Gordon Stanley Howell

Gordon Stanley Howell
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Horticulture

Bsc; MS; Ph.D.

About

73
Publications
10,199
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,243
Citations

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Grapevines have evolved into a number of species, some of which are more tolerant of cold weather than others. The ability of a grapevine to acclimate to the arrival of cold weather, resist freeze damage and fluctuations of temperature while dormant, and then de-acclimate slowly for bud burst and shoot growth comprise what is known as “cold hardine...
Article
Michigan has two main grape growing regions: the Southwest around Fennville and along the Lake Michigan shoreline, and the Northwest including the Leelanau and Old Mission Peninsulas. In 1970, the grape industry in the Southwest was based primarily on Vitis labrusca varieties including Concord and Niagara, and wine grapes were just being introduced...
Article
‘Niagara’ (Vitis labruscana Bailey) vines were evaluated for 4 years, from 2000 to 2003 in a commercial vineyard in Scottdale, MI. Vines were trained as Hudson River Umbrella (HRU), umbrella Kniffen (UK), and Hybrid (HYB) and pruned for 4 years at four pruning levels (20, 40, 80, or 120 nodes/vine) and minimally pruned or hedge pruned mechanically....
Article
Achieving desired fruit quality at harvest in cool climate conditions is a challenge, especially for red varieties, and the typical inability of fruit to reach technologicalmaturity is a critical contributing factor requiring examination. To probe this issue, this research investigated the impact of two levels of crop thinning and of basal leaf rem...
Article
Scion-rootstock interactions were analyzed to test the interaction between environment and above-ground vine phenology. The experiment employed ‘Marechal Foch’ and ‘Vidal Blanc’ as reciprocally grafted, own-rooted, and self-grafted vines. Results suggest that genetically complex phenological factors were under the control of the scion cultivar. The...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of a postveraison application of the film-forming antitranspirant Vapor Gard® (VG, a.i. di-1-p-menthene) was investigated as a technique to delay grape ripening and reduce sugar accumulation in the berry. The study was carried out over the 2010–2011 seasons in a non-irrigated vineyard of cv. Sangiovese in central Italy. VG was app...
Article
Background and AimsPostveraison limitation of canopy photosynthesis delays grape berry ripening and reduces sugar accumulation, thus lowering the alcohol content of the subsequent wines. This study was designed to evaluate whether similar results could be obtained by defoliation apical to the bunch zone using a leaf-plucking machine when berry suga...
Article
Viticulture in Michigan is often limited by cool and humid climate conditions that impact vine growth and the achievement of adequate fruit quality at harvest. Sugars, pH, acids, and yeast available nitrogen (YAN) are indices of quality and, as such, of suitability for wine production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of foliar ni...
Article
Potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in North America. In sensitive grape cultivars such as Pinot gris, feeding symptoms include leaf yellowing, leaf cupping, and stunted vine growth. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine how photosynthesis and other physi...
Article
Viticulture in Michigan is limited by a cool and humid climate and as a result, there is a problem of harvest season cluster rot, especially in cultivars with compact cluster morphology. Economically important wine grape varieties in eastern North America possess varying susceptibility to harvest season cluster rot. Some important cultivars that ar...
Article
A portable, open gas exchange system was developed that enabled the simultaneous measurement of net carbon dioxide exchange (NCE) and transpiration of eight mature Sauvignon blanc grapevines in the field. On clear and cloudy days NCE and transpiration were closely related to the modeled interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). On...
Article
The potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) can be a damaging pest of vineyards throughout eastern North America, causing leaf curling and yellowing in sensitive cultivars. To determine the relationship between infestations by this insect and vine growth and resource allocation, potted and fruitless Pinot gris (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines graft...
Article
In the cool winegrowing regions of Michigan, USA and Canterbury, New Zealand, Vitis vinifera L. Pinot noir is an economically important red winegrape cultivar. Both regions have problems with the color of Pinot noir wines based on anthocyanin concentration. Thus, anthocyanin concentration of V. vinifera L. Pinot noir fruit was investigated using th...
Article
Treatments varying source:sink ratio (leaf number per vine in relation to crop load) on container-grown Pinot Noir grapevines produced differences in vine growth and dry matter accumulation and partitioning. Vines with (+) and those without (-) fruit were subject to a range of leaf removal treatments. All treatments retained leaves at nodes 1–4 fro...
Article
Five-year-old Sangiovese grapevines were shoot-thinned in early spring to three levels: 12 shoots (12SH), 20 shoots (20SH), and 28 shoots (28SH) per vine. Primary and lateral leaf areas per shoot and per vine were determined by regression on measured shoot length. Yield was measured at harvest and pruning weight measured at dormant season pruning....
Article
Potted Chardonnay (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines were inoculated with conidial suspensions of Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr., the causal agent of powdery mildew of grape, just prior to bloom (early), just after the estimated 5-mm berry stage (late), or they were not inoculated but were treated with myclobutanil fungicide to maintain foliage free of...
