Gordon N Dutton

Gordon N Dutton
Glasgow Caledonian University | GCU · Department of Life Sciences

42.21
 · 
MD, FRCS, Ed (Hon), FRCS Glas, FRCOphth

About

218
Publications
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4,221
Citations

Publications

Publications (218)
Article
Full-text available
Simultanagnosia resulting from dorsal stream dysfunction is an under recognized condition. In this case report we describe the case of a young woman who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and who recovered visual acuities of 20/20 in each eye, along with normal visual fields and contrast sensitivities, yet experienced pe...
Article
Background Robust neuroscientific evidence supports the existence of an association between autism and a visual motion processing deficit, arising from dysfunction of the dorsal visual stream, a pathway connecting the primary visual and parieto-occipital cortices. The neuro-ophthalmic consequences of dorsal visual stream dysfunction (DVSD) are well...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI), including perceptual visual dysfunction (PVD), is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Inventories of questions relating to practical aspects of visual perception in everyday life, in particular the closed-ended Insight Questions Inventory (IQI), can be used to assess CVI/PVD. Studies linking r...
Article
Cerebral (cortical) visual impairment (CVI), the primary cause of visual impairment in children in high-income countries, is increasing globally due to improved life-saving measures for premature and full-term infants. Yet the consequences of this condition are only beginning to be understood and addressed. According to the topography, site, and th...
Article
Full-text available
The present review casts a critical eye on intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring and its value in current and future glaucoma care. Crucially, IOP is not fixed, but varies considerably during the 24-h cycle and between one visit and another. Consequently, a single IOP measurement during so-called office hours is insufficient to characterize the rea...
Article
Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blin...
Conference Paper
Aims Bilateral dysfunction of the parieto-occipital cortex, linked to the visual cortex by the dorsal stream, variably produces simultanagnosia (SIM), optic ataxia (OA), and gaze apraxia. This triad, rarely reported in childhood, comprises ‘Balint syndrome’. ‘Dorsal stream dysfunction’ (DSD) describes milder degrees of this disorder. This study aim...
Article
Purpose: To describe the immediate response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Methods: Children born between May and December 2015 with a confirmed diagnosis of CZS and enrolled in a multidisciplinary early intervention program were included in this study. All children recei...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a leading cause of vision impairment in developed and developing countries due to and increased survival of preterm and low birth weight infants. There are few data concerning the validity of protocols available to diagnose CVI. Aim: This study aimed to document the face, content and construct va...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increa...
Article
This commentary is on the original article by Pel et al. on pages 1030-1035 of this issue.
Article
Background: Intensive care patients are susceptible to developing painful corneal epithelial deficits. Provision of eye care to prevent deficits was limited in our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) population. Interventions: A new eye care bundle was introduced, comprising a guideline for eye care, the addition of eye lubricants to the elect...
Article
Full-text available
Balint’s syndrome is well described in adults, but not in children. It is caused by bilateral posterior parietal lobe damage and comprises a triad of simultanagnosia (inability to simultaneously see more than a small number of items), optic ataxia (impaired visual guidance of movement of the limbs and body), and apraxia of gaze (inability to voliti...
Chapter
Fixed combination drugs can provide effective IOP control, enhance adherence and convenience, eliminate the washout effect, and significantly reduce exposure to preservatives. In real life practice, FCs can often be superior to unfixed concomitant therapy. There is still however, limited verification for the benefits accrued and little is known con...
Article
It is still an open question if the auditory system, similar to the visual system, processes auditory motion independently from other aspects of spatial hearing, such as static location. Here, we report psychophysical data from a patient (female, 42 and 44 years old at the time of two testing sessions), who suffered a bilateral occipital infarction...
Chapter
Profound visual impairment due to CVI is relatively rare, but affected children and their families need a considerable amount of care to help bring about an optimal developmental and visual outcome. Their education is labour intensive. To train each child in skills that will afford as much autonomy as possible in later life, everyone looking after...
Chapter
In this chapter, case reports of children are presented as illustrations of the broad spectrum of cerebral visual impairments subsumed under the umbrella term CVI, which may also serve as a kind of guideline for diagnostic assessment and for intervention. Systematic and standardised procedures enable comprehensive assessment and documentation of al...
