Graeme Crawford Smith

Graeme Crawford Smith
Monash University (Australia) · Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology

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107
Publications
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3,257
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Publications

Publications (107)
Preprint
Full-text available
The capacity of a channel characterizes the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted through the channel asymptotically faithfully. For a channel with multiple senders and a single receiver, computing its sum capacity is possible in theory, but challenging in practice because of the nonconvex optimization involved. In this work, we stud...
Preprint
We consider estimating the magnitude of a monochromatic AC signal that couples to a two-level sensor. For any detection protocol, the precision achieved depends on the signal's frequency and can be quantified by the quantum Fisher information. To study limitations in broadband sensing, we introduce the integrated quantum Fisher information and deri...
Preprint
Understanding quantum channels and the strange behavior of their capacities is a key objective of quantum information theory. Here we study a remarkably simple, low-dimensional, single-parameter family of quantum channels with exotic quantum information-theoretic features. As the simplest example from this family, we focus on a qutrit-to-qutrit cha...
Preprint
Determining capacities of quantum channels is a fundamental question in quantum information theory. Despite having rigorous coding theorems quantifying the flow of information across quantum channels, their capacities are poorly understood due to super-additivity effects. Studying these phenomena is important for deepening our understanding of quan...
Preprint
We study the holographic realization of optimized correlation measures -- measures of quantum correlation that generalize elementary entropic formulas -- in two-dimensional thermal states dual to spacetimes with a black hole horizon. We consider the symmetric bipartite optimized correlation measures: the entanglement of purification, Q-correlation,...
Article
Superconducting qubits are a leading platform for scalable quantum computing and quantum error correction. One feature of this platform is the ability to perform projective measurements orders of magnitude more quickly than qubit decoherence times. Such measurements are enabled by the use of quantum-limited parametric amplifiers in conjunction with...
Article
Full-text available
Quantum teleportation is one of the fundamental building blocks of quantum Shannon theory. While ordinary teleportation is simple and efficient, port-based teleportation (PBT) enables applications such as universal programmable quantum processors, instantaneous non-local quantum computation and attacks on position-based quantum cryptography. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
We explore ways to quantify multipartite correlations, in quantum information and in holography. We focus on optimized correlation measures, linear combinations of entropies minimized over all possible purifications of a state that satisfy monotonicity conditions. These contain far more information about correlations than entanglement entropy alone...
Preprint
We explore ways to quantify multipartite correlations, in quantum information and in holography. We focus on optimized correlation measures, linear combinations of entropies minimized over all possible purifications of a state that satisfy monotonicity conditions. These contain far more information about correlations than entanglement entropy alone...
Article
All correlation measures, classical and quantum, must be monotonic under local operations. In this paper, we characterize monotonic formulas that are linear combinations of the von Neumann entropies associated with the quantum state of a physical system that has n parts. We show that these formulas form a polyhedral convex cone, which we call the m...
Article
Full-text available
Communication networks have multiple users, each sending and receiving messages. A multiple access channel (MAC) models multiple senders transmitting to a single receiver, such as the uplink from many mobile phones to a single base station. The optimal performance of a MAC is quantified by a capacity region of simultaneously achievable communicatio...
Preprint
We prove a tight uniform continuity bound for the conditional Shannon entropy of discrete finitely supported random variables in terms of total variation distance.
Preprint
All correlation measures, classical and quantum, must be monotonic under local operations. In this paper, we characterize monotonic formulas that are linear combinations of the von Neumann entropies associated with the quantum state of a physical system which has n parts. We show that these formulas form a polyhedral convex cone, which we call the...
Article
Full-text available
Gas atomized Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy powder was used to prepare distinct designed geometries with different properties by selective laser melting (SLM). Several heat treatments were investigated to find suitable processing parameters to strengthen (specially to harden) these parts for different applications. The results showed significant difference...
Article
This ironically titled novel depicts the ambiguity and ambivalence of making and receiving gifts. One of the main characters is a transplant psychiatrist who assesses potential living kidney donors. He struggles to understand his apparently altruistic patient and acts out this struggle in boundary violations. His wife, a psychologist, faces similar...
Article
This paper notes the continuing problems that Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatry (RANZCP) candidates and other professionals have with the task of formulation. It re-establishes this as a problematic to be understood and reviews its intellectual history, its rationale, the tools of reasoning that it requires and the nature of th...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical basis of addressing the concept of the unique individual, one of the tasks prescribed in the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) Formulation guidelines for candidates, and to propose a rational basis for remediation of the problems that many candidates and other p...
