Gordon Pipa

Gordon Pipa
Universität Osnabrück | UOS · Institute of Cognitive Science

Prof. Dr. rer nat

About

148
Publications
29,164
Reads
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3,643
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
Instritue of Cognitive Science - University Osnabrück
Position
  • Chair of the Neuroinformatics Department
January 2008 - January 2009
January 2008 - January 2009
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (148)
Article
Full-text available
Ising models are routinely used to quantify the second order, functional structure of neural populations. With some recent exceptions, they generally do not include the influence of time varying stimulus drive. Yet if the dynamics of network function are to be understood, time varying stimuli must be taken into account. Inclusion of stimulus drive...
Article
Full-text available
Although the existence of correlated spiking between neurons in a population is well known, the role such correlations play in encoding stimuli is not. We address this question by constructing pattern-based encoding models that describe how time-varying stimulus drive modulates the expression probabilities of population-wide spike patterns. The cha...
Article
Full-text available
Even in V1, where neurons have well characterized classical receptive fields (CRFs), it has been difficult to deduce which features of natural scenes stimuli they actually respond to. Forward models based upon CRF stimuli have had limited success in predicting the response of V1 neurons to natural scenes. As natural scenes exhibit complex spatial a...
Article
Full-text available
The moving bar experiment is a classic paradigm for characterizing the receptive field (RF) properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). Current approaches for analyzing neural spiking activity recorded from these experiments do not take into account the point-process nature of these data and the circular geometry of the stimulus presentati...
Article
Full-text available
Precise temporal synchrony of spike firing has been postulated as an important neuronal mechanism for signal integration and the induction of plasticity in neocortex. As prefrontal cortex plays an important role in organizing memory and executive functions, the convergence of multiple visual pathways onto PFC predicts that neurons should preferenti...
Article
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Environmental scientists often face the challenge of predicting a complex phenomenon from a heterogeneous collection of datasets that exhibit systematic differences. Accounting for these differences usually requires including additional parameters in the predictive models, which increases the probability of overfitting, particularly on small datase...
Article
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Autonomous vehicles represent a significant development in our society, and their acceptance will largely depend on trust. This study investigates strategies to increase trust and acceptance by making the cars’ decisions. For this purpose, we created a virtual reality (VR) experiment with a self-explaining autonomous car, providing participants wit...
Article
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While abundant in biology, foveated vision is nearly absent from computational models and especially deep learning architectures. Despite considerable hardware improvements, training deep neural networks still presents a challenge and constraints complexity of models. Here we propose an end-to-end neural model for foveal-peripheral vision, inspired...
Article
Full-text available
Missing terms in dynamical systems are a challenging problem for modeling. Recent developments in the combination of machine learning and dynamical system theory open possibilities for a solution. We show how physics-informed differential equations and machine learning—combined in the Universal Differential Equation (UDE) framework by Rackauckas et...
Preprint
Full-text available
Environmental scientists often have to predict a complex phenomenon from a heterogeneous collection of datasets. This is particularly challenging if there are systematic differences between them, as is often the case. Accounting for these differences requires a larger number of parameters and thus increases the risk of overfitting. We investigate h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Autonomous vehicles as cognitive agents will be an important use case of artificial intelligence in modern societies. Investigating how to increase acceptance and trust, we created a self-explaining car, informing passengers before actions in virtual reality. This study investigates the attitude towards self-driving cars with data from 7850 partici...
Article
Full-text available
With the further development of highly automated vehicles, drivers will engage in non-related tasks while being driven. Still, drivers have to take over control when requested by the car. Here, the question arises, how potentially distracted drivers get back into the control-loop quickly and safely when the car requests a takeover. To investigate e...
Preprint
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Most artificial neural networks used for object detection and recognition are trained in a fully supervised setup. This is not only very resource consuming as it requires large data sets of labeled examples but also very different from how humans learn. We introduce a setup in which an artificial agent first learns in a simulated world through self...
Article
Full-text available
Dreams take us to a different reality, a hallucinatory world that feels as real as any waking experience. These often-bizarre episodes are emblematic of human sleep but have yet to be adequately explained. Retrospective dream reports are subject to distortion and forgetting, presenting a fundamental challenge for neuroscientific studies of dreaming...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the further development of highly automated vehicles, drivers will engage in non-related tasks while being driven. Still, drivers have to take over control when requested by the car. Here the question arises, how potentially distracted drivers get back into the control-loop quickly and safely when the car requests a takeover. To investigate ef...
Article
Full-text available
How do humans acquire a meaningful understanding of the world with little to no supervision or semantic labels provided by the environment? Here we investigate embodiment with a closed loop between action and perception as one key component in this process. We take a close look at the representations learned by a deep reinforcement learning agent t...
