Gordon Kruse

Gordon Kruse
University of Alaska Fairbanks · College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences (CFOS)

About

125
Publications
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Publications

Publications (125)
Article
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Because fish stocks often straddle state, national, and international boundaries, there is a need to coordinate fishery management across jurisdictions. This is particularly important when the abundance or spatial distribution of the stock varies through time. This is best achieved when management objectives and strategies align, and there is coord...
Article
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The symposium, Shellfish—Resources and Invaders of the North, took place 5–7 November 2019 in Tromsø, Norway. Approximately 110 participants presented and discussed 60 talks and 25 posters. Of these, ten articles are published in this symposium issue. The goal of this symposium was to discuss the role of shellfish, both as harvestable resources and...
Article
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An integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) is a framework that organizes science to aid in the transition from traditional single-species management towards ecosystem-based management. Within the Gulf of Alaska, we started a small-scale IEA framework with active engagement of local stakeholders in the fishing community of Sitka. The initial step of t...
Article
Recent research suggests that calcified eyestalks and gastric mill ossicles (stomach teeth) can be used to estimate the age of some crustacean species. Along with annual growth of the endocuticle, bipartite bands in the hard tissue are believed to reflect annual growth patterns (similar to fish scales or otoliths) that are retained through repeated...
Article
Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) supports one of the largest commercial fisheries in the world. Juvenile pollock are important forage fish in the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) ecosystem, often representing the largest fraction in the diets of major Bering Sea piscivores. Large variability in the EBS pollock stock biomass in recent years has been at...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) is a framework that organizes and summarizes science to aid in the transition from a traditional single sector toward a holistic management approach known as ecosystem-based management (EBM). An essential step of the IEA framework is the development of conceptual models. These models allow the integration of in...
Article
We have examined the estimates in Pramod et al. of IUU Alaskan Pollock imported into Japan. Based on extensive knowledge of this fishery we find that their estimates are not substantiated by any known facts from the fishery. Whereas in a retracted version of the paper the authors estimated that 15–22% of Alaskan Pollock imported into Japan were IUU...
Article
Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) are an ecologically, commercially, and culturally important Alaskan groundfish species. Commercial harvest of halibut dates back to the late 19th century and has been managed by the International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) since 1921. IPHC surveys have revealed declining trends in survey biomass in m...
Article
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Spatial distributions of fished species must be well characterized to avoid local depletions, identify critical habitat, and predict and mitigate interactions with other fisheries. The Bristol Bay red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) fishery is one of the largest crab fisheries in Alaska. Summer crab distributions have been well documented by...
Data
Comparisons of weighting methods for Getis-Ord hot spot, Gi* analyses. Analyses performed on catch per unit effort data from daily fishing logs in the Bristol Bay red king crab fishery. Analyses were conducted using 5 weighting methods: a distance band (d) of 20, 10, and 5 km and a neighbor number (k) of 20 and 40. Results shown for two sample year...
Data
Bristol Bay red king crab daily fishing log data aggregated by 100 km2 grid cells. Pot strings were assigned to grid cells based on their midpoint. Grid cells with fewer than three vessels fishing in them were excluded due to confidentiality restricitons. Latitude and longitude are for the centroid of each hexagonal grid cell, as in Figs 3 and 6 (A...
Data
Autumn versus summer distribution of Bristol Bay red king crab over 2005–2016. Summer data are from the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) trawl survey and autumn data are from daily fishing logs (this study, Fig 4). Both datasets show the catch of legal sized male crab only. NMFS trawls are on a grid system, with crab caught per km2: x = no...
Data
Annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) and exploitation rate. CPUE Total is the mean annual CPUE for 2005–2016 using daily fishing log data from the Bristol Bay red king crab fishery, while CPUE 1st 5% is the mean CPUE from the start of the fishery until 5% of the total legal crab in the population were caught each year. Exploitation rate is the perce...
Presentation
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Fisheries managers employ a suite of management strategies and measures to promote long-term social and economic benefits while preserving the productive capacity of fish stocks. However, for cases in which stocks straddle fishery jurisdictions, legal, social, and/or political considerations may prevent adoption of coherent management strategies. L...
Article
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Historically, Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) have been aged using dorsal fin spines, a method that was validated through bomb radiocarbon analysis and oxytetracycline tagging. However, ages generated using this method generally have poor precision and require estimation of missing growth bands in eroded spines, prompting a search for impr...
Article
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Marine benthic communities are critical biotic components of habitat due to their roles in ecosystem function and health, and as indicators of ecosystem change. Benthic communities are receiving increasing attention as institutions adopt ecosystem-oriented research approaches. We conducted a multidecadal analysis of benthic communities in areas tar...
Article
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Stomach contents from 1221 Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) were collected from the Gulf of Alaska over 2004–2006 and analyzed to determine predominant prey species. Pacific spiny dogfish in the Gulf of Alaska have a variable diet suggesting that they are generalist feeders. Of the 68.30% of stomachs with prey contents, the most important p...