Article
Potted grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. 'Chardonnay') were inoculated with conidial suspensions of the grapevine pathogen causing powdery mildew of grape (GPM) (Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr.). Leaves of inoculated and noninoculated vines were studied for the effects of varying light (PAR) and CO2 concentrations on factors affecting carbon assimilatio...
Article
Full-text available
Seyval blanc' (Vitis vinifera L.) is an important French-American hybrid white wine cultivar grown in the Great Lakes region because of its disease and phylloxera resistance and cold hardiness. It does, however, have some limitations. It forms large, compact clusters susceptible to Botrytis bunch rot under Michigan's cool, wet climate and post-rain...
Article
A simplified method was developed to quantify rapidly and accurately 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine by combining previous techniques of stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with headspace solid-phase microextraction.
Article
Full-text available
Canopy topping and leaf removal are management practices commonly used in New Zealand vineyards to increase light and pesticide penetration to the fruit zone, thus, reducing disease incidence. Previous research has suggested that an increase in photosynthesis occurs when leaves are removed, and this may compensate for the reduced leaf area. However...
Article
Woody tissue cold hardiness and chlorophyll fluorescence of Concord (Vitis labruscana Bailey) grapevines were measured regularly during the dormant seasons in 1997 to 1998, 1998 to 1999, and late winter 2000. Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured after a controlled freeze-stress. Fv/Fm was used as an indicator of viability. Response magnitude varie...
Article
Cold hardiness and water content were measured regularly on one-year-old cane cuttings of bearing Concord grapevines in East Lansing, Michigan from Sept 1998 to April 1999 and Jan to April of 2000. Daily ambient temperatures were recorded by an automatic agricultural weather station. Single and multiple linear correlations and regressions were cond...
Article
Research reports and experimental efforts during the last century are presented with the goal to encourage discussion of balancing grapevine fruit yield and vine growth and leaf area. Fruit and subsequent processed quality are equally relevant economic issues as we strive to create conditions for both sustainable grapevine productivity and vine cap...
Article
Research reports and experimental efforts during the last century are presented with the goal to encourage discussion of balancing grapevine fruit yield and vine growth and leaf area. Fruit and subsequent processed quality are equally relevant economic issues as we strive to create conditions for both sustainable grapevine productivity and vine cap...
Article
Fruit development from pea size to maturity was investigated in grape berries on fruit-bearing cuttings subjected to a range of leaf removal treatments. Pot-grown vines were trained as a single shoot, with four basal leaves retained. From this point four treatments were applied: 100% leaves retained (control); 66% leaves retained; 33% leaves retain...
Article
Treatments varying the leaf area (source) to crop load (sink) balance of pot-grown Pinot noir vines caused differences in the photosynthesis (Pn) rates of the fourth leaf, 48 h after they were applied, Stomatal conductance was only affected by leaf removal, not by the presence or absence of crop. The vines with and without crop were subject to a ra...
Article
Woody-tissue cold hardiness and chlorophyll fluorescence of Concord (Vitis labruscana Bailey) grapevines were measured every 2 wk from late September to mid-December 1997. Plant efficiency analyser (Hansatech Ltd., King's Lynn, UK) was used to measure chlorophyll fluorescence after a laboratory controlled freeze stress. From five preliminary experi...
Article
Three pruning severities and two times of cluster thinning were applied to Seyval blanc grapevines to vary the quantity of vegetative and reproductive sinks at fruit set. Vines were balanced pruned to either 10, 30, or 60 nodes per 454 g of cane prunings. Half were flower cluster thinned and half post-fruit-set thinned to 15 clusters per 454 g of c...
Article
Mature Concord grapevines were pruned to 20, 40, 80, 120, or 160 nodes in each of three vine capacity classes. Vines were grouped by cane weight, as determined during dormant pruning, into low (0.45 o 0.70 kg), moderate (0.90 - 1.14 kg) and high (1.36 - 1.60 kg) vine capacity classes. Yield, cluster number and berry number increased with node level...
Article
Two-year-old potted Chambourcin grapevines were trained to one shoot with 0 or 1 cluster (1/0 and 1/1 respectively) or four shoots with 0 or 4 clusters (4/0 and 4/4 respectively) to determine the effects of canopy development rate, canopy morphology, and crop load on whole-vine photosynthesis. Significant differences in canopy development rate, can...
Article
Seyval blanc grapevines trained to three canopy configurations in 1988 were evaluated for vineyard performance, canopy development, and berry composition for a four year period. Treatments were: severe pruning (S; pruned to 8 nodes per 454 g cane prunings); full trellis (F; 45 nodes per vine); and hedge (H; hand pruned to a 10 cm radius around the...
Article
Cultivar, rootstock choice and twig segment sampled all influenced the survival of peach twig tissues subjected to periodic controlled freezing stress over two years. The portion of the dormant period when sampled greatly influenced cold hardiness among cultivars, twig segments within cultivars, and between scion tissues grafted to two different ro...