Chapter
The most widely used activation functions in current deep feed-forward neural networks are rectified linear units (ReLU), and many alternatives have been successfully applied, as well. However, none of the alternatives have managed to consistently outperform the rest and there is no unified theory connecting properties of the task and network with...
Preprint
Full-text available
With the introduction of autonomous vehicles, drivers will be able to engage in non-related tasks while being driven. But in critical situations the car needs the support of the human driver. How do distracted drivers get back into the control-loop quickly when the car requests a take-over? To investigate effective take-over actions, we developed a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a procedure for the patient-specific prediction of epileptic seizures. To this end, a combination of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and smooth basis functions with robust regression is applied to power spectra of intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) signals. The resulting time and frequency components capture the...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual environments will deeply alter the way we conduct scientific studies on human behavior. Possible applications range from spatial navigation over addressing moral dilemmas in a more natural manner to therapeutic applications for affective disorders. The decisive factor for this broad range of applications is that virtual reality (VR) is able...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a simple yet interpretable, probabilistic model is proposed for the prediction of reported case counts of infectious diseases. A spatio-temporal kernel is derived from training data to capture the typical interaction effects of reported infections across time and space, which provides insight into the dynamics of the spread of infect...
Article
Full-text available
Self-driving cars have the potential to greatly improve public safety. However, their introduction onto public roads must overcome both ethical and technical challenges. To further understand the ethical issues of introducing self-driving cars, we conducted two moral judgement studies investigating potential differences in the moral norms applied t...
Article
Full-text available
The question of how self-driving cars should behave in dilemma situations has recently attracted a lot of attention in science, media and society. A growing number of publications amass insight into the factors underlying the choices we make in such situations, often using forced-choice paradigms closely linked to the trolley dilemma. The methodolo...
Chapter
Bistable perception describes the phenomenon of perception alternating between stable states when a subject is presented two incompatible stimuli. Besides intensive research in the last century many open questions remain. As a phenomenon occurring across different perceptual domains, understanding bistable perception can help to reveal properties o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Self-driving cars have the potential to greatly improve public safety. However, their introduction onto public roads must overcome both ethical and technical challenges. To further understand the ethical issues of introducing self-driving cars, we conducted two moral judgement studies investigating potential differences in the moral norms applied t...
Preprint
A bstract Over the last two decades, advances in neurobiology have established the essential role of active processes in neural dendrites for almost every aspect of cognition, but how these processes contribute to neural computation remains an open question. We show how two kinds of events within the dendrite, synaptic spikes and localized dendriti...
Preprint
Automated driving technology advances quickly, and self-driving vehicles will soon no longer need human supervision. The ethical questions that the technology brings with it, however, are diverse and not always easily solvable. In particular, the question of morally right behavior in dilemma situations presents an unsolved issue to date, a solution...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a procedure for the patient-specific prediction of epileptic seizures. To this end, a combination of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and smooth basis functions with robust regression is applied to power spectra of intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) signals. The resulting time and frequency components capture the...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, a simple yet interpretable, probabilistic model is proposed for the prediction of reported case counts of infectious diseases. A spatio-temporal kernel is derived from training data to capture the typical interaction effects of reported infections across time and space, which provides insight into the dynamics of the spread of infect...
Article
Full-text available
Ethical thought experiments such as the trolley dilemma have been investigated extensively in the past, showing that humans act in a utilitarian way, trying to cause as little overall damage as possible. These trolley dilemmas have gained renewed attention over the past years; especially due to the necessity of implementing moral decisions in auton...
Preprint
The question of how self-driving cars should behave in dilemma situations has recently attracted a lot of attention in science, media and society. A growing number of publications amass insight into the factors underlying the choices we make in such situations, often using forced-choice paradigms closely linked to the trolley dilemma. The methodolo...
Article
Full-text available
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00128/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Behavioral_Neuroscience&id=365687
Preprint
Full-text available
The most widely used activation functions in current deep feed-forward neural networks are rectified linear units (ReLU), and many alternatives have been successfully applied, as well. However, none of the alternatives have managed to consistently outperform the rest and there is no unified theory connecting properties of the task and network with...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous vehicles, though having enormous potential, face a number of challenges. As a computer system interacting with society on a large scale and human beings in particular, they will encounter situations, which require moral assessment. What will count as right behavior in such situations depends on which factors are considered to be both mor...
Article
A neuronal population is a computational unit that receives a multivariate, time-varying input signal and creates a related multivariate output. These neural signals are modeled as stochastic processes that transmit information in real time, subject to stochastic noise. In a stationary environment, where the input signals can be characterized by co...