Article
Few risk factors for quality-of-life outcomes of simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant recipients are known because of a paucity of data from prospective studies. Pretransplant assessment and prospective 3-year follow-up. Consecutive potential recipients at a university teaching hospital assessed by Liaison Psychiatry. Demographic data; pretr...
Article
This study sought to assess the persistence of DSM-IV depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders in a sample of 206 medical patients 3 months after hospital discharge and to examine which baseline factors predicted the persistence of disorder. Patients were interviewed using the Monash Interview for Liaison Psychiatry (a structured psychiatric i...
Article
The aim of the present study was to review the ways in which contemporary medicine addresses physical/psychiatric multimorbidity, to review the underlying concepts and methodologies used, and to propose a novel approach that may help consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) position itself better in the health-care field. A Medline search of the terms...
Article
Full-text available
To create a taxonomy of distress and depression for use in primary care, that mirrors the thinking and practice of experienced general practitioners. Qualitative study, using an ethnomethodological approach, with observation of videotaped routine GP-patient consultations and in-depth interviews with GPs. The study was conducted in metropolitan Melb...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates the use of the probabilistic and continuous extensions of action systems in the development and calculation of reliability of continuous, real-time systems. Rather than develop a new semantics to formally combine the existing extensions, it investigates a methodology for using them together, and the conditions under which th...
Article
Mixed reports exist about the impact of supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT) on survival. From 485 women with advanced breast cancer recruited between 1996-2002, 227 (47%) consented and were randomized within an average 10 months of cancer recurrence in a 2:1 ratio to intervention with 1 year or more of weekly SEGT plus three classes of relax...
Article
Research into depression in the medically ill has progressed without sufficient attention being given to the validity, in this group, of the taxonomic categories. We aimed to describe, using qualitative interviews, the experience of 'being depressed', separating experiences that are unique to depression from experiences that are common to being ill...
Article
Full-text available
Within the physically ill population, demoralization has been a valuable concept with which to consider dysphoric states. Moreover, it can be distinguished from other mood states. In this study we replicate previous research and show that demoralization can be distinguished from anhedonic depression and grief. All three correlate more or less equal...
Article
Although their disease processes and treatments are different, patients with motor neurone disease (MND) and those with late-stage cancer share a common situation--one in which the quality of life, rather than a cure, becomes the focus of care. We report here a comparison of 126 patients with MND and 125 with metastatic cancer on a range of physica...
Article
Lack of prospective psychosocial outcome studies on living kidney donors impedes identification of risk factors for poor outcome. Psychiatric assessment of living kidney donors was performed preoperatively and at 4 and 12 months postoperatively using a semistructured interview, the Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey, and Patient Health Questionnaire...
Article
Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) has been developed and manualised in the research setting, but there have been few clinical accounts of its utility. In this qualitative review of its application in the Melbourne-based randomised control trial (RCT) for women with advanced breast cancer, SEGT is considered from the perspective of the stru...
Article
To assess psychosocial morbidity in women with breast cancer and to compare the differential rates between women with early stage and advanced disease. In this report, 303 women with early stage breast cancer, psychiatrically assessed at baseline (as part of a study of cognitive-existential group therapy during adjuvant chemotherapy), are compared...
Article
Psychosocial assessment and monitoring of living kidney donors is not yet standard practice, despite calls for it in the literature. Psychosocial assessment of living kidney donors was performed preoperatively and 4 months postoperatively, using the SF-36 Health Survey, the Patient Health Questionnaire psychiatric assessment, and semistructured int...
Article
We conducted a randomised, controlled trial of cognitive-existential group therapy (CEGT) for women with early stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with the aim of improving mood and mental attitude to cancer. Women were randomised to 20 sessions of weekly group therapy plus 3 relaxation classes or to a control arm receiving 3 relaxa...
Article
Contemporary psychiatric classifications have not proved to be useful in the understanding and care of people with physical illness. Distress syndromes are common, but classifications fail to differentiate syndromes relevantly. We sought to take a fresh look at the common distress syndromes in the medically ill. 312 medical inpatients were intervie...
