timing of the material to be stored, and both temporal processing and AVSTM capacity are implicated in the development of language. We developed a novel ?rehearsal-probe? task to investigate the relationship between temporal precision and the capacity to...
Article
We examined the role of executive control in stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory using probed recall of a series of objects, a task that allows study of the dynamics of storage through analysis of serial position data. Experiment 1 examined whether executive control underlies goal-directed prioritization of certain...
Article
The study of human long-term memory has, for over 50 years been dominated by research on words. This is partly due to lack of suitable non-verbal materials. Experience in developing a clinical test suggested that door scenes can provide an ecologically relevant and sensitive alternative to the faces and geometrical figures traditionally used to stu...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of c...
Data
This supplementary document reports applications of two generalized versions of the five models of serial order to the grouped condition of Experiment 3 of Hurlstone and Hitch (submitted). Note that this is not a stand-alone document; please consult the main article before reading this supplement.
Article
How is the serial order of a spatial sequence represented in short-term memory? Previous research by Farrell and Lewandowsky (Farrell & Lewandowsky, 2004; Lewandowsky & Farrell, 2008) has shown that five alternative mechanisms for the representation of serial order can be distinguished on the basis of their predictions concerning the response times...
Article
Full-text available
A visual object can be conceived as comprising a number of features bound together by their joint spatial location. We investigate the question of whether the spatial location is automatically bound to the features or whether the two are separable using a previously developed paradigm whereby memory is disrupted by a visual suffix. Participants wer...
Article
From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domai...
Article
Full-text available
A visual object can be conceived of as comprising a number of features bound together by their joint spatial location. We investigate the question of whether the spatial location is automatically bound to the features or whether the two are separable, using a previously developed paradigm whereby memory is disrupted by a visual suffix. Participants...
Poster
Full-text available
In the present study, we investigated the contribution of the three components of working memory - Central Executive, Phonological Loop and Visuospatial Sketchpad - to three aspects of mathematics in primary school children.
Article
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Four experiments studied the interfering effects of a to-be-ignored ‘stimulus suffix’ on cued recall of feature bindings for a series of objects. When each object was given equal weight (Experiment 1) or rewards favored recent items (Experiments 2 and 4), a recency effect emerged that was selectively reduced by a suffix. The reduction was greater f...
Article
Full-text available
How does executive attentional control contribute to memory for sequences of visual objects, and what does this reveal about storage and processing in working memory? Three experiments examined the impact of a concurrent executive load (backward counting) on memory for sequences of individually presented visual objects. Experiments 1 and 2 found di...
Article
In four experiments using a variation of the Hebb repetition task, we investigated the effects on learning rate, of repetition spacing and of the overlap in experimental items between repeating and nonrepeating lists. In the first two experiments it was shown that when repeating and nonrepeating lists were all permutations of the same items, learni...
Article
Two experiments compared the efficacy of errorless and errorful training procedures in the acquisition of novel words in typical adults. One experiment involved learning novel names for novel objects, while a second involved learning obscure English words and their definitions. In both studies the errorless method led to significantly better learni...
Article
Recent research has suggested that keeping track of a task goal in rapid task switching may depend on the phonological loop component of working memory. In this study, we investigated whether the phonological loop plays a similar role when a single switch extending over several trials is required after many trials on which one has performed a compe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Closing the eyes during recall can help witnesses remember more about a witnessed event. This study examined the effectiveness of eye-closure in a repeated recall paradigm with immediate free recall followed 1 week later by both free and cued recall. We examined whether eye-closure was more or less effective during the second free-recall at...