Article
During dreaming, we experience a wake-like hallucinatory reality, however with restricted reflective abilities: in the face of a bizarre dream environment, we do not realize that we are actually dreaming. In contrast, during the rare phenomenon of lucid dreaming, the dreamer gains insight into the current state of mind while staying asleep. This me...
Conference Paper
We introduce a feature extraction scheme from a biologically inspired model using receptive fields (RFs) to point-light human motion patterns to form an action descriptor. The Echo State Network (ESN) which also has a biological plausibility is chosen for classification. We demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of applying the proposed feature...
Article
Full-text available
Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date. Models of ethics for self-driving cars should thus aim to match human decisions made in the same c...
Article
Full-text available
Spike synchrony, which occurs in various cortical areas in response to specific perception, action, and memory tasks, has sparked a long-standing debate on the nature of temporal organization in cortex. One prominent view is that this type of synchrony facilitates the binding or grouping of separate stimulus components. We argue instead for a more...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background A lucid dream is a dream in which one is aware of the fact that one is dreaming. Various cognitive and technical methods exist to induce lucid dreaming, most of which show only little success when tested scientifically. Until now, only few studies have dealt with inducing lucid dreaming by supplements, with, however, promising r...
Article
Neuromorphic computing provides a promising platform for processing high-dimensional noisy signals on dedicated hardware. Using design elements inspired by neurobiological findings and advances in machine learning methodology, delay-coupled systems have recently been developed in the field of neuromorphic computing. Delayed feedback connections ena...
Preprint
In a constantly changing environment the brain has to make sense of dynamic patterns of sensory input. These patterns can refer to stimuli with a complex and hierarchical structure which has to be inferred from the neural activity of sensory areas in the brain. Such areas were found to be locally recurrently structured as well as hierarchically org...
Article
Full-text available
Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyz...
Article
Full-text available
Delays are ubiquitous in biological systems, ranging from genetic regulatory networks and synaptic conductances, to predator/pray population interactions. The evidence is mounting, not only to the presence of delays as physical constraints in signal propagation speed, but also to their functional role in providing dynamical diversity to the systems...
Data
The readout training procedure avoids overfitting the target. (A) Comparison between desired (blue) and observed (orange) fDCR output signal d3 in Experiment 3 (zoomed-in, different run from Fig 5). The training procedure results in a readout that is both robust against outliers (y < 1) and is capable of tracking the desired target accurately. (B)...
Data
Computing the product of random input and ramping feedback signal. (A) Comparison between desired (blue) and observed (orange) fDCR output signal d(t¯)=dftf·|uarb(t¯)|. (B) Scatter plots of the target verses observed output for both training (yellow) and validation (brown) data sets. (C) Correlation coefficient between desired and observed fDCR out...
Article
Full-text available
In neuroscience, data are typically generated from neural network activity. The resulting time series represent measurements from spatially distributed subsystems with complex interactions, weakly coupled to a high-dimensional global system. We present a statistical framework to estimate the direction of information flow and its delay in measuremen...
Article
Full-text available
Supplementing a differential equation with delays results in an infinite-dimensional dynamical system. This property provides the basis for a reservoir computing architecture, where the recurrent neural network is replaced by a single nonlinear node, delay-coupled to itself. Instead of the spatial topology of a network, subunits in the delay-couple...
Article
Full-text available
Neural plasticity plays an important role in learning and memory. Reward-modulation of plasticity offers an explanation for the ability of the brain to adapt its neural activity to achieve a rewarded goal. Here, we define a neural network model that learns through the interaction of Intrinsic Plasticity (IP) and reward-modulated Spike-Timing-Depend...
Chapter
Full-text available
Reservoir computing has been successfully applied in difficult time series prediction tasks by injecting an input signal into a spatially extended reservoir of nonlinear subunits to perform history-dependent nonlinear computation. Recently, the network was replaced by a single nonlinear node, delay-coupled to itself. Instead of a spatial topology,...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the frameworks of dual-process theories, we examined the interplay between intuitive and controlled cognitive processes related to moral and social judgments. In a virtual reality (VR) setting we performed an experiment investigating the progression from fast, automatic decisions towards more controlled decisions over multiple trials in th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent findings support the idea that interleukin (IL)-22 serum levels are related to disease severity in end-stage liver disease. Existing scoring systems--Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation (SOFT) and Pre-allocation-SOFT (P-SOFT)--are well-established in appraising survival rat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) has been proposed to coordinate neural dynamics across spatial and temporal scales. Despite its potential relevance for understanding healthy and pathological brain function, the standard CFC analysis and physiological interpretation come with fundamental problems. For example, apparent CFC can appear because of spect...