Grace H Yeni-Komshian

Grace H Yeni-Komshian
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences

Ph.D

About

68
Publications
10,519
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3,772
Citations
Citations since 2017
5 Research Items
953 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Grace H Yeni-Komshian currently works at the Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park. Grace does research in Phonology, Neurolinguistics and Psycholinguistics. Their most recent publication is 'Recognition of asynchronous auditory-visual speech by younger and older listeners: A preliminary study'.

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
This investigation examined age-related differences in auditory-visual (AV) integration as reflected on perceptual judgments of temporally misaligned AV English sentences spoken by native English and native Spanish talkers. In the detection task, it was expected that slowed auditory temporal processing of older participants, relative to younger par...
Article
Older adults often report difficulty understanding speech produced by non-native talkers. These listeners can achieve rapid adaptation to non-native speech, but few studies have assessed auditory training protocols to improve non-native speech recognition in older adults. In this study, a word-level training paradigm was employed, targeting improve...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Older native speakers of English have difficulty in understanding Spanish-accented English compared to younger native English speakers. However, it is unclear if this age effect would be observed among native speakers of Spanish. The current study investigates the effects of age and native language experience with Spanish on the ability to...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Degradations to auditory input have deleterious effects on speech recognition performance, especially by older listeners. Alterations to timing information in speech, such as occurs in rapid or foreign-accented speech, can be particularly difficult for older people to resolve. It is currently unclear how prior language experience modulates...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of age and hearing loss on recognition of speech presented when the auditory and visual speech information was misaligned in time (i.e., asynchronous). Prior research suggests that older listeners are less sensitive than younger listeners in detecting the presence of asynchronous speech for auditory-lead conditions,...
Article
This study examined the ability of older and younger listeners to perceive contrastive syllable stress in unaccented and Spanish-accented cognate bi-syllabic English words. Younger listeners with normal hearing, older listeners with normal hearing, and older listeners with hearing impairment judged recordings of words that contrasted in stress that...
Article
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The effects of age and hearing loss on recognition of unaccented and accented words of varying syllable length were investigated. It was hypothesized that with increments in length of syllables, there would be atypical alterations in syllable stress in accented compared to native English, and that these altered stress patterns would be sensitive to...
Article
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This investigation examined the effect of accent of target talkers and background speech maskers on listeners' ability to use cues to separate speech from noise. Differences in accent may create a disparity in the relative timing between signal and background, and such timing cues may be used to separate the target talker from the background speech...
Article
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Current estimates of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss among those over 65 years in the U.S. converge on an overall prevalence rate of approximately 50%, suggesting that there are currently 20 million senior citizens with significant hearing loss (Agrawal et al., 2008; Cruickshanks et al., 1998; Moscicki et al., 1985). Because the post-Wor...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of age and hearing loss on perception of accented speech presented in quiet and noise. The relative importance of alterations in phonetic segments vs. temporal patterns in a carrier phrase with accented speech also was examined. English sentences recorded by a native English speaker and a native Spanish speaker,...
Article
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This study examined the effects of age and hearing loss on short-term adaptation to accented speech. Data from younger and older listeners in a prior investigation [Gordon-Salant et al. (2010). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 444-455] were re-analyzed to examine changes in recognition over four administrations of equivalent lists of English stimuli record...
Article
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This investigation examined the effects of listener age and hearing loss on recognition of accented speech. Speech materials were isolated English words and sentences that featured phonemes that are often mispronounced by non-native speakers of English whose first language is Spanish. These stimuli were recorded by a native speaker of English and t...
Article
Full-text available
Prior investigations, using isolated words as stimuli, have shown that older listeners tend to require longer temporal cues than younger listeners to switch their percept from one word to its phonetically contrasting counterpart. The extent to which this age effect occurs in sentence contexts is investigated in the present study. The hypothesis was...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated age-related differences in sensitivity to temporal cues in modified natural speech sounds. Listeners included young noise-masked subjects, elderly normal-hearing subjects, and elderly hearing-impaired subjects. Four speech continua were presented to listeners, with stimuli from each continuum varying in a single temporal dim...
Article
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This study examined the effect of word class (nouns vs. verbs) on L2 pronunciation accuracy of Korean–English bilinguals. The participants were 192 adult immigrants whose age of arrival (AOA) in the United States ranged from 6 to 23 years. Transcriptions of their productions of English sentences indicated that they were more accurate in pronouncing...
