Gordon D Waiter

Gordon D Waiter
University of Aberdeen | ABDN · School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition

BSc, PhD

About

131
Publications
14,223
Reads
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3,593
Citations
Citations since 2016
53 Research Items
1917 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Introduction
Gordon D Waiter currently works at the School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen. Gordon does research in Medical Physics. Their most recent publication is 'Inflammation is associated with pro‐nociceptive brain connections in rheumatoid arthritis patients with concomitant fibromyalgia'.
Additional affiliations
January 1996 - present
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
Full-text available
Background DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark associated with the repression of gene promoters. Its pattern in the genome is disrupted with age and these changes can be used to statistically predict age with epigenetic clocks. Altered rates of aging inferred from these clocks are observed in human disease. However, the molecular mechanisms under...
Article
Regional brain iron accumulation is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease and is associated with cognitive decline. We explored associations between age, cognition and iron content in grey matter regions and hippocampal subfields in 380 participants of the Aberdeen children of the 1950's...
Article
Full-text available
Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) was previously associated with negative affective biases. Evidence from larger population-based studies, however, is lacking, including whether biases normalise with remission. We investigated associations between affective bias measures and depressive symptom severity across a large community-based sample...
Article
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Cortical morphology changes with ageing and age‐related neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that the age effect is more pronounced in the frontal lobe. However, our knowledge of structural complexity changes in male and female brains is still limited. We measured cortical ribbon complexity through fractal dimension (FD) analysis at...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in brain morphology have been reported during development, ageing and in relation to different pathologies. Brain morphology described by the shape complexity of gyri and sulci can be captured and quantified using fractal dimension (FD). This measure of brain structural complexity, as well as brain volume, are associated with intelligence,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Fatigue is a common and burdensome symptom in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), yet is poorly understood. Currently, clinicians rely solely on fatigue questionnaires, which are inherently subjective measures. For the effective development of future therapies and stratification, it is of vital importance to identify biomarkers of fatigue. In thi...
Preprint
Introduction Childhood trauma and adversity are common across societies and have strong associations with physical and psychiatric morbidity throughout the life-course. One mechanism through which childhood trauma may predispose individuals to poor psychiatric outcomes, such as raised risk of lifetime depression, could be via associations with brai...
Article
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Recent research reports Anorexia Nervosa (AN) to be highly dependent upon neurobiological function. Some behaviours, particularly concerning food selectivity are found in populations with both Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and AN, and there is a proportionally elevated number of anorexic patients exhibiting symptoms of ASD. We performed a systemat...
Article
Background Abnormal social decision-making is prominent in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic medication often improves interpersonal functioning but this action is poorly understood. Neuroeconomic paradigms are an effective method of investigating social decision-making in psychiatric disorders that can be adapted for use with neuroimaging. Using a neur...
Preprint
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Background Dysregulated appetite control is characteristic of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity (OB). Studies using a broad range of methods suggest the cerebellum plays an important role in appetite control, and it is implicated in both AN and OB with reports of aberrant grey matter volume (GMV) compared to non-clinical populations. As functions o...
Article
Background: Radiomics is the high throughput analysis of medical images using computer algorithms, which specifically assess textural features. It has increasingly been proposed as a tool for the development of imaging biomarkers. However, an important acknowledged limitation of radiomics is the lack of reproducibility of features produced. Purpo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent research reports Anorexia Nervosa (AN) to be highly dependent upon neurobiological function. Some behaviours, particularly concerning food selectivity are found in populations with both Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and AN, and there is a proportionally elevated number of anorexic patients exhibiting symptoms of ASD. We performed a systemat...
Article
Full-text available
Although seasonal changes in amygdala volume have been demonstrated in animals, seasonal differences in human amygdala subregion volumes have yet to be investigated. Amygdala volume has also been linked to depressed mood. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in photoperiod would predict differences in amygdala or subregion volumes, and that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with accelerated ageing trajectories including functional markers of ageing, cellular ageing and markers of poor brain health. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations remain poorly understood. Chronic inflammation is also associated with advanced ageing; however, the degree t...
Preprint
Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with negative affective cognitive biases. Differences on population level however remain unclear, including whether they normalise with remission. This study investigated associations between affective cognition and MDD within a large community-based sample.Methods: Participants from Generat...
Article
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A complex interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors influence global brain structural alterations associated with brain health and disease. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of global brain imaging phenotypes have the potential to reveal the mechanisms of brain health and disease and can lead to better predictive analytics through...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Fatigue is a common and burdensome symptom in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), yet is poorly understood. Currently, clinicians rely solely on fatigue questionnaires, which are inherently subjective measures. For the effective development of future therapies and stratification, it is of vital importance to identify biomarkers of fatigue. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation has been commonly reported in major depressive disorder (MDD), but with considerable heterogeneity of results; potentially due to the predominant use of acute measures of an inherently variable/phasic system. Chronic longer-term measures of HPA-axis activity have yet to be systematica...
Article
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Development of cerebral small vessel disease, a major cause of stroke and dementia, may be influenced by early life factors. It is unclear whether these relationships are independent of each other, of adult socioeconomic status or of vascular risk factor exposures. We examined associations between factors from birth (ponderal index, birth weight),...