Chapter
Brain developmental disorders and those occurring in early childhood give rise to a variety of functional impairments. This does not however necessarily mean that these impairments, and their consequences for everyday life activities, are immutable, that the developmental processes and functional capacities of the (very) young brain are persistentl...
Chapter
As outlined in Chap. 2, a large proportion of the information concerning our physical and social worlds is processed in the visual system (Goldstein 2007; Yantis 2013). The close integration with cognition, language, emotion, motivation and the motor systems, as well as the importance of visual information for these functional systems, also means t...
Chapter
Diagnostic assessment of CVI in children is an interdisciplinary task, which needs close cooperation between the disciplines of (neuro-)ophthalmology, neuropaediatrics, developmental neuropsychology, orthoptics as well as early intervention and special education specialists. Observations reported by parents, brothers and sisters and other reference...
Chapter
The main foundations of the various perceptual capacities are built on peripheral (sense organs) and central components of the sensory systems, particularly in the cerebral cortex, which are specialised in the analysis and coding of sensory information, translating the outcome into experience, and making it accessible for use. Figure 2.1 shows a sc...
Chapter
Visual perception does not act independently, but is orchestrated together with other mental functions and capacities. What happens when a child has lost his favourite toy and tries to find it? First, the child has to have sufficient interest to search for the toy (motivation). Then the child has to remember what the toy looks like to recognise it...
Chapter
Disorders of brain function can be distinguished in relation to the time of occurrence of the pathological event in brain development, prenatal (before birth), perinatal (around birth) and postnatal (after birth). Such disorders may manifest as missing, incomplete or delayed development of the function(s) affected. Practically, all functional disor...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes and reflects upon the use of diffusely coloured tents to enclose both child and therapist which, in our service, has brought about remarkable transformations in attention, engagement, and understanding for severely impaired children with multiple disabilities and cerebral visual impairment (MDVI). A brief overview of how to c...
Book
Cerebral visual disorders have far-reaching consequences for child development. These have profound adverse effects on children‘s education and success in school and also in later life, but, unfortunately, cerebral visual disorders often remain undiagnosed and untreated in the pediatric population. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of w...
Chapter
Cerebral visual disorders have far-reaching consequences for child development. These have profound adverse effects on children’s education and success in school and also in later life, but unfortunately, cerebral visual disorders often remain undiagnosed and untreated in the paediatric population. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of w...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) comprises visual malfunction due to retro-chiasmal visual and visual association pathway pathology. This can be isolated or accompany anterior visual pathway dysfunction. It is a major cause of low vision in children in the developed and developing world due to increasing survival in paediatric and neonatal care. CV...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to use an equivalent noise (EN) to investigate the development and maturation of motion perception, and how the underlying limitations of sampling efficiency and internal noise effect motion detection and direction discrimination in school-aged children (5-14 years) and adults. Contrast energy thresholds of a 2 c/deg sinus...
Article
Purpose: In children born prematurely, impairment of vision due to damage to the brain is more common than due to retinopathy of prematurity. Yet, the diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment may be missed. The subject of cerebral visual impairment in children is reviewed in order to explain and draw attention to the types of visual deficits and be...
Article
Full-text available
Aims and background: Rates of re-operation, which may be related to an unsatisfactory surgical outcome, can provide a long-term index of the quality of strabismus surgery. This study aims to evaluate the utility of the Scottish Morbidity Records (SMR1) in determining nature and rates of re-operation for strabismus at the Royal Hospital for Sick Ch...
Article
Full-text available
Damage to the brain is the most common cause of visual impairment in children in the developed world, and many children with cerebral palsy are affected. The severity varies. Profound visual impairment results from bilateral occipital lobe damage. Visual acuities are frequently impaired but may be within the normal range. Accommodation is commonly...
Article
Full-text available
Uniplanar nystagmus has been described in relation to pathology of the brain stem, retina, optic nerve, sensory visual deprivation, periventricular leucomalacia, and drug toxicity. This paper describes a case of uniplanar nystagmus associated with features of higher visual dysfunction and a presumed focal insult to the occipital lobes following an...
Article
Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
Article
Introduction Ocular defence mechanisms are challenged in the intensive care environment secondary to sedation, paralysis and mechanical ventilation. Defects may develop in the exposed cornea. These are painful, may cause agitation and can lead to bacterial keratitis, with potentially devastating effects on vision. Protective treatments are availabl...