Article
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Research has shown that L2 utterances diverge increasingly from target language phonetic norms as the age of L2 learning increases. Other research has suggested that L2 speakers produce longer utterances than native speakers. The aim of this study was to determine whether L2 utterance durations increase as age of learning increases. Fluently produc...
Article
Respirators have been found to degrade communication effectiveness when wearers speak face-to-face. However, little is known about communication effectiveness when using the telephone and wearing a respirator. Eleven pairs of subjects were asked to pronounce and identify words chosen from Modified Rhyme Test lists. Each word appeared on a computer...
Article
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There is a subgroup of elderly listeners with hearing loss who can be characterized by exceptionally poor speech understanding. This study examined the hypothesis that the poor speech-understanding performance of some elderly listeners is associated with disproportionate deficits in temporal resolution and frequency resolution, especially for compl...
Article
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This study examined pronunciation proficiency in both the first (Korean) and second (English) languages of bilinguals. The participants were adult immigrants whose age of arrival in the USA ranged from 1±23 years. English and Korean sentences were rated by native listeners to obtain measures of pronunciation proficiency. English pronunciation of pa...
Article
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This study evaluated the critical period hypothesis for second language (L2) acquisition. The participants were 240 native speakers of Korean who differed according to age of arrival (AOA) in the United States (1 to 23 years), but were all experienced in English (mean length of residence = 15 years). The native Korean participants' pronunciation of...
Article
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This study makes use of a listening for mispronunciation task to examine how native English listeners perceive sentences produced by non-native speakers. The effects of target predictability and degree of foreign accent were investigated. Native and non-native speakers produced English sentences containing mispronunciation. Mispronunciations (MPs)...
Article
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Many studies have shown that performance in a second language (L2) decreases as the age of L2 learning increases, but such findings are difficult to interpret because many factors are confounded with age. Here we assessed the overall degree of foreign accent in English sentences, and scores obtained on a 144‐item grammaticality judgment test (GJT)....
Article
The perceptual effect of modifying speech produced by deaf talkers was investigated to discover the changes necessary for disordered speech to be judged normal. Recordings of passages read by three deaf talkers were used as material. For the first two experiments, a three-syllable word was extracted from the deaf talkers' passages and from a simila...
Article
A respirator degrades speech intelligibility and thus interferes with the ability of the wearer to communicate. The magnitude of this degradation is not well-studied and can vary as a function of numerous parameters. This study investigated the performance degradation of speech intelligibility in low-level noise for different speaker-listener dista...
Article
Full-text available
Pronunciation proficiency in the first (L1=Korean) and the second (L2=English) languages of bilinguals who had emigrated to the U.S. was examined. The focus of this presentation is on the effect of age of arrival (AOA) in the U.S. on pronunciation in L1 and in L2. The subject pool consisted of 240 Korean–English bilinguals classified into ten subgr...
Article
A 1995 study by Flege, Munro, and MacKay [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 3125–3134 (1995)] examined the degree of perceived foreign accent in English sentences spoken by Italians whose ages of arrival (AOA) in North America ranged from 2 to 22 years. Two surprising findings were obtained: (1) A linear relation was found to exist between AOA and the degree...
Article
Maximum reading rate in the native and second language has often been used to assess bilingual balance. In the present study, the duration of L2 sentences produced at a nonmaximal rate was measured. The subjects were 24 native English (NE) speakers and 240 native Korean (NK) speakers assigned to ten subgroups based on age of arrival in the US (2?22...
Article
This study examines pronunciation proficiency in a second language (L2) as a function of the age of (L2) acquisition. Accuracy of pronunciation of words and sentences produced by Korean–English bilinguals who began learning their L2 (English) between 2 and 24 years of age is reported. All subjects were born in Korea and had resided in the U.S. for...
Article
This study investigated the effects of age on two parameters of auditory temporal processing: auditory duration discrimination and the backward interference of auditory duration discrimination. Young and elderly listeners with normal hearing sensitivity participated. In experiment I, the just-noticeable difference (JND) in duration between a standa...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to examine the perceptual consequences of specific modifications in the F0 of speech samples. To this end, isolated /ae/ vowels from two black and two white speakers were synthesized at nine F0s, creating a continuum ranging from an F0 of 93 Hz to an F0 of 147 Hz. These synthesized speech stimuli were judged for ethnicity b...
Article
Full-text available
The perceptual effects of modifying speech produced by deaf talkers were investigated to examine, in part, the changes necessary for disordered speech to be judged normal. Recordings of the rainbow passage produced by a number of deaf male speakers were studied and three passages judged to be moderately disordered were selected. The word “beautiful...
