Gordon Gallup

Gordon Gallup
University at Albany, The State University of New York | UAlbany · Department of Psychology

About

169
Publications
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9,013
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
1860 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Introduction

Publications

Publications (169)
Article
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Mirror self-recognition (MSR), widely regarded as an indicator of self-awareness, has not been demonstrated consistently in gorillas. We aimed to examine this issue by setting out a method to evaluate gorilla self-recognition studies that is objective, quantifiable, and easy to replicate. Using Suarez and Gallup’s (J Hum Evol 10:175–183, 1981) stud...
Article
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We evaluate claims for extraterrestrial intelligence based on the logic behind assertions such as the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. To assess intelligence elsewhere in the universe we outline two of the principle scientific claims for intelligence on Earth. One involves the idea that intelligence involves working out the reasons f...
Article
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In this article, we detail the advantages of self-face identification latencies over more traditional tests of mirror self-recognition. Using reaction time latencies (measured in milliseconds) to identify different dimensions of the self, instead of relying on a simple dichotomous pass/fail mirror mark-test outcome, enables investigators to examine...
Article
The recent article by Baragli, Scopa, Maglieri, and Palagi (Anim Cogn https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-021-01502-7, 2021) that claims to demonstrate mirror self-recognition (MSR) in horses is not based on compelling evidence. We identify problems with their experimental procedures, data, and assertion about “demonstrating MSR at group level.” Example...
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Although not widely studied, behavioral host manipulation by various pathogens has been documented. Host manipulation is the process by which a pathogen evolves adaptations to manipulate the behavior of the host to maximize reproduction (Ro) of the pathogen. The most notable example is rabies. When a host is infected with the rabies virus it gets i...
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Based on a sample of 128 female and 98 male college students, there were significant sex differences in the sedative properties of vaginal intercourse. Consistent with predictions derived from an evolutionary model of sperm retention and human bipedalism, women were more likely than men to report falling asleep after sexual intercourse. Post-copula...
Chapter
Using a variety of different and often provocative examples, this chapter illustrates how evolutionary theory can be used to think about things in new and sometimes even counterintuitive ways. Examples include how semen sampling may be an evolved mate-choice mechanism, why pubic hair removal may promote pedophilia, why we owe our existence to the m...
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In a sample of college couples, we examined the frequency of extrapair copulations, how these differ from intercourse with committed partners, and how knowledge of the other person's relationship status affects sexual behavior. More than 25% of both men and women reported engaging in 1 or more extrapair copulations. Those who cheated reported great...
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This study examined paternal assurance tactics and differential investment in children in a sample of 258 men in a court-mandated abuse treatment program. According to the paternal assurance model (Gallup & Burch, 2006), men would be expected to engage in a series of tactics to ensure their children are their own. First, men who suspect partner inf...
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Numerous hypotheses have been advanced to explain the worldwide extinction event that led to the disappearance of the dinosaurs. There is considerable empirical support for the well-known asteroid impact hypothesis, and volcanic eruptions in the Deccan Traps have also been implicated. Increasingly, theories involving multiple causes are being consi...
Article
The recent attempt by Horowitz (2017) to develop an "olfactory mirror" test of self-recognition in domestic dogs raises some important questions about the kind of data that are required to provide definitive evidence for self-recognition in dogs and other species. We conclude that the "olfactory mirror" constitutes a compelling analog to the mark t...
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The capacity to experience an orgasm evolved to promote high-frequency sex in species with low reproductive rates. Growing evidence shows that orgasms also have a variety of other reproductive consequences. Based on a distinction between orgasm frequency and orgasm intensity, there is emerging evidence in humans that orgasms function to promote and...
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The findings by Tifferet et al. (2016) that sibling investment varies with differences in sibling resemblance is an evolved adaptation to the fact that siblings can share a much greater range of variation in shared genes than many people realize.
Chapter
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Reproductive competition among members of the same sex
Chapter
Orgasm triggered by sexual intercourse.
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We review research on reactions to mirrors and self-recognition in nonhuman primates, focusing on methodological issues. Starting with the initial demonstration in chimpanzees in 1970 and subsequent attempts to extend this to other species, self-recognition in great apes is discussed with emphasis on spontaneous manifestations of mirror-guided self...
