Graham Banks

Graham Banks

Doctor of Philosophy

About

33
Publications
11,503
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
450
Citations

Publications

Publications (33)
Article
Full-text available
The rare earth elements and high-field-strength elements (REE-HFSE) exploration sector conducts most evaluations at deposit and smaller scales. It is not evident how the sector performs a preceding exploration stage—rating and prioritising REE-HFSE mineralised provinces—to determine which global provinces are prospective enough to warrant investmen...
Article
Full-text available
A glossary of commonly used terms related to the geometric forms and geological settings of basement highs is presented, qualifying prefixes for the term basement are discussed, and a scheme for characterising basement highs is presented. This scheme is designed to standardise, and to add rigour to, description of basement highs. It will thereby en...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A contextual, probabilistic REE-HFSE mineral system approach is being developed by the authors to enable any REE-HFSE mineral system's extent to be defined, mapped and risked in 4D. This will enable systematic investigation of the crustal pathways and potential trap locations along which a mantle-derived REE-HFSE 'batch' may now be distributed. A w...
Article
Full-text available
Basement highs are large structural features, commonly buried in sedimentary basins (Busby & Azor 2012). They are of interest for natural resources exploration and research because of their ability to influence migration and entrapment of petroleum (Trice 2014) and water, and the deposition of metals (Hitzman 2005; Borg et al. 2012). Three-dimensio...
Article
Full-text available
Basement highs are large structural features, commonly buried in sedimentary basins (Busby & Azor 2012). They are of interest for natural resources exploration and research because of their ability to influence migration and entrapment of petroleum (Trice 2014) and water, and the deposition of metals (Hitzman 2005; Borg et al. 2012). Three-dimensio...
Method
Full-text available
The Kaiserstuhl Volcanic Complex (KVC) is a REE-HFSE mineralised alkaline igneous district in SW Germany. and a KVC 'branch' of the SW Germany Variscan-Miocene Carbonatite REE-HFSE mineral system. During the last few years the HiTech AlkCarb working group has identified new indications of REE-HFSE mineralisation in magmatic, sedimentary and regolit...
Article
Full-text available
Security of supply of “hi-tech” raw materials (including the rare earth elements (REE) and some high-field-strength elements (HFSEs)) is a concern for the European Union. Exploration and research projects mostly focus on deposit- to outcrop-scale description of carbonatite- and alkaline igneous-associated REE-HFSE mineralization. The REE-HFSE miner...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Some examples from the design of a holistic exploration workflow: adapting Play-Based Exploration for mineral exploration. The pdf is a modified version of the presentation given in the EIT raw Materials conference, November 2018. It displays some concepts of a mineral exploration 'play' for critical metals within a holistic exploration process,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Crystalline basement fracture networks are known to host economically viable mineral deposits, e.g. orogenic gold, non-magmatic copper and petroleum Reserves (fractured, basement reservoirs in >30 countries). Liverpool Land Basement High presents an ideal natural lab to discern basement fracture network evolutionary processes in 4D. Reconnaissance...
Research
Full-text available
The HiTech AlkCarb team and some seasoned industry professionals have completed an insightful and valuable field study in Namibia during April 2018. We gained much new knowledge and collaboration in the excursion's three target themes:  Integrating geophysics with mineralogy of alkaline silicate rocks and carbonatites (which could host EU defined...
Presentation
Full-text available
Contents •Chunya region, Lupa Goldfield history, Chunya gold rush town •The ‘Beyond the End of Civilisation ‘Road •Itumbi small-scale gold mining, village, exploration tunnel •The geologist’s typical day: safe corporate methods at a small-scale •Geological advisor’s role •Drill cores: Gaga Gold Reef, lithologies, textures, structures •Conclusions W...
Presentation
Full-text available
• Display some ‘textbook’ petroleum geoscience elements in northern Iraq • Remind about the breadth of components required for models and risking • Demonstrate the need for fieldwork: go and ground-truth computer models • Illustrate need for long, strong, trusting relationships with the citizens, and manage their expectations: it’s their oil and ga...
Presentation
Full-text available
Contents 1. Introduction 2. Fracture definitions and types • To incorporate into reservoir models 3. Common assumptions to review a. Fractures generated during contraction, folding and faulting b. Curvature analysis to predict high fracture intensity c. Fractures enhance rock permeability for fluids d. Apertures are cm scale e. Fractures containing...
Presentation
Full-text available
1.Syn-depositional tectonism just 5 minutes from the office 2.Valid analogues for several syn-’sedimentary’ tectonic styles: same basin at the same time 3.Complex, multi-phase evolution of basin, controlled by climate 4. See how normal faults are not a product of extensional tectonics, but a product of maximum compressive stress oriented vertically...
Conference Paper
