Graeme J Hankey

Graeme J Hankey
University of Western Australia | UWA · School of Medicine and Pharmacology

MBBS, MD, FRACP, FRCP, FRCPE, FAHA

About

1,033
Publications
378,642
Reads
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155,986
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Winthrop Professor of Neurology

Publications

Publications (1,033)
Article
Background Evidence from a recent trial has shown that the antiinflammatory effects of colchicine reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction, but evidence of such a risk reduction in patients with chronic coronary disease is limited. Methods In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned pa...
Article
Background and Purpose— The FOCUS trial (Fluoxetine or Control Under Supervision) showed that fluoxetine did not improve modified Rankin Scale scores (mRS) but increased the risk of fractures. We aimed to describe the fractures, their impact on mRS and factors associated with fracture risk. Methods— A United Kingdom, multicenter, parallel-group, r...
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Introduction Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and satisfaction endpoints are increasingly important in clinical trials and may be associated with treatment adherence. In this post hoc substudy from ROCKET AF, we examined whether patient-reported satisfaction was associated with study drug discontinuation. Methods ROCKET AF (n = 14,264) compared ri...
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Background: One in three survivors of stroke experience poststroke depression (PSD). PSD has been linked with poorer recovery of function and cognition, yet our understanding of potential mechanisms is currently limited. Alterations in resting-state functional MRI have been investigated to a limited extent. Fluctuations in low frequency signal are...
Article
Background: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with increased risk of mortality and stroke. Less is known about the risk at lower concentrations. The association of long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, NO2, and NOx with all-cause mortality and stroke was investigated in a cohort of men aged ≥ 65 years who lived in metro...
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Background and Purpose— Psychosocial factors can have implications for ischemic stroke risk and recovery. This study investigated the effect of genetically determined risk of depression on these outcomes using the Mendelian randomization (MR) framework. Methods— Genetic instruments for risk of depression were identified in a discovery genome-wide...
Article
• Pulmonary embolism (PE ) is a potentially life‐threatening condition, mandating urgent diagnosis and treatment. • The symptoms of PE may be non‐specific; diagnosis therefore relies on a clinical assessment and objective diagnostic testing. • A clinical decision rule can determine the pre‐test probability of PE . If PE is “unlikely”, refer for a D...
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Background and Purpose In randomized stroke trials, central adjudication of a trial’s primary outcome is regularly implemented. However, recent evidence questions the importance of central adjudication in randomized trials. The aim of this review was to compare outcomes assessed by central adjudicators with outcomes assessed by site investigators....
Article
• Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) requires a multifaceted approach that includes clinical assessment, evaluation of pre‐test probability, and objective diagnostic testing. • Common symptoms and signs of DVT are pain, swelling, erythema and dilated veins in the affected limb. • The pre‐test probability of DVT can be assessed using a clinical...
Article
Introduction: It is uncertain whether depression and exposure to antidepressants increase the risk of cardiovascular events in later life. This study attempts to clarify whether the risk of cardiovascular events associated with exposure to antidepressant medications varies according to history of depression. Methods: Cohort study of 5522 Austral...
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Background: seizures and their consequences contribute to the burden of epilepsy because they can cause health loss (premature mortality and residual disability). Data on the burden of epilepsy are needed for health-care planning and resource allocation. The aim of this study was to quantify health loss due to epilepsy by age, sex, year, and locati...
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Summary Background Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide and the economic costs of treatment and post-stroke care are substantial. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic, comparable method of quantifying health loss by disease, age, sex, year, and location to provide i...
Article
Background: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) identifies patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke presumed due to embolism from several unidentified sources. Among patients with recent ESUS, we sought to determine independent predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke during treatment with aspirin or rivaroxaban and to assess the relative...
Article
Aims We examined associations of ferritin and 25‐hydroxyvitamin D with fasting glucose and prevalent diabetes in older men. Methods Cross‐sectional analysis of 4,153 community‐dwelling men aged 70‐89 years in Western Australia. Plasma ferritin, 25‐hydroxyvitamin D and glucose were assayed. Diabetes was ascertained from self‐report, medications and...
Article
Telomeres are essential DNA-protein complexes comprising TTAGGG repeats binding specific proteins, which protect the physical ends of chromosomes from fusion and degradation. Attrition of telomeres results in cellular senescence. Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) reflects lengths of telomeres in various tissues, and shorter LTL is a marker of advanci...
Article
Importance The NAVIGATE ESUS randomized clinical trial found that 15 mg of rivaroxaban per day does not reduce stroke compared with aspirin in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS); however, it substantially reduces stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective To analyze whether rivaroxaban is associated wi...
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Background/aim: Natural outdoor environments may mitigate harmful environmental factors associated with city living. We studied the longitudinal relationship between natural ('green and blue') outdoor environments and mortality in a cohort of older men residing in Perth, Western Australia. Methods: We studied a cohort of 9218 men aged 65 years a...
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Background: Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however, its impact on the burden of NCDs has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of major foods and nutrients across 195 countries and to quantify the impact of their suboptimal intake on NCD mortal...
Data
Supplement to: GBD 2016 Neurology Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol 2019; published online March 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30499-X.
Data
Summary Background Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide and the economic costs of treatment and post-stroke care are substantial. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic, comparable method of quantifying health loss by disease, age, sex, year, and location to provide inf...
Article
Full-text available