Article
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Catch quotas for walleye pollock Gadus chalcogrammus, the dominant species in the groundfish fishery off Alaska, are set by applying harvest control rules to annual estimates of spawning stock biomass (SSB) from age-structured stock assessments. Adult walleye pollock abundance and maturity status have been monitored in early spring in Shelikof Stra...
Data
Walleye pollock maturity observations by length, weight, and age for the Gulf of Alaska. (ZIP)
Article
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Development of refined indices of female reproductive potential is needed for estimation of alternative biological reference points for the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) fishery, which is managed with large male-only harvest regulations. Females were collected from 2007 to 2009 to investigate seasonal and interannual vari...
Article
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Nearshore marine habitats are productive and vulnerable owing to their connections to pelagic and terrestrial landscapes. To understand how ocean basin- and local-scale conditions may influence nearshore species, we developed an annual index of nearshore production (spanning the period 1972–2010) from growth increments recorded in otoliths of repre...
Article
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Fish otolith growth increments were used as indices of annual production at nine nearshore sites within the Alaska Coastal Current (downwelling region) and California Current (upwelling region) systems (~36-60°N). Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus) were identified as useful indicators in pelagic and bent...
Article
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Concerns over long-term cumulative impacts of fishing on marine ecosystems and the status of many marine species have led to calls for ecosystem-based approaches to fishery management. Single-species population dynamics models traditionally used in fisheries stock assessments lack separate accounting of predation mortality and often underestimate n...
Article
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We conducted a socioeconomic assessment of the commercial weathervane scallop (Patinopecten caurinus) fishery off Alaska. The research was structured within the framework of an SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis, a strategy commonly used to analyze the internal (strengths, weaknesses) and external (opportunities, threats)...
Technical Report
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Pengilly, D., L.M. Stichert, J.B. Webb, G.H. Kruse, D. Woodby, and S.L. Tamone. 2014. A workshop to identify approaches for achieving priority research for eastern Bering Sea snow crab biology and fishery management. Anchorage., Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Special Publication No. 14-07. http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/FedAidPDFs/SP14-07.pdf
Article
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The Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi) is a common bycatch species in the Gulf of Alaska. Their spatial distribution is poorly understood, as most catch is discarded at sea. We analyzed spiny dogfish spatial distribution from fishery-dependent and -independent observations of longline gear between 1996 and 2008 using generalized additive and...
Article
Full-text available
Stock assessment of Alaskan red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815), can be improved by incorporating reproductive output, which requires an understanding of maternal size effects on embryo and larval quality. In June 2009 and 2010, we collected clutches of recently extruded red king crab embryos in Bristol Bay, Alaska, to assess...
Article
Full-text available
Stock assessment of Alaska red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, can be improved by incorporating embryo production, which requires an understanding of the size-fecundity relationship and an understanding of interannual and seasonal variability in fecundity. We collected red king crab egg clutches from Bristol,Bay, AK, during summer 2007 to 20...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the basic life history of a lightly exploited stock of Squalus suckleyi in the Gulf of Alaska to establish a baseline for future comparison and to provide critical information for stock assessments. Average total length (total length extended) of females (87·7 cm) was significantly larger (t-test, t = -12·57...
Article
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Demographic models are useful tools for assessing data-limited species and may be an appropriate alternative to cohort analyses for sharks due to their long-lived, slow-growing nature. In this study, age- and stage-based demographic analyses were conducted to examine the intrinsic rebound potential (r) and potential risk of fishing for spiny dogfis...
Article
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A length-based population model was constructed for Bristol Bay red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, incorporating stochastic growth, gradual recruitment over length, and a bowl-shaped pattern for instantaneous natural mortality as a function of length. A nonlinear least squares approach was used to estimate abundance, recruitment, and natura...
Article
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We constructed an empirically based simulation model of population dynamics for English sole (Parophrys vetulus) occupying waters off the Washington and Oregon coast. While the original purpose for developing this model was to provide a tool for analysis of management questions, we also found it useful in evaluating hypotheses about biological proc...
Article
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Spawning times for English sole (Parophrys vetulus) in Oregon waters were estimated for 13 yr using data on adult female gonadal condition, and surveys of pelagic larvae and benthic juveniles of known ages. The spawning season for this species is extremely protracted and variable. Some spawning may occur in all months, but most occurs between Septe...
Article
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Monthly means of deep temperature at a moored current meter (Poinsettia), sea level at Newport, Oregon, and the coastal upwelling index at 45°N, 125°W were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated over 1972–74. Significant correlations were also found between both directly observed values and calculated anomalies of deep temperatures at two repeated hyd...
Article
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Kruse, G. H., Zheng, J., and Stram, D. L. 2010. Recovery of the Bristol Bay stock of red king crabs under a rebuilding plan. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 1866–1874. After peak landings in 1980, the red king crab fishery in Bristol Bay (Alaska) was closed in 1983 because of stock collapse. In the following decade, small commercial harvests...
Article
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Hammer, C., Kjesbu, O. S., Kruse, G. H., and Shelton, P. A. 2010. Rebuilding depleted fish stocks: biology, ecology, social science, and management strategies. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 1825–1829. This is an introduction to an ICES/PICES symposium entitled as in the title of this manuscript. During the symposium, five theme sessions emb...