Article
Lacrimal-auricular-dental-digital (LADD) syndrome comprises multiple anomalies. It can be inherited as autosomal dominant with variable expressivity or can be sporadic in nature. The clinical features of LADD syndrome include variably, lacrimal system hypoplasia, ear anomalies (with or without hearing impairment), salivary system hypoplasia, epible...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal case study presents John's journey through childhood and adolescence, living with visual difficulties associated with a cerebral visual impairment. It highlights the day-to-day problems that John encountered, giving practical solutions and strategies that have enabled his dream of going to a university to be realized. John and his...
Article
We describe a novel, simple, rapid technique for inferior oblique recession. Access to the muscle is gained through a peripheral radial conjunctival incision midway between the lateral and inferior recti. The anterior edge of the inferior oblique muscle is identified coursing parallel to the limbus on the undersurface of Tenon's capsule, at the ape...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. To report the visual outcome of penetrating keratoplasty performed on the sympathizing eye in three cases of sympathetic ophthalmitis. Methods. Interventional case series of three patients, diagnosed with sympathetic ophthalmitis, with corneal changes in the form of band keratopathy and decompensation underwent penetrating keratoplasty to...
Article
Full-text available
Difficulties with visual perception (VP) are often described in children with neurological or developmental problems. However, there are few data regarding the range of visual perceptual abilities in populations of normal children, or on the impact of these abilities on children's day-to-day functioning. Data were obtained for 4512 participants in...
Article
Full-text available
Visual neglect is a common, yet frequently overlooked, neurological disorder following stroke characterized by a deficit in attention and appreciation of stimuli on the contralesional side of the body. It has a profound functional impact on affected individuals. A assessment and management of this condition are hindered, however, by the lack of pro...
Article
Full-text available
Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
Article
Full-text available
A protocol-based ophthalmological assessment was performed on-site by a skilled investigator. Children attending schools for special needs in Glasgow were offered eye care within their school. Outcomes for the first 240 participants are reported. Number of children for whom visual acuity could be measured and the results of refraction. Results 228/...
Article
Damage to the areas of the brain that are responsible for higher visual processing can lead to severe cerebral visual impairment (CVI). The prognosis for higher cognitive visual functions in children with CVI is not well described. We therefore present our six-year follow-up of a boy with CVI and highlight intervention approaches that have proved c...
Article
Purpose Massive advances in medical knowledge, therapeutic opportunities and increasing specialisation have led to an increasingly packed curriculum. Many medical schools have moved towards a more streamlined integrated curriculum. In view of the time constraints faced by many educators, we look at the effectiveness of 1-day of intensive structured...
Article
Full-text available
Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
Article
Full-text available
Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
Article
Full-text available
MC is a 38-yr old right-handed female who, apart from some sparing in rostral calcarine cortex, has suffered extensive bilateral hypoxic ischemic cortical damage encompassing her occipital cortices extending dorsally into the temporal lobe bilaterally and the right posterior parietal cortex. Conventional perimetry demonstrated some preserved visual...
Article
Full-text available
Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.
Article
We describe two cases of chorioretinal dysplasia and microcephaly and review the current literature regarding this topic.
Article
Central visual loss caused by conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the commonest cause of blindness in the UK. Eccentric viewing training aims to teach patients how to utilise the functioning areas of macula or adjacent retina and establish a 'pseudofovea'. This technique has yet to gain acceptance in the UK despite evidenc...
Technical Report
A pilot study, determining the visual competencies of 58 adult learners attending literacy provision was carried out. A large proportion (56) had difficulties with both motor and perceptual aspects of vision. The pilot was extended to include a total of 108 learners. Out of 108 learners tested, one or more visual problems out of a possible 7 catego...
Article
The incidence of early brain injury in children is rising, mainly because of changing reproductive demographics and better perinatal care. Early brain injury may be associated with altered visual perception and visuospatial attention. The useful field of view test (UFOV) has been developed to assess visual attention and processing speed in the elde...
Article
A histopathological study of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis in 39 eyes of mice infected in utero with Toxoplasma gondii and sacrificed at 16 weeks postpartum showed a wide variation in the pattern of tissue destruction. The changes in individual eyes were graded from mild to severe; Toxoplasma cysts were present in the retina and optic nerve in each...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of an object's material composition (i.e., what it is made of) alters how we interact with that object. Seeing the bright glint or hearing the metallic crinkle of a foil plate for example, confers information about that object before we have even touched it. Recent research indicates that the medial aspect of the ventral visual pathway is...