Article
The current experiment examined the relative advantage of an errorless learning technique over an errorful one in the acquisition of novel names for unfamiliar objects in typically developing children aged between 7 and 9years. Errorless learning led to significantly better learning than did errorful learning. Processing speed and vocabulary predic...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to resolve an apparent contradiction between previous experiments from different laboratories, using dual-task methodology to compare effects of a concurrent executive load on immediate recognition memory for colours or shapes of items or their colour–shape combinations. Results of two experiments confirmed previous evidence that an irrele...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that closing the eyes can facilitate recall of semantic and episodic information. Here, two experiments are presented which investigate the theoretical underpinnings of the eye-closure effect and its auditory equivalent, the "ear-closure" effect. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a violent videotaped event and were su...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental research into children’s working memory span has shown that retention duration contributes substantially to span performance, while processing efficiency need not be related to concurrent memory load (Towse, Hitch, & Hutton, 1998). These findings have been used to argue for a model of working memory span that emphasizes time-based forg...
Article
In this chapter, Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch provide an account of the history of the working memory concept and of their own substantial contributions, in addition to summaries of their ongoing research programmes. The broad scope of their chapter offers contexts for many, if not all of the chapters that follow. © Oxford University Press, 2014....
Article
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the popular model of working memory outlined by Baddeley and Hitch, and how a family of experimental tasks has been designed to measure the capacity of working memory. The interpretation of the data seeks to provide a synthesis between individual-difference and experimental approaches, issues concerning each approach, and the...
Article
Three tests were devised to assess in some depth elementary numerical abilities in a sample of 95 industrial trainee apprentices many of whom had passed CSE mathematics. The tests covered basic aspects of a variety of topics, including arithmetic manipulation of natural numbers, decimals and fractions; approximation; magnitude; ratio; and percentag...
Article
Previous research indicates that visual attention can be automatically captured by sensory inputs that match the contents of visual working memory. However, Woodman and Luck (2007) showed that information in working memory can be used flexibly as a template for either selection or rejection according to task demands. We report two experiments that...
Article
Full-text available
Closing the eyes helps memory. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the eyeclosure effect by exposing 80 eyewitnesses to different types of distraction during the witness interview: blank screen (control), eyes closed, visual distraction, and auditory distraction. We examined the cognitive load hypothesis by comparing any type of distraction (...
Article
Three experiments investigated whether the articulatory loop is used as a temporary phonological store in 7- to 9-year-old children's reading. Performance of various reading tasks was examined with and without articulatory suppression, an interference procedure which disrupts the articulatory loop. Experiment 1 used a lexical decision task involvin...
Article
Full-text available
In a series of five experiments, we studied the effect of a visual suffix on the retention in short-term visual memory of both individual visual features and objects involving the binding of two features. Experiments 1A, 1B, and 2 involved suffixes consisting of features external to the to-be-remembered set and revealed a modest but equivalent disr...
Article
Full-text available
A brief account is presented of the three-component working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. This is followed by an account of some of the problems it encountered in explaining how information from different subsystems with different codes could be combined, and how it was capable of communicating with long-term memory. In order to acco...
Article
Full-text available
A series of experiments explored the mechanisms determining the encoding and storage of features and objects in visual working memory. We contrasted the effects of three types of visual suffix on cued recall of a display of colored shapes. The suffix was presented after the display and before the recall cue. The latter was either the color or shape...
Article
Previous research has established the relevance of working memory for cognitive development. Yet the factors responsible for shaping performance in the complex span tasks used to assess working memory capacity are not fully understood. We report a study of reading span in 7- to 11-year-old children that addresses several contemporary theoretical is...
Article
Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted vers...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies of visual short-term memory have suggested that the binding of features such as color and shape into remembered objects is relatively automatic. A series of seven experiments broadened this investigation by comparing the immediate retention of colored shapes with performance when color and shape were separated either spatially or tem...
Article
Language-music comparative studies have highlighted the potential for shared resources or neural overlap in auditory short-term memory. However, there is a lack of behavioral methodologies for comparing verbal and musical serial recall. We developed a visual grid response that allowed both musicians and nonmusicians to perform serial recall of lett...
Article
Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians’ short-term memory using a newly adapted vers...
Article
Full-text available
A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To facilita...
Article
Three experiments tested predictions of a neural network model of phonological short-term memory that assumes separate representations for order and item information, order being coded via a context-timing signal [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (1999). Memory for serial order: A network model of the phonological loop and its timing. Psychological Revi...