Article
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Siddeek, M. S. M., Zheng, J., Morado, J. F., Kruse, G. H., and Bechtol, W. R. 2010. Effect of bitter crab disease on rebuilding in Alaska Tanner crab stocks. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 2027–2032. Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) Tanner crab Chionoecetes bairdi stocks were declared overfished in 1996 and were closed to commercial fishing between...
Article
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Gröger, J. P., Kruse, G. H., and Rohlf, N. 2010. Slave to the rhythm: how large-scale climate cycles trigger herring (Clupea harengus) regeneration in the North Sea. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 454–465. Understanding the causes of variability in the recruitment of marine fish stocks has been the “holy grail” of fisheries scientists for mo...
Article
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Ten growth models were fitted to age and growth data for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the Gulf of Alaska. Previous studies of spiny dogfish growth have all fitted the t 0 formulation of the von Bertalanffy model without examination of alternative models. Among the alternatives, we present a new two-phase von Bertalanffy growth model formula...
Conference Paper
The spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a species commonly caught as bycatch in commercial groundfish and halibut fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). These small sharks are generally caught and discarded at sea while targeting commercial valuable species, including Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), an...
Article
Full-text available
Grant, W. S., Merkouris, S. E., Kruse, G. H., and Seeb, L. W. 2011. Low allozyme heterozygosity in North Pacific and Bering Sea populations of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus): adaptive specialization, population bottleneck, or metapopulation structure? – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: . Populations of red king crab in the North Paci...
Article
Gulf of Alaska waters around Kodiak Island once supported the world's largest fishery for red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus. Fishery harvests occurred at low levels beginning in the 1930s, but increased rapidly in the 1960s to a peak harvest of 42,800 mt in 1965. However, stock abundance declined dramatically in the late 1960s, and again in...
Article
Full-text available
Waters of the northern Gulf of Alaska around Kodiak Island once supported the world's largest fishery for the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus. Commercial fisheries began at low levels in the 1930s, increasing rapidly in the 1960s to a peak harvest of 42,800 metric tons in 1965. Stock abundance declined sharply in the late 1960s, moderated...
Article
Full-text available
Size at maturity is incorporated into stock assessments of walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma. For eastern Bering Sea walleye pollock, however, this important biological variable has not been examined since 1976 and possible interannual and geographic variations have never been evaluated. Maturity condition and fish length data were collected fr...
Article
Full-text available
Walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, is the most commercially important species in the eastern Bering Sea. Estimates of maturity are critical for setting an appropriate harvest rate for pollock spawning biomass, and correct classification of ovaries into a maturity condi - tion is necessary for accurate estimation of maturity. Data on length, we...
Article
This chapter addresses temporal scales ranging from single anomalous years, groups of successive or near-successive years with similar behavior, decades, multiple decades, centuries, and millennia. Scales from local through meso-scales to the basin-wide scale are considered. Aleutian Low Pressure system (ALPS) and the North Pacific High (NPH) repet...
Article
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A group of specialists on subarctic crab biology and fisheries participated in a workshop to discuss stage-specific recruitment processes of snow crab Chionoecetes opilio populations. The goal was to develop from experience with North Pacific and North Atlantic stocks a comprehensive set of hypotheses on the physical and biotic factors that may con...
Article
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In the southeastern Bering Sea, Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) migrate from the Pribilof Islands region where they overwinter, to the Alaska coast where they spawn in spring. The migration sustains a nearshore commercial fishery that targets roe-bearing females just prior to spawning. Herring also are taken as bycatch in groundfish trawl fisheri...
Article
During the last three decades, population abundances of eastern Bering Sea (EBS) crab stocks fluctuated greatly, driven by highly variable recruitment. In recent years, abundances of these stocks have been very low compared to historical levels. This study aims to understand recruitment variation of six stocks of red king (Paralithodes camtschaticu...
Article
The new research reported in this special issue of Fisheries Oceanography expands our understanding of the Aleutian Archipelago ecosystem. Yet our knowledge remains very limited, while the use of this ecosystem for commercial activities, recreation and other purposes expands. Given this situation, how can we sustain the ecosystem services (food, fu...
Article
Full-text available
The weathervane scallop (Patinopecten caurinus) fi shery in Alaska pro- vides a case study of fi shery resource management in a data-limited situation. The fi shery progressed through several developmental phases since its inception in 1967. During the early years, the fi shery was virtu- ally unregulated. Harvests declined by the mid 1970s due to...
Article
Contents Executive Summary Summary of Crab Data from the 2001 NMFS Bottom Trawl Survey Status of King Crab Stocks in the Eastern Bering Sea in 2001 BSAI Crab Bycatch Annual Management Report for the Shellfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea Annual Management Report for the Shellfish Fisheries of the Aleutian Islands ADF&G News Releases 1 Table 1. MSST,...
Article
Stock–recruitment (S–R) relationships have important implications for harvest strategies but are difficult to develop for crab stocks because crab lack retainable hard body parts to age them and lack of sufficient knowledge about complex crab reproductive biology also complicates estimating effective spawning biomass. To evaluate harvest strategies...