Article
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The high cost of being cuckolded has been a source of a strong selective pressure on reproductive competition among human males. Although evidence for preferential investment in offspring based on paternal resemblance is well established, men may have undergone selective pressure to take into account behavioral resemblance as well. We tested this h...
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The current study represents a preliminary investigation of the extent to which female orgasm functions to promote good mate choices. Based on a survey of heterosexual female college students in committed relationships, how often women experienced orgasm as a result of sexual intercourse was related to their partner's family income, his self-confid...
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Evidence suggests that each male may have a unique semen signature, and there are reasons to consider the possibility that semen sampling (i.e., being inseminated by different prospective mates during courtship) may be part of an evolved female mate assessment strategy. Here we theorize that seminal plasma hypersensitivity represents the extreme ne...
Article
After being trained in a straight alley for 100% food reward, 12 female albino rats were tested in a double straight alley in pairs on a random 50% schedule of reinforcement. At the end of a 30-sec. interval in the goal box, the Ss were allowed free access to one another for an additional 60 sec., during which time, measures of aggression were take...
Article
Contrary to the contention that the duration of tonic immobility may reflect monotonic changes in arousal, different doses of d-amphetamine were shown to differentially antagonize the reaction in chickens. Not only were response durations abbreviated, but amphetamine was also found to diminish overall susceptibility to immobility. The possibility o...
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Guidelines for submitting commentsPolicy: Comments that contribute to the discussion of the article will be posted within approximately three business days. We do not accept anonymous comments. Please include your email address; the address will not be displayed in the posted comment. Cell Press Editors will screen the comments to ensure that they...
Article
The role of fear in mediating the immobility response was studied in three experiments with a total of 71 anoles. In the first experiment, a significant relationship between level of preinduction shock and duration of immobility was found. Experiment 2 revealed a significant effect of brief exposure to a loud noise on the resulting duration of immo...
Article
While previous work has shown that peripherally administered serotonin and imipramine attenuate tonic immobility in chickens, in the present study intraventricular application of these compounds served to prolong the reaction. The data were discussed in terms of an inverse relationship between raphe electrical activity and the duration of tonic imm...
Article
Activity measures in an open field were taken following partially and continuously reinforced trials in a straight alley. Not only was there increased activity following nonreinforced trials under conditions of partial reinforcement, but significantly more activity was obtained following the reinforced trials in the partial group than following com...
Article
Using a successive discrimination task, 4 pigtailed monkeys, 1 Japanese macaque, and 1 rhesus monkey were given 54 separate 60-sec. opportunities to open an instrumental door on a random 50% schedule of mirror-image reinforcement. Although no evidence of discrimination learning was found, the reinforcing value of the mirror was demonstrated by meas...
Article
Seven simulated eyes with varying pupil size to eye ratios were tested for their effects on the duration of tonic immobility. A pair of eyes with a ratio of approximately 11/20 mm was the only configuration which produced reliable increases in response duration. The results were discussed as they relate to the possible role of eye contact in predat...
Article
Group-reared chicks manually restrained in the presence of an unrestrained conspecific remained immobile for less time than birds restrained in isolation. On the other hand, chicks restrained in front of their own reflection in a mirror showed exaggerated tonic immobility reactions. Using differently prepared dead conspecifics as stimuli, it was de...
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This chapter explores the emerging field of semen and vaginal chemistry as it relates to the evolution of reproductive competition between males and females. Not only is the vagina ideally suited for drug delivery, human semen contains features that appear to promote the male's reproductive best interests. This has lead to an ongoing series of chem...
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The typical introductory biology curriculum includes the nature of science, evolution and genetics. Laboratory activities are designed to engage students in typical subject areas ranging from cell biology and physiology, to ecology and evolution. There are few, if any, laboratory classes exploring the biology and evolution of human sexual behaviour...
Article
This article focuses on mirror self-recognition, the ability to recognize one's own image in a mirror. It presents the result of the first experiment on mirror self-recognition which showed that chimpanzees are able to learn that the chimps they see in the mirror are not other chimps, but themselves, as evidenced by self-directed behaviour. It revi...
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Male gonads contained in an unprotected skin sack located outside the body cavity are a peculiar mammalian anomaly. We advance the hypothesis that descended scrotal testicles in humans and many other mammals evolved to provide a situation specific means of activating sperm. As a result of consistent temperature differences between the male and fema...