Article
A study was conducted to investigate the temporal changes that occur when a speaker attempts to revise words for a listener. Specifically, the study was designed to examine whether adults and children modify the timing of vowel and consonant production in response to listener miscomprehension. Four adults and sixteen 5-year-old boys and girls serve...
Article
In a previous study of the comprehension of linguistic prosody in brain-damaged subjects, S. R. Grant and W. O. Dingwall (1984. The role of the right hemisphere in processing linguistic prosody, presentation at the Academy of Aphasia, 1984) demonstrated that the right hemisphere (RH) of nonaphasic patients plays a prominent role in the processing o...
Article
Full-text available
The productions of two groups of Malay?English bilinguals were investigated. The subjects, native speakers of Malay, were asked to read Malay and English words that differed in voicing of initial and final stop consonants. The four subjects in the Malaysia group resided in Malaysia and were not exposed to a predominantly English speaking environmen...
Article
Full-text available
Speech discrimination and identification tasks assessing voicing and place distinctions were given to 16 unilaterally brain injured subjects free of aphasic or dysarthric symptoms 12–15 yr post head injury. Seven subjects did not demonstrate any difficulty with these speech tasks, while five left-and four right-brain-injured subjects showed moderat...
Article
Examined the relationship between ability to discriminate and identify 3 synthetic speech continua representing vowel, voicing, and place contrasts and level of auditory language comprehension in 19 41–68 yr old male aphasics and 8 42–65 yr old non-brain-damaged controls. Aphasics were assigned to a good or a moderate comprehension group (GCG and M...
Article
Hand preference data were obtained for 1816 university students, 4793 siblings and 3632 parents. Results support the following conclusions. (1) There is currently a 13.8% incidence of left handedness among young adults, representing a dramatic increase over past generations. (2) Left and right-handed respondents do not differ in terms of familial s...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of competing speech stimuli in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old normally developing children. A dichotic listening paradigm was used in which the temporal alignment between the two stimuli was varied to represent three levels of competition. Minimal, moderate, and maximal levels of temporal competition...
Article
Full-text available
Aphasic patients and controls were given discrimination and identification tasks using synthesized stop‐initial CV syllables. Three different seven‐step continua were used as stimuli: voicing (bee‐pea); place (bee‐dee); and vowel (bee‐bow). All subjects were given both tasks for each continuum. The aphasic patients were devided into a good and a mo...
Article
Full-text available
Four studies investigated the perceptual effects of spectral variations in fricatives produced in different vowel contexts. The alveolar and palatal fricatives, [s, z, integral of, 3], were produced by two talkers in the context of the vowels [a, i, u], generating 12 fricative-vowel combinations. A computer-controlled editing procedure was used to...
Article
Full-text available
Two speeded classification tasks were conducted with 32 normal and language disordered children, 7?9 years of age. In the first task, the control conditions were (ba vs da) and (ab vs ad); and the orthogonal condition was (ba,ab vs da,ad). In this task subjects tracked the phonemes, /b/ and /d/, while ignoring the syllable type, CV and VC. In the s...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on speech production in the child. The use of language is one of the most distinctive characteristics of the human species. One part of human language behavior, which is to a considerable extent autonomous, is the pronunciation; the speech sounds themselves as articulated and perceived by human beings in their use of language....
Article
Full-text available
Five normal-speaking adult males were taught to produce speech using an electrolarynx. Speech phoneme intelligibility was measured in a closed-set word discrimination test and through phonetic transcriptions of the spoken materials. Mean percentages of correct identification for the five talkers were 90% and 57% for the word-identification test and...
Article
Full-text available
Although steady‐state spectra can specify fricative identity, there are variations in the spectra of fricatives produced in different phonetic contexts. We examined whether such variations in initial fricatives of fricative‐vowel‐fricative‐vowel‐fricative utterances contain sufficient information for identification of the subsequent vowel. Twelve u...
Article
The 8-chapter booklet gives an overview of what is known and what remains to be known about developmental dyslexia. Chapter 1 defines the scope of reading problems in general, while chapter 2 defines dyslexia-"children who have difficulty learning to read, for no apparent reason". Chapter 4 outlines the normal reading process. Possible causes for d...
Chapter
This chapter presents a long-term study of dichotic speech perception and receptive language skills in a child with acquired aphasia. It is a well-known fact that when children and prepubertal adolescents incur localized brain injury, their recovery from aphasie symptoms is quite dramatic. The most striking clinical feature of children with acquire...