Article
The purpose of this study is to pilot a new notification system for children with visual impairment (VI) and describe the initial summary findings. A system of notification of children in Scotland with VI was established. Information concerning this system was distributed to professionals working with visually impaired children to forward to parent...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To describe the visual problems which children with brain damage may experience and to describe approaches to these, applicable to everyday life. Methods: A literature-based essay is presented using relevant articles and practical experience. Results: Damage to the brain can affect both visual input and visual processing. Degradation of visual...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired visual attention is a common manifestation of cerebral dysfunction. In adults, closed head trauma, cerebral microvascular ischaemia and dementia are common causes. In children, aetiologies include periventricular leukomalacia, hydrocephalus, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and brain damage caused by hypoglycaemia. The resultant visual dis...
Article
A 7-year-old boy with a history of low birth weight and perinatal hypoxia presented with symptoms of a spatial disorder of attention (simultanagnosia) and defective foot movements under visual control (optic ataxia), similar to a complex known as Balint's syndrome. Imaging revealed mature areas of ischemic damage in the posterior parietal and super...
Article
Full-text available
There have been few viable alternatives to patching the better eye as a treatment of amblyopia for more than two centuries. The success of patching depends on compliance, which is problematic for up to 59% of children and their families. This pilot study trialled the interactive binocular treatment (I-BiT) system as an alternative amblyopia treatme...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a series of term and preterm children with occipito-parietal periventricular white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) who manifest common clinical features of cognitive visual dysfunction. We also describe a strategy for taking clinical history that highlights the symptom complex and assists with management. A retr...
Article
Full-text available
The configuration and progression of the ERG in two children with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I H/S (Hurler-Scheie syndrome) and MPS I H (Hurler syndrome) is described. Physical examination, biochemical analysis, ophthalmic examination and electroretinography were performed. The Hurler-Scheie patient (case 1) showed negative scotopic but normal pho...
Article
Congenital corneal anesthesia is a rare clinical entity that poses a diagnostic dilemma, particularly in the pediatric age group. The sensory deficit may be confined to the cornea, or extend to other divisions of the trigeminal nerve. The sensory deficit may occur as an isolated abnormality, as part of a complex neurological syndrome, or it may occ...
Article
Damage to the occipital lobe of the brain results in hemianopia when unilateral, and cerebral blindness when bilateral. However, in some cases a degree of visual function persists in the blind visual field. This aim of this study was to describe this phenomenon of‘blindsight’in a cohort of children with brain-damage and to relate the clinical featu...
Article
Growth hormone (GH) has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, although its precise role remains ill-defined. In 1998, an association between exogenous human GH and retinal pathology in non-diabetic subjects was described. A female child with extreme short stature of unknown aetiology (height -7.38 SD at 11.3 years) and s...
Article
A 6-year-old boy with skin lesions suggestive of neurofibromatosis developed a frontotemporal primitive neuroectodermal tumor and was subsequently treated with surgery, craniospinal irradiation, and chemotherapy. After the sixth cycle of treatment with vincristine sulfate, 9 months after diagnosis, the child developed a rapidly progressive bilatera...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrocephalus in children has many aetiologies, and can cause multiple ophthalmic and visual disorders. This study sets out to detect and quantify visual and visuoperceptual dysfunction in children who have received surgical treatment for hydrocephalus with and without myelomeningocele, and to relate the results to the associated diagnoses and resu...
Article
Damage to the brain in children results in a multiplicity of visual difficulties which have to be managed both at home and at school. Parents of such children have detailed knowledge about the nature and characteristics of their child's visual difficulties and develop a range of coping strategies, often without realizing they have done so. The pare...
Article
Full-text available
Affected children include those with cerebral palsy, who may or may not have learning difficulties, and those with profound brain damage causing cerebral blindness Damage to the brain is the commonest cause of visual impairment in children in developed countries.1 Improved survival of premature infants has increased the prevalence of periventricul...
Article
Congenital tarsal kink is a rare condition. The folded edge of the upper tarsus, or the inturned lashes, may traumatize the cornea causing ulceration. We describe a case of unilateral upper eyelid horizontal tarsal kink associated with distichiasis and congenital corneal ulceration. Several different surgical treatment options have been previously...