Article
To review the status of consultation-liaison psychiatry and the factors shaping it, and suggest strategies for its future development. In addition to searches of the main computerized psychiatric databases and review of relevant Commonwealth of Australia publications, the author drew on discussions with national and international colleagues in his...
Article
Consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry is the specialty of physical/psychiatric comorbidity and somatization. As such, it addresses the commonest forms of psychiatric presentation in the community; it is mainstream psychiatry. Its name reflects the fact that most of the patients seen by C-L psychiatrists have to be managed jointly with a non-psychia...
Article
In a practice-based, prospective study of 917 inpatients referred to a consultation-liaison psychiatry service and diagnosed as depressed, 41% were prescribed an antidepressant: 40% tricyclics, 35% selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 15% monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)/reversible inhibitors of monoamine (RIMAs) (mainly moclobemide...
Article
In a practice-based, prospective study of 1,551 inpatients referred to a consultation-liaison psychiatry service and prescribed an antidepressant, an adverse drug reaction judged sufficient to warrant discontinuation of the drug was noted in 158 (10.2%). The factors associated were older age (P < 0.05); ICD-9 genitourinary disorder (mainly renal fa...
Article
The authors studied interventions recommended by consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatrists when they diagnosed somatoform disorder prospectively in a cohort of 4,401 consecutive inpatients referred to the C-L psychiatry service of a general teaching hospital, using standardized MICRO-CARES methodology. A DSM-III-R somatoform disorder was diagnosed i...
Article
The authors examined the latent structure of psychiatric symptoms occurring in patients with medical illness. Symptom data were collected from 312 hospitalized medically ill patients using the Monash Interview for Liaison Psychiatry and subjected to latent trait analysis. A model with 5 dimensions provided an acceptable fit to the data. Dimensions...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and to test the reliability of a new method called INTERMED, for health service needs assessment. The INTERMED integrates the biopsychosocial aspects of disease and the relationship between patient and health care system in a comprehensive scheme and reflects an operationalized conceptual app...
Article
To review the status of consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry and the forces shaping it, and to propose strategies for dealing with the crisis in which it finds itself. A Medline search of C-L psychiatry and related terms, together with hand-searching of C-L psychiatry and psychosomatic journals and bibliographies of found articles, was used for th...
Article
This study examined ways of determining a useful measure of the timing of referral to a consultation-liaison psychiatry unit. Seven hundred and twelve consecutive inpatient referrals between February 1990 and January 1995 were studied prospectively. Usage of a simple mathematical ratio of the time elapsed between admission and referral and length o...
Article
The Monash Interview for Liaison Psychiatry (MILP) is a structured interview designed for use with patients who have physical and psychiatric comorbidity. Linked to a computerized diagnostic algorithm, the MILP is able to establish diagnoses according to DSM-III-R, International Classification of Diseases--10th Edition (ICD-10), and DSM-IV criteria...
Article
The consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry services of seven university teaching hospitals in the United States, Canada, and Australia (the MICRO-CARES Consortium) used a common clinical database to examine 1039 consecutive referrals. A diagnosis of adjustment disorder (AD) was made in 125 patients (12.0%); as the sole diagnosis, in 81 (7.8%); and c...
Article
Prospective data on 1,360 consecutive inpatients referred to the consultation-liaison psychiatry service of 2 metropolitan general teaching hospitals and diagnoses as having a Depressive Illness Spectrum Disorder were collected by using the MICRO-CARES clinical database system. The distribution of DSM-III-R diagnoses was major depression (MD) 49%;...
Article
Interventions recommended by consultation-liaison psychiatrists for inpatients they diagnosed as having DSM-III-R organic mental disorder (OMD) were studied to see to what extent specific variables distinguished the OMD patients and differentiated the subgroups of patients with OMD. Prospective data and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores on 625 c...
Article
We describe a model of cognitive-existential group therapy designed to be integrated over 6 months with regimens of adjuvant chemotherapy given as conventional medical treatment to breast cancer patients with stage 1 and 2 disease. Our broad therapy goals are for members to develop a supportive network, work through grief over losses, improve probl...
Article
We describe a model of cognitive-existential group therapy designed to be integrated over 6 months with regimens of adjuvant chemotherapy given as conventional medical treatment to breast cancer patients with stage 1 and 2 disease. Our broad therapy goals are for members to develop a supportive network, work through grief over losses, improve probl...