Background Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide and the economic costs of treatment and post-stroke care are substantial. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic, comparable method of quantifying health loss by disease, age, sex, year, and location to provide information...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Framingham Risk Score estimates the 10‐year risk of cardiovascular events. However, it performs poorly in older adults. We evaluated the incremental benefit of adding high‐sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs‐cTnI) to the Framingham Risk Score. Methods and Results The HIMS (Health in Men Study) is a cohort study of community‐dwelling...
Article
Background and purpose: After an initial stroke, the risk of recurrent stroke is high. Models that implement best-practice recommendations for risk factor management in stroke survivors to prevent stroke recurrence remain elusive. We examined a model which focuses on vascular risk factor management to prevent stroke recurrence in survivors returni...
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OBJECTIVES To use the estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 to describe patterns of suicide mortality globally, regionally, and for 195 countries and territories by age, sex, and Socio-demographic index, and to describe temporal trends between 1990 and 2016. DESIGN Systematic analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Crude and age standardis...
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Objective: To discover common genetic variants associated with poststroke outcomes using a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Methods: The study comprised 6,165 patients with ischemic stroke from 12 studies in Europe, the United States, and Australia included in the GISCOME (Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional Outcome) network. The primary...
Chapter
This chapter discusses strategies to reduce the impact of stroke and improve public health, as well as how these strategies may impact on a hypothetical population of 1 million people. Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world, behind ischemic heart disease. It is also the third leading cause of years of life lost due to premature mo...
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Background: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and healthcare systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortalit...
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Full-text available
BACKGROUND: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortali...
Article
Objectives: To determine if the excess mortality associated with Bipolar disorder (BD) is independent of lifestyle. Methods: Prospective study of a community-representative sample of 12,203 men aged 65–85 years followed for 17.7 years. We used the 8-item ‘prudence score’ to assesses lifestyle behaviours, including the use of alcohol and smoking, ph...
Article
Context Telomeres protect chromosomes from damage, and shorter leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of advancing biological age. The association between testosterone (T) and its bioactive metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2) with telomere length, particularly in older men, is uncertain. The study aimed to clarify associa...
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Background: Results of small trials indicate that fluoxetine might improve functional outcomes after stroke. The FOCUS trial aimed to provide a precise estimate of these effects. Methods: FOCUS was a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 103 hospitals in the UK. Patients were eligible...
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BACKGROUND: The lifetime risk of stroke has been calculated in a limited number of selected populations. We sought to estimate the lifetime risk of stroke at the regional, country, and global level using data from a comprehensive study of the prevalence of major diseases. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016 estimates of...
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Background Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use stan...
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This paper estimated mortality for 282 causesof death in 195 countries from 1980 to 2017, adding 18 causes to its estimates compared to GBD 2016. In 2017, the GBD study added numerous data sources, including 127 country-years of vital registration data and 502 country-years of cancer registry data.
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Background: Assessments of age-specific mortality and life expectancy have been done by the UN Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNPOP), the United States Census Bureau, WHO, and as part of previous iterations of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD). Previous iterations of the GBD used...
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Full-text available
BACKGROUND:Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. He...
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Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has le...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk–outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improved method...
Article
Full-text available
Background Assessments of age-specific mortality and life expectancy have been done by the UN Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNPOP), the United States Census Bureau, WHO, and as part of previous iterations of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD). Previous iterations of the GBD used...
Article
Full-text available
Background Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of “leaving no one behind”, it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-leve...
Article
Full-text available
Background How long one lives, how many years of life are spent in good and poor health, and how the population's state of health and leading causes of disability change over time all have implications for policy, planning, and provision of services. We comparatively assessed the patterns and trends of healthy life expectancy (HALE), which quantifi...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Assessments of age-specific mortality and life expectancy have been done by the UN Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNPOP), the United States Census Bureau, WHO, and as part of previous iterations of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD). Previous iterations of the GBD used...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has le...
Article
Full-text available
Summary Background: How long one lives, how many years of life are spent in good and poor health, and how the population’s state of health and leading causes of disability change over time all have implications for policy, planning, and provision of services. We comparatively assessed the patterns and trends of healthy life expectancy (HALE), which...
Article
Full-text available
Background Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of “leaving no one behind”, it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-leve...
Article
Summary Background: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk–outcome associations. With each annual GBD study, we update the GBD CRA to incorporate improv...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) studies, headache has emerged as a major global public health concern. We aimed to use data from the GBD 2016 study to provide new estimates for prevalence and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for migraine and tension-type headache and to present the meth...