Article
This report details the case histories of two women who suffer from chronic and debilitating episodes of excessive yawning in the absence of sleep problems. Each woman independently provided information and answered questions about their excessive yawning symptoms and medical histories. Both women show signs of thermoregulatory dysfunction, and eac...
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We investigated whether men's faces contain embedded cues that signal differences in individual fitness. Data on shoulder-to-hip ratios (SHR), grip strength, sexual history, and facial photographs were collected from male college students. Female college students rated the photographs for attractiveness We found a striking relationship between rati...
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One of the major adaptations during the evolution of Homo sapiens was an increase in brain size. Here we present evidence that a significant and substantial proportion of variation in brain size may be related to changes in temperature. Based on a sample of 109 fossilized hominid skulls, we found that cranial capacities were highly correlated with...
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Preeclampsia is a leading cause of prenatal infant mortality (Mac Gillivray, 1983; Robillard, Dekker, & Hulsey, 2002). Preeclampsia occurs as a consequence of abnormal invasion by the trophoblast in the uterine spiral arteries and endothelial cell dysfunction (Friedman, 1993), and as a consequence the fetus may not receive adequate nutrition result...
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Our interest in the psychological properties of semen arose as a byproduct of an initial interest in menstrual synchrony. In reviewing that literature we discovered several articles (Trevathan, Burleson, & Gregory, 1993; Weller & Weller, 1998) reporting that lesbians who live together fail to show menstrual synchrony. Since the evidence suggests th...
Article
The detection of genetic relatedness (i.e., kinship) affects the social, parental, and sexual behavior of many species. In humans, self-referent phenotype matching based on facial resemblance may indicate kinship, and it has been demonstrated that facial resemblance increases perceptions of trustworthiness and attractiveness [Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B...
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We investigated sex differences in post-copulatory mate guarding behaviors, jealous reactions to opposite- versus same-sex infidelity, and preferences for multiple concurrent sex partners. Results of a questionnaire administered to 448 college students showed that: (1) females were more likely to initiate the practice of sleeping with their partner...
Article
Several studies suggested that an impaired "theory of mind" might play a key role in psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Medial frontal lobe lesions of the right frontal lobe were reported to impair this ability. The aim of our study was to locate areas of the brain associated with the process of "theory of mind" in normal subj...
Article
Consistent with the possibility that the right hemisphere is responsible for processing information about the self, subjects responded faster with their left hand to adjectives that were self-descriptive. However, those who scored high on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) did not show a left-hand advantage. These data add to a growing...
Article
Numerous searches have failed to identify a single co-occurrence of total blindness and schizophrenia. Evidence that blindness causes loss of certain NMDA-receptor functions is balanced by reports of compensatory gains. Connections between visual and anterior cingulate NMDA-receptor systems may help to explain how blindness could protect against sc...
Article
This book explores the brain areas responsible for giving rise to self-awareness and Theory of Mind. The authors look at the importance of the right hemisphere, traditionally considered to be less "sophisticated" than the left, but which may in fact hold the key to self-recognition and self-awareness. They examine their own research with neuroimagi...
Article
Cognitive deficits are thought to be responsible for some of the symptoms and dysfunction in schizophrenia. Recent research on the anterior cingulate cortex supports this assumption. More detailed and definitive evidence for this association will require identification of specific neural networks whose abnormal structure, connections or activity cr...
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Since cuckoldry risk is asymmetrical, we hypothesized that parental investment would be more affected by paternal than maternal resemblance. To test this hypothesis, we asked subjects hypothetical questions about investing in children under conditions in which their faces or those of other people had been morphed with photographs of children. Males...
Article
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It is believed that sometime around 1.9 million years ago early hominid ancestors began to migrate out of Africa. Migration north and away from the equator would have forced early humans to encounter seasonal fluctuations in temperature. As a means of adapting to cold climates, the use of fire undoubtedly played an important role. We hypothesize th...
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This study investigated sex differences in the ability to recognize one's own body odor accompanied by an attempt to account for variance in this ability by comparing ratings of self-body odor and other odors on a visual analog scale (VAS). Whereas over half (59.4%) of the females were able to identify their own odor, only one out of 18 (5.6%) male...