Article
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Introduction: This study aims to first discover plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to neurodegeneration (N) and vascular (V) damage in cognitively normal individuals and second to discover proteins mediating sex-related difference in N and V pathology. Methods: Five thousand and thirty-two plasma proteins were measured in 1061 cognitively norm...
Preprint
Objective A major limitation of current suicide research is the lack of power to identify robust correlates of suicidal thoughts or behaviour. Variation in suicide risk assessment instruments used across cohorts may represent a limitation to pooling data in international consortia. Method Here, we examine this issue through two approaches: (i) an e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Development of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia, may be influenced by early life factors. It is unclear whether these relationships are independent of each other, of adult socioeconomic status (SES) or of vascular risk factor exposures. We examined associations between factors from birth (ponderal index, bir...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in using data-driven unsupervised methods to identify structural underpinnings of common mental illnesses, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and associated traits such as cognition. However, studies are often limited to severe clinical cases with small sample sizes and most do not include replication. Here, we e...
Article
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STratifying Resilience and Depression Longitudinally (STRADL) is a population-based study built on the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) resource. The aim of STRADL is to subtype major depressive disorder (MDD) on the basis of its aetiology, using detailed clinical, cognitive, and brain imaging assessments. The GS:SFHS pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark associated with gene repression and genome stability. Its pattern in the genome is disrupted with age and these changes can be used to statistically predict age with epigenetic clocks. Rates of aging inferred from these clocks correlate with human health. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning age-assoc...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammatory processes are implicated in the aetiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); however, the relationship between peripheral inflammation, brain structure and depression remains unclear, partly due to complexities around the use of acute/phasic inflammatory biomarkers. Here, we report the first large-scale study of both serological and m...
Article
Full-text available
Iron is involved in many processes in the brain including, myelin generation, mitochondrial function, synthesis of ATP and DNA and the cycling of neurotransmitters. Disruption of normal iron homeostasis can result in iron accumulation in the brain, which in turn can partake in interactions which amplify oxidative damage. The development of MRI tech...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Inflammatory processes are implicated in the aetiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); however, the relationship between peripheral inflammation, brain structure and depression remains unclear. This study investigates associations between depression, structural neuroimaging measures and two measures of inflammation: serum-based C-re...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Even though seasonal and sex‐dependent changes in hippocampal and subfield volumes are well known in animals, little is known about changes in humans. We hypothesized that changes in photoperiod would predict changes in hippocampal subfield volumes and that this association would be different between females and males. Methods A total...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability and significant mortality, yet mechanistic understanding remains limited. Over the past decade evidence has accumulated from case-control studies that depressive illness is associated with blunted reward activation in the basal ganglia and other regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex....
Article
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Seasonal differences in mood and depressive symptoms affect a large percentage of the general population, with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) representing the most common presentation. SAD affects up to 3% of the world’s population, and it tends to be more predominant in females than males. The brainstem has been shown to be affected by photoper...
Article
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Variation in the klotho gene is linked to differences in health outcomes: klotho allele KL-VS heterozygosity is associated with longevity, better cognition and greater right frontal grey matter volume in late life. Contradicting reports, however, suggest that KL-VS’s effect on health might be age-dependent. Here we examine the relationship between...
Article
Full-text available
STratifying Resilience and Depression Longitudinally (STRADL) is a population-based study built on the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) resource. The aim of STRADL is to subtype major depressive disorder (MDD) on the basis of its aetiology, using detailed clinical, cognitive, and brain imaging assessments. The GS:SFHS pro...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a common imaging finding indicative of cerebral small vessel disease. Lesion segmentation algorithms have been developed to overcome issues arising from visual rating scales. In this study, we evaluated two automated methods and compared them to visual and manual segmentation to determine the mos...
Article
Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with comorbid fibromyalgia (FM) manifest alterations in brain connectivity synonymous with central sensitization. Here we consider how peripheral inflammation, the principal nociceptive stimulus in RA, interacts with brain connectivity in RA patients with comorbid FM. Methods: RA patients with (FM+,...
Article
Objectives: Fatigue is a major burden among patients with RA, yet is poorly understood. We sought to conduct the first imaging study to investigate the neurobiological correlates of fatigue in RA and to improve upon the methodological limitations of previous neuroimaging studies that have investigated this symptom in other populations. Methods:...
Article
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Measures of fMRI brain entropy have been used to investigate age and disease related neural changes. However, it is unclear if movement in the scanner is associated with brain entropy after geometric correction for movement. As age and disease can affect motor control, quantifying and correcting for the influence of movement will avoid false findin...
Article
Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential structural and metabolic role of skeletal muscle in SLE related fatigue. Methods A case control, multi‐modal MRI study was conducted. Cases were inactive SLE patients who reported chronic fatigue. Controls were age/sex matched healthy members of the general population. Participants were clini...
Article
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Background The majority of reward learning neuroimaging studies have not focused on the motivational aspects of behavior, such as the inherent value placed on choice itself. The experience and affective value of personal control may have particular relevance for psychiatric disorders, including depression. Methods We adapted a functional magnetic...