Article
Somatisation remains a matter of bewilderment in medicine. Medical students have trouble defining it, psychiatry trainees wilt in its presence, and all doctors are prone to become entangled in it. The current spate of reviews on the topic is appropriate (Mayou et al , 1995 a ; Barsky, 1996; Gill & Bass, 1996). There is a great need for those requir...
Article
To provide an overview of the work of a consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry service to an oncology unit in a university affiliated teaching hospital, with the aid of a comprehensive clinical database. The MICROCARES prospective clinical database system was used to record data on all oncology inpatients referred to C-L psychiatry, and the hospital...
Article
To provide an overview of the work of a liaison psychiatry service to a renal medicine inpatient unit, based on a comprehensive clinical database, in order to provide a basis for comparison with similar units and to identify issues of concern. The MICRO-CARES prospective clinical database system was used to obtain data on all patients referred to t...
Article
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the work of a consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry service to an obstetric inpatient unit in a university affiliated teaching hospital, with the aid of a comprehensive clinical database. The MICRO-CARES clinical database system was used for prospective recording of data on all obstetric inpatients...
Article
The activities of a consultation-liaison psychiatry service to general medical units in a university affiliated suburban teaching hospital are described, with a report from the MICRO-CARES clinical database on 165 consecutive referrals over a 12 month period. The referral rate was 4.2% of admissions. The data confirm the association of psychiatric...
Article
The recognition of depression was examined in 987 medical and surgical patients referred to a consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Overall concordance of recognition of depression by the referring doctor and diagnosis of depression by the consultant psychiatrist was 74%; 41% false-positive rate, 15% false-negative rate. Concordance was higher i...
Article
The aim of the study was to establish the current and desired levels of staffing and funding of the 52 consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry training units in Australian and New Zealand general hospitals. Administration of a questionnaire and follow-up verification provided data on referral rates, existing and preferred staffing levels, and staff w...
Article
To trace the movement from psychosomatic medicine to consultation-liaison psychiatry, the forces at work in shaping the change, and the extent to which the change is reflected in the latest revisions of the International classification of diseases (ICD-10) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third revision (DSM-III-R). Id...
Article
This paper describes the institution of a clinical database in the consultation-liaison psychiatry service of an Australian general hospital psychiatry unit. One of the problems faced was that many researchers and clinicians in Australia use the ICD-9 rather than the DSM-III-R classification system. Nevertheless, it was possible to use the DSM-III-...
Article
Consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry as a service entity has developed slowly and to a variable extent in Australia despite the presence of factors conducive to its development. These include a compulsory national health insurance system and a favorable disposition to the biopsychosocial model and to psychoanalytic ideas. C-L psychiatry, however,...
Article
Self-administered questionnaires are frequently used in studies of hospitalized physically ill patients to identify and measure psychiatric morbidity. This study examines the validity of some commonly used questionnaires in this context. One hundred and seventy-nine patients in a general hospital completed the GHQ, HAD, BDI and STAI and were interv...
Article
Accumulation of amines in the degenerating axons of ascending catecholamine-containing neurons in the hypothalamus has been proposed as a site of function neurotransmitter release and may thereby participate in the development of motor impairment seen after central dopamine-depleting lesions. To test this hypothesis further the dopamine receptor an...
Article
A matched comparison was made of 157 parents of preschool twins conceived by one of the following: in vitro fertilization (IVF), infertility workup combined with infertility drug treatment, or spontaneously. The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction was used to examine systematically a comprehensive range of social relationships and the asymmet...
Article
We studied the concordance of physicians with the recommendations of psychiatric consultants in a sample of 270 consultations in a 400-bed general hospital. Of the patients about whom a consultation was sought, 37% had a past psychiatric history, and 67% were on psychotropic drugs. Twelve percent had Organic Mental Disorder, 35% Affective Disorder,...
Article
Critical evaluation of biological theories of psychiatric disorder requires an understanding of current concepts of higher mental function and its related biology. Both the nature of the topic and the rapidity of advances in the field make it difficult to obtain an updated synthesis. Part I of this paper attempts to provide that by reviewing curren...
Article
A matched comparison was made of 158 parents of preschool twins conceived under three conditions; spontaneously, after infertility workup including drug treatment, and after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Indications of probable psychiatric caseness were obtained using the 60-item General Health Questionnaire. IVF parents' mean scores were similar t...