Article
Patients with limited focal frontal and nonfrontal lesions were tested for visual perspective taking and detecting deception. Frontal lobe lesions impaired the ability to infer mental states in others, with dissociation of performance within the frontal lobes. Lesions throughout the frontal lobe, with some suggestion of a more important role for th...
Article
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Fifty-five men participating in a domestic violence treatment program agreed to complete a questionnaire and rate the degree to which their children looked like them. Ratings of paternal resemblance were positively correlated with the self-reported quality of the men's relationships with their children and inversely proportional to the severity of...
Article
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To date, it has proven difficult to demonstrate mirror self-recognition in gorillas. However, gorillas display pronounced gaze aversion that may prevent them from spending a sufficient amount of time exploring their mirror images to understand that they are the source of their reflections. It has also been suggested that the presence of observers m...
Article
There is some evidence that women are less likely to be raped during the mid-portion of the menstrual cycle. In order to determine if women might be behaving in ways to decrease their chances of sexual assault when they are most likely to conceive, female college students were asked to complete a questionnaire about their activities during the past...
Article
No abstractCopyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Article
In accordance with evolutionary theory, females have to make the greatest parental investment and as a result bear a greater risk when mating compared to males. In humans, both males and females use particular gender-defined strategies in mating, including strategies and counter-strategies. Undergraduates (48 females, 18 males) filled out a survey...
Article
Patterns of marriage, divorce, remarriage, and redivorce were examined in several representative Western cultures through survey questions and archival data to test the hypothesis that marriage and divorce can be understood as expressions of underlying gender-specific, fitness maximization strategies. Differences between males and females were foun...
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Archer (this issue) contends that seduction by homosexual pedophiles is largely a result of media exaggeration and that xenophobia explains the data I reported on attitudes toward homosexuals (Gallup 1995). However, a cursory review of the evidence shows that the incidence of child molestation by homosexual males is much higher than Archer implies,...
Article
The data reviewed in Barresi & Moore's treatment of social understanding is recast in terms of a model of social intelligence that was advanced some time ago (Gallup 1982). When it comes to their analysis of the behavior of other individuals, most primates (and humans younger than 18 months of age) appear to function as radical behaviorists, wherea...
Article
detail some of the methodological and procedural variables that need to be carefully considered in conducting tests of self-recognition [in animals] / it can be shown that many recent claims for self-recognition in other species (including pigeons, dogs, and rhesus monkeys) simply do not meet rigorous criteria of scientific evidence subject varia...
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Unlike the use of metaphors drawn from other sensory modalities (e.g., "cold turkey," "hard times," "rough draft"), there appears to be a peculiar predisposition in English to use visual terms as metaphors to describe or capture mental events (e.g., "a dim wit," "as illustrated by," "a flash of genius," "picture the following," "reflect on that," "...
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As a result of a long-term, longitudinal project initiated in 1978, a pair of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed together in front of a mirror all their lives now exhibit relatively little interest in their reflection. Previous work has shown, however, that simply moving the mirror to a new location produces a short-term reinstatement of socia...
Chapter
The first published report of mirror self-recognition in a nonhuman appeared in the literature several decades ago (Gallup, 1970). Subsequent to the original demonstration in chimpanzees, a large number of different species have been tested for their ability to correctly decipher mirrored information about themselves, but to date, positive results...
Article
Five experiments were conducted on chickens to test the general hypothesis that a major component of open field behaviour is an adaptive reaction to the threat of predation. In support of the specific hypothesis that vocal behaviour is used to probe the environment for the presence of predators before risking detection by movement, we found that vo...
Article
Previous research has shown that core temperature in chickens drops following the induction of tonic immobility (TI), while hyperthermic trends emerge shortly after response termination. Other research has shown that birds placed in social isolation also become hyperthermic. Since testing for TI is usually carried out while animals are isolated, th...
Article
Research on animals is an integral part of psychology. The history and development of psychology as a science was in no small way dependent on animal research. Since its inception comparative psychology has been that subcategory of psychology that dealt with the relation between evolution and behavior. Evolution is of interest for more than just hi...

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Project
Accepted paper coming out in Medical Hypotheses on hypothesized host manipulation in SARS-CoV2/COVID19