Article
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While fatigue is prevalent in chronic diseases, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom remain unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to enable us to characterize this symptom. The aim of this review was to gather and appraise the current literature on MRI studies of fatigue in chronic diseases. We systematically searched...
Article
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It is unknown how chronic inflammation impacts the brain. Here, we examined whether higher levels of peripheral inflammation were associated with brain connectivity and structure in 54 rheumatoid arthritis patients using functional and structural MRI. We show that higher levels of inflammation are associated with more positive connections between t...
Article
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Objectives: Many rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients report pain despite excellent control of inflammation with immunotherapies. Variable degrees of co-existing fibromyalgia (FM) may explain this disparity. FM has been characterised by aberrant brain functional connectivity, especially between the Default Mode Network (DMN) and insula. We hypothesi...
Article
Background Impaired autoregulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. Reliable protocols for measuring microvascular reactivity are required to test this hypothesis and for providing secondary endpoints in clinical trials. Aims To develop and assess a protocol for acquisition and processing of cerebrovascular reac...
Article
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Background: Being a part of community is critical for survival and individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have a greater sensitivity to interpersonal stress that makes them vulnerable to future episodes. Social rejection is a critical risk factor for depression and it is said to increase interpersonal stress and thereby impairing social...
Article
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Behavioral studies have found a striking decline in the processing of low-level motion in healthy aging whereas the processing of more relevant and familiar biological motion is relatively preserved. This fMRI study investigated the neural correlates of low-level radial motion processing and biological motion processing in 19 healthy older adults (...
Article
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The Brain Images of Normal Subjects (BRAINS) Imagebank (http://www.brainsimagebank.ac.uk) is an integrated repository project hosted by the University of Edinburgh and sponsored by the Scottish Imaging Network: A Platform for Scientific Excellence (SINAPSE) collaborators. BRAINS provide sharing and archiving of detailed normal human brain imaging a...
Article
Background: Depression is a disabling disorder that significantly impacts on the interpersonal functioning of individuals. However, little is known about the neural substrates of such difficulties. In the last few years neuroeconomics, which combines imaging with multiplayer behavioural economic paradigms, has been used to study the neural substra...
Article
Empathy is usually conceived of as independent of the non-verbal behaviors which mediate its experience, though embodied cognition theory predicts that individual differences in action representation will affect empathic traits. The "Actions and Feelings Questionnaire" (AFQ) was designed to capture individual differences in self-awareness of own an...
Article
Introduction: The measurement of human motion, or kinematics, is becoming increasingly important. More specifically the measurement of human motor control can give important information about a number of cognitive processes. However, due to the restricted environment of functional magnetic resonance imaging most studies involving kinematics have in...
Article
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Background: Depression is a prevalent disorder that significantly affects the social functioning and interpersonal relationships of individuals. This highlights the need for investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying these social difficulties. Investigation of social exchanges has traditionally been challenging as such interactions are diff...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological effects of fatigue among patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Methods: A case-control functional MRI (fMRI) study was conducted. Stable GPA subjects were recruited according to fatigue status, with those reporting fatigue defined as cases and those not de...
Article
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We investigated the differences in brain fMRI signal complexity in patients with schizophrenia while performing the Cyberball social exclusion task, using measures of Sample entropy and Hurst exponent (H). 13 patients meeting diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV) criteria for schizophrenia and 16 healthy contro...
Article
Background Brain white matter (WM), and more specifically neuronal connectivity is thought to perform a crucial role in the central processing of fatigue. In diseases of the WM, such as multiple sclerosis, fatigue is a common disabling complication. Similarly, fatigue is a principal complaint amongst patients with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (...
Article
Empathy involves experiencing emotion vicariously, and understanding the reasons for those emotions. It may be served partly by a motor simulation function, and therefore share a neural basis with imitation (as opposed to mimicry), as both involve sensorimotor representations of intentions based on perceptions of others' actions. We recently showed...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: Using a novel, complex facial imitation task, a link has previously been established between empathy and facial imitation ability (1), but it is not known what brain areas might mediate this correlation. Main conclusion: Empathy and facial imitation both rely on brain areas known to play a crucial part in simulation. Addi...
Article
Mu rhythm is an EEG measure of resting motor neurons, which is normally suppressed by input because of action observation or movement execution. This characteristic has caused mu suppression to be used as proxy marker for mirror neuron activation. However, there is little direct evidence that fluctuations in mu rhythm suppression reflect concurrent...
Article
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Objective: To determine the association between brain white matter (WM) damage and persistent fatigue among patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Methods: A case-control MRI study was conducted. Both cases, defined as GPA patients with chronic fatigue, and controls, defined as GPA patients without fatigue, underwent MRI brain sca...
Article
Theories of schizophrenia propose that abnormal functioning of the neural reward system is linked to negative and psychotic symptoms, by disruption of reward processing and promotion of context-independent false associations. Recently it has been argued that an insula-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) salience network system enables switching of brai...
Article
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Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm...
Article
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Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and ar...