Article
Full-text available
Chambers were constructed to measure gas exchange of entire potted grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The plant enclosures were constructed from Mylar film, which is nearly transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Maintaining a slight, positive, internal pressure allowed the Mylar chambers to inflate like balloons and required no other mean...
Article
Potted, one-year old Chambourcin grapevines grafted to 5C rootstock were grown with one-, three-, or six-shoots in the absence of fruit to determine the effect of competition among vegetative sinks on canopy morphology and development. As shoot number increased, leaf area per shoot, shoot length, leaf size, and flower cluster length decreased for i...
Article
Two-year-old Chambourcin grapevines were grown in 19-L pots with the following treatments: one or four shoots and no clusters (1/0 and 4/0, respectively); one shoot and one cluster (1/1), and; four-shoots with one (4/1), two (4/2), three (4/3) or four (4/4) clusters. Four-shoot vines had greater leaf area, shoot length and leaf numbers per vine, bu...
Article
Potted, one-year old Chambourcin grapevines were grown with one, three, or six shoots in the absence of fruit to determine the impact of increasing early-season leaf area on dry weight accumulation throughout the growing season. No fruit was retained so the role of vegetative sinks could be more carefully studied. Very few differences in dry weight...
Article
Full-text available
Mature `Concord' vines ( Vitis labrusca L.) were excavated at 2- to 4-week intervals through the season to study seasonal changes in vine N concentration. Vine N content began increasing 2 weeks after budbreak, increased most rapidly from mid-May to mid-July, and declined between fruit maturation and the beginning of leaf senescence. Vine N content...
Article
Full-text available
A factorial designed experiment was used to vary leaf removal, rootstock, and training system of Pinot noir grapevines during two seasons. Defoliation consisted of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 main leaves removed acropetally from the shoot base six weeks after full bloom (pea-size). 3309C and 101-14 Mgt were used as rootstocks, and the training systems use...
Article
Full-text available
A factorial design was used to vary defoliation, rootstock, and training system of Pinot noir grapevines during two seasons. Defoliation consisted of 0, 6, or 10 leaves removed acropetally from the shoot base six weeks after full bloom (pea-size). 3309C and 101-14 Mgt were used as rootstocks, and the training systems used were the traditional low-h...
Article
St. George, Couderc 3309, Riparia Gloire, Kober 5BB, Seyval, and Cynthiana vines were subjected to soil flooding under greenhouse conditions. The rate of shoot elongation (RSE), net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured at one to four day intervals as an estimate of sen...
Article
Scion twig tissue of the sweet cherry cultivars ‘Hedelfingen’, ‘Napoleon’ and ‘Gold’ were subjected to cold hardiness evaluations in the late fall (November 21, 1984) and early spring (March 1, 1985) of the same dormant season. ‘Hedelfingen’ and ‘Gold’ were grafted to the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Mazzard’. At sampling, the twig tissues were stratifie...
Article
Full-text available
Both tight bud and open carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers survived −4°C for 5 days without injury if flowers were pulsed with 20% sucrose at 25°C for 24 hours prior to storage. Between the 8th and 10th day of storage, both stem and floral tissue froze. Flowers pulsed with 10 or 20% ethanol for 24 hours at 25°C survived −2°C for 5 days, w...
Article
Increasing either storage temperature or water content decreased bud hardiness of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium australe Small) flower buds. The hardening effect of reduced water content was dependent upon storage temperature. Dehardening due to increased moisture content appears to be via a different mechanism than that due to high temperature.
Article
Survival data for cold stressed blueberry flower buds are used to demonstrate application of the Spearman-Kärber (S-K) method for estimating T 50 . Quantal responses are used. The S-K method determines the T 50 for buds stressed over a range of temperatures which produce 0 to 100% bud survival. The general equation can accommodate data containing u...
Article
Full-text available
The role of photoperiod and temperature in the cold acclimation of living Haralson apple (Pyrus malus L.) bark was studied in the autumn under field conditions in Minnesota. Whole trees, or different parts of the same tree, were exposed to either natural conditions, artifically lengthened days, or artificially warmed nights, or they were subjected...
Article
Full-text available
Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all locations of temperate zone viticulture. While the technologies to achieve crop protection exist, both economic and practical considerations limit their application.
Article
A flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) rangewide provenance study was begun in 1972 in Michigan. One block was planted on an open hilltop and another under the shade of another plantation. Trees from 18 states were rated for fall color; from 15 states for cold hardiness, flowering, and pres- ence of stem cankers. Northern seed sources were hardier wh...
Article
The hickory shuckworm, Laspeyresia caryana (Fitch), is a destructive pest of pecan nuts, Carva illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch (Phillips et al. 1952). Neel (1957), Bancroft (1959), and Osburn et al. (1963) have stated that current biological, cultural, and insecticidal control measures are not adequate to lower shuckworm populations below the economic t...

Network

Cited By