Key Messages •Exploration in Labrador deep water region is frontier: low data •Can infer pressure regimes using other deep water systems •Deep water doesn’t necessarily mean high overpressures •Magnitude of reservoir overpressure controlled by: 1.Facies 2.Thickness of sandstone bodies 3.Connectivity of sandstone bodies 4.Secondary pressure mechanis...
Presentation
Full-text available
Principal aims To give an overview of hydrocarbon exploration in Kurdistan Demonstrate a few tools used in Kurdistan for New Ventures studies Update published definitions of Zagros-Taurus structural domains Location and regional tectonics Summary of current hydrocarbon exploration Summary of petroleum systems Tectonostratigraphic evolution Main cha...
Presentation
Full-text available
Summary of an AAPG fieldtrip that brought geoscientists, engineers and exploration managers together to explore Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs in Italy.
Presentation
Full-text available
Principal aims Give an overview of hydrocarbon exploration in NE Iraq Introduce the main carbonate units Display the spatial and temporal relationships between reservoir lithology, grain size, loading, folding, faulting and fracture types Demonstrate a tool and technique for fracture network studies Conclusions
Presentation
Full-text available
1. Formation of oceanic lithosphere 2. The component units 3. The Troodosophiolite, Cyprus 4. Fieldwork on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: the first direct geological evidence of ocean ridge detachment faulting 5. Crustal-scale normal faults 6. Fluid flow along faults 7. Implications for our assumptions of oceanic ‘crust’
Presentation
Full-text available
Fieldwork-based study and integration of hydrocarbon seeps, tectonic domains, structural deformation and active tectonics, and the implications for petroleum trapping and exploration.
Article
Full-text available
This contribution presents a new model for the Grampian-age tectonothermal development of the Buchan Block and Barrovian-type regions to its west, in the Grampian Terrane, Scotland. The model has drawn on evidence gathered from field mapping, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and mafic magma geochemistry to propose that emplacement of...
Poster
Full-text available
Frontier exploration for hydrocarbons requires time-consuming, expensive fieldwork. Terrain, climate or political situation may be unfavourable for long fieldwork programmes. Remote imaging offers a quicker and cheaper alternative, for later, focused ground-truthing. ENVI software has been used for advanced processing of Landsat, SPOT and SRTM data...
Article
Full-text available
The main plutonic complex of the Troodos ophiolite, north of the Arakapas Fault Zone, has been re-examined both from field and geochemical perspectives. Ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene crystal cores show that the range of melt compositions added to the lower crust far exceeds that of published lavas in the main Troodos massif. This suggest...
Article
Full-text available
We thank Spencer for his comment and welcome the opportunity to debate the results of our study and its implications. We are glad that he supports our principal finding: subhorizontal corrugated surfaces adjacent to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 15°45′N are exhumed oceanic detachment faults ([MacLeod
Article
From a detailed survey and sampling study of corrugated massifs north of the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, we demonstrate that their surfaces are low-angle detachment fault planes, as proposed but not previously verified. Spreading-direction parallel striations on the massifs occur at wavelengths from kilometers to centime...
Article
From a detailed survey and sampling study of corrugated massifs north of the Fifteen- Twenty Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, we demonstrate that their surfaces are low-angle detachment fault planes, as proposed but not previously verified. Spreadingdirection– parallel striations on the massifs occur at wavelengths from kilometers to centim...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (10)
Project
Buried basement highs are common structural elements in sedimentary basins. Basement highs receive attention as they influence fluid migration pathways for hydrocarbon entrapment and base metal sulphides precipitation.
Archived project
Adapting the holistic exploration process of hydrocarbon exploration to mineral exploration. Applying a decade of continental- to core- plug-scale exploration industry experience to enhance the link between economic geology Research and Academia.
Project
The HiTech AlkCarb project is funded under the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme, to develop new geomodels and sustainable exploration methods for alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites. It has four main objectives. 1. Develop new geomodels to explore for 'hi-tech' raw materials (such as the rare earth elements, scandium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, hafnium and fluorspar) associated with alkaline rocks and carbonatites. 2. Improve and develop interpretation of geophysical and downhole data in order to understand alkaline rock and carbonatite systems down to depths of approximately one kilometre. 3. Build exploration expertise in hi-tech raw materials, and to ensure knowledge exchange between Europe and Africa. 4. Assess environmental and socio-economic impacts of mining for these raw materials, and develop best practice. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 689909).