Article
The appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) potential of the peripheral dopamine (DA) receptor antagonist domperidone was compared with that of the central DA antagonist pimozide in anorexic, tumor-bearing rats. DA antagonists were administered via the intraperitoneal route on Days 7-15 after the subcutaneous implantation of the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma...
Article
Plasma i.r. beta-endorphin, corticosterone, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats after exposure to running or swimming stressors or after surgical ablation of the cingulum bundle. While cingulotomy alone altered only the plasma triglyceride concentrations, the combination of cingulotomy plus runnin...
Article
Gastric ulceration is frequently reported to occur in tumour-bearing animals and man, even when such tumours are not associated with organs of digestion. That central and peripheral dopamine (DA) containing neurones may be relevant to this phenomenon, is supported by the fact that the DA receptor antagonists domperidone (0.1 and 0.05 mg/kg) and pim...
Article
Psychoanalysis as a theory has permeated Western culture in a way that often no longer is conscious. Psychoanalysis as a practice has had a more visible and stormy progress. A similar fate has befallen behavioural, biological, cognitive and social psychology, and it is argued that the attractiveness of reductionism acts to prevent critical appraisa...
Article
Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8, 5 micrograms/kg) was injected i.p. into male Sprague-Dawley rats bearing the Walker 256-carcinosarcoma, or into non-tumour bearing controls, on a 20-h food deprivation schedule. Food and water intake and body weight maintenance were monitored for 15 days after tumour implantation and compared to that of tumour-be...
Article
1.1. Male, albino, Sprague Dawley rats underwent surgical Cingulotomy or sham opperatiqn and were then implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets or exposed to forced running.2.2. The conditions of Cingulotomy or forced running alone did not cause a significant increase in plasma i.r. Beta endorphin concentrations.3.3. The combined treatment of C...
Article
The fluorescent histochemical technique was used to examine the presence of dopamine 1 h after injection into the lateral hypothalamus which had been depleted of catecholamines by repeated injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. There was considerably more fluorescence at the dopamine injection site which had been previously treated with 6-hydroxydopamine...
Article
The selective neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was injected (IV) into monkeys (Macaca fasicularis) in two different injection regimes. With the small dose regime, one monkey was injected with 0.25 mg/kg, every other day, over a 16 day period. In the large dose regime, another monkey was injected with 0.5 mg/kg every ot...
Article
It has been suggested that the deficient vitamin B12 transport into brain tissue which is commonly observed in patients with Alzheimer's Dementia is produced by deficient noradrenergic neurotransmission. To determine the effects of central noradrenergic depletion on the transport of vitamin B12 into brain tissue, rats were injected (i.p.) with 57Co...
Article
Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8, 5 micrograms/kg, IP) was injected daily, for two 4-day periods, into rats bearing the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma (TB) and non-tumor bearing (NTB) control animals. All animals were on a 20 hr food and water deprivation schedule and monitored for food and water intake and bodyweight for 4 hr daily. Food intake was s...
Article
Despite the large volume of literature during the past 15 years addressing the problem concerning the neurochemical specificity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), there is still disagreement over this issue. While some claim that the catecholamine-specific effects of this drug can be maximized by controlling the dose injected, others claim that all dos...
Article
There was considerable research during the 1970's addressing the problem of the neurospecificity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Despite the numerous attempts to define the criteria governing the use of this drug in experimental paradigms, some believed that specific damage to catecholamine (CA)-containing neurones could be achieved only by controll...
Article
When nigro-striatal and meso-cortical neurons degenerate there is a loss of dopamine in the terminal fields and an accumulation of amines in the axons of these systems as they traverse the hypothalamus through the medial forebrain bundle. Traditional lines of thought have attributed the occurrence of motor and consummatory deficits which occur afte...
Article
Microspectrofluorometry was employed to identify the spectral characteristics of the formaldehyde-induced fluorophore derived from amine accumulation proximal to the site of 6-hydroxydopamine injection or radiofrequency lesions in the lateral hypothalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats. The excitation and emission spectra of the accumulation were consisten...
Article
The effects of intravenous administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the content of catecholamines in the median eminence and neurointermediate lobe was studied in male rats. The results confirmed previous findings of a depletion of catecholamines in both regions as a result of this lesion, although the magnitude of the effect was less than t...