Article
A vocoder‐type speechanalyzer interfaced to the tactile display of an Optacon was used to investigate how subjects learned, over a six‐week period, to identify the vibrotactile patterns of different speech signals. Closed sets of four vowel durations, three different vowels, and four spondee words constituted the test material. Learning to identify...
Article
A patient with a rather pure word deafness showed extreme suppression of right ear signals under dichotic conditions, suggesting that speech signals were being processed in the right hemisphere. Systematic errors in the identification and discrimination of natural and synthetic stop consonants further indicated that speech sounds were not being pro...
Article
Full-text available
It is generally accepted that anatomical asymmetries in the temporal lobe language region of humans are associated with the asymmetrical representation of language function in the left hemisphere. Comparative measurements were taken of the length of the left and right Sylvian fissures of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey brains. Measurements con...
Conference Paper
The present studies are an initial part of a project, the aim of which is development of a cutaneous communication aid for those born profoundly deaf or who become profoundly deaf before acquiring speech and language. A vocoder-type speech analyzer was interfaced to the tactile and visual displays of an Optacon (a reading aid for the blind) so that...
Article
Full-text available
Five normal‐speaking adult males were trained to use an electrolarynx. A speech pathologist trained the talkers ever a six‐week period. At the end of the training period each talker read two lists from the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT): a closed‐response intelligibility test. Eight listeners provided responses to the MRT recordings. The overall intelli...
Article
The performance of good readers and poor readers, enrolled in grades five to seven, was compared on dichotic listening of digits (DL) visual half-field presentation of Arabic numerals (VHF-N) and visual half-field presentation of digits written as words (VHF-W). Right ear superiority on the DL test was found to be equal in both groups. The poor rea...
Article
The right ear advantage (REA) observed in dichotic tests was further investigated to examine the effects of memory load on the task. Memory load was operationally defined as the duration of time wherein subjects were asked to retain the stimuli, with no rehearsal, prior to recall. The delay periods interpolated between dichotic stimulation and reca...
Article
Investigated whether J. Macnamara's (1967) 2-switch model of bilingual functioning is applicable to the phonological level. 20 Canadian French-English bilingual high school seniors were tested for their perception and production of the phonological feature of voice onset time. Ss were tested twice, once in a French language set and once in an Engli...
Article
Cross language studies have shown that Voice Onset Time (VOT) is a sufficient cue to separate initial stop consonants into phonemic categories. The present study used VOT as a linguistic cue in examining the perception and production of stop consonants in three groups of subjects: unilingual Canadian French, unilingual Canadian English, and bilingu...
Article
Full-text available
Intracellular recordings were obtained from 139 neurons in unanesthetized muscle-relaxed cat's primary auditory cortex. Patterns of nerve spike activity evoked by tone bursts, noise bursts, and clicks were similar to those observed extracellularly. Transmembrane recordings exhibited both excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory pos...
Article
Recordings were obtained from 179 cells, 53 of which were studied intracellularly; among these 26 cells were studied extracellularly before being studied intracellularly. A subgroup of units was characterized by spike durations of about one-third normal. These are referred to as ‘thin-spike units’.The population of cells was classified in 4 categor...
Article
Full-text available
The right ear advantage (REA) observed in dichotic tests was further investigated to examine the effects of memory load on the task. Memory load was operationally defined as the duration of time wherein subjects were asked to retain the stimuli, with no rehearsal, prior to recall. The delay periods interpolated between dichotic stimulation and reca...
Article
Compared various manners of presenting 2 vocabularies in terms of rate of learning and amount of immediate and delayed retention. 4 concurrent and 2 consecutive conditions were used, each comprising 2 sets of symbols (nonsense syllables distinguished by a color cue) associated with a common set of referents (nonsense forms). 20 Ss were used in each...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the auditory feedback monitoring system for speech is operative in children between two and three years of age. The procedure involved a 200 msec delay in the auditory feedback of the subject’s speech. Bilateral signal presentation was used for the synchronous (SAF) and delay (DAF) conditions. Pho...
Article
This study was designed to compare children and adults on their initial ability to identify and reproduce novel speech sounds and to evaluate their performance after receiving several training sessions in producing these sounds. The novel speech sounds used were two voiceless fricatives which are consonant phonemes in Arabic but which are completel...
Article
Full-text available
Jewish and Arab adolescents in Tel-Aviv and Jaffa were asked to evaluate the personality characteristics of speakers from tape recordings of their voices, some using different dialects of standard Hebrew (Yemenite and Ashkenazic), other using Arabic. The Ss were kept unaware that the speakers were bilinguals who spoke in different dialects or langu...

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