Gordon Foxall

Gordon Foxall
Cardiff University | CU · Cardiff Business School

DSocSc PhD (Pysch) PhD (Ind Ec

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417
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13,226
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Publications

Publications (417)
Article
Full-text available
Many people who generally receive standard recommended inoculations refuse to partake of COVID-19 vaccines, preventatives that are effective, safe, and life-saving amidst the current pandemic. Our quest is to understand this puzzling and dangerous phenomenon, as it exists among US and UK citizens, whom in other respects would be regarded as quite r...
Article
Full-text available
The research ascertains which countries' well‐being metrics moderate the effects of marketing investments on corporate financial outcomes. We applied generalized estimating equations to firms in panel data from 131 countries covering 18 years. The results show that marketing investments raise market share regardless of country context, a global pat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Psychology's emphasis on empirical investigation has long benefited from conceptual developments taking place in its intellectual community, but also from cognate areas in Philosophy. This paper explores the implications for empirical psychology of a recent conceptual proposal advanced within the philosophy of perception by Bence Nanay (2013). In p...
Chapter
A market is a forum of exchange, the trading of subjective values (V2s) through the establishment of a mutually acceptable objective transaction value (V1). Socio-economic interactions of the kind that pervade MMM and consumer choice are bilateral contingencies. They include market transactions, marketing transactions and mutuality relationships, a...
Chapter
The evolution of consumption is described as a progression from individual procurement, joint procurement, exchange and collective procurement, followed by the possibility of further evolution towards marketing through the social creation of transactions and markets. The formal purchasing organisation is considered, as is the possibility of its evo...
Chapter
Subjective consumer experience has important implications for marketing practice. In particular, consumer choice is marked by conflict between higher- and lower-valued items, changes in temporal preference and intra-consumer pressures to conform to impulsive versus self-controlled motives for action. The phenomenology of consumer choice involves co...
Chapter
The marketing firm is a structure of bilateral contingencies that link individuals and groups within the firm, the firm and external labour markets, and crucially the firm and consumerates. This network of bilateral contingencies provides a spectrum of relationships between firm and consumerate, some of which are markets, other of which are social...
Chapter
The scope of the marketing firm is determined by the range of marketing mixes it employs in its creation of a consumerate. This range is determined by the complexity of its marketing mixes and the extensiveness of its consumer base. The marketing firm’s scope reflects also the activities included in its fundamental functions: the creation of market...
Chapter
Consumers’ valuations are influenced strongly by the social contexts in which they are formed and shaped. Inter-personal interaction affects valuation through the assessment of others’ attitudes and behaviour. Human groups, moreover, determine for themselves a degree of control over the nature of the social environment which will influence the cour...
Chapter
As the organisation that responds to the imperatives of consumer-orientation, the marketing firm is built upon the idea of marketing as a company-wide philosophy of management and pursuing it to its logical conclusions. We are concerned, therefore, with why such firms exist, their scope and their organisational implications. The marketing firm purs...
Chapter
This chapter summarises the nature of the marketing firm with particular reference to collective intentionality and metacontingency. The firm, especially in the form of the contemporary corporation, is often accused of ‘managerialism’, the pursuit by managers of their own interests at the expense of those of their workers and consumers. The firm is...
Chapter
Marketing texts have argued for decades that a strategy based on consumer-orientation is critical to the success of the modern firm. Although there is no shortage of theories of the firm in economics, sociology and psychology, none of them takes seriously the managerial philosophy of consumer-orientation. A theory that worked through the implicatio...
Chapter
The marketing firm differs from consumer organisations such as non-profits, co-operatives, partnerships and state-owned enterprises in terms of goal separation, metacontingency and the entrepreneurial pursuit of marketing completion. Consumer organisations do not pursue a goal that is separate from those of their stakeholders, nor produce an output...
Chapter
Economic theories of the firm have important lessons for the theory of the marketing firm. They arise from the internalisation of contracting, asset-specificity and transaction costs, the intermediating function of the firm, goal separation as the definitional criterion of the firm, entrepreneurial encapsulation as the raison d’être of the marketin...
Chapter
This chapter provides a short précis of consumer behaviour analysis. Consumer behaviour is explicable in terms of either an extensional perspective that emphasises its responsiveness to the objectively available reinforcing and punishing consequences it produces or an intentional perspective which employs consumers’ desires, beliefs, emotions and p...
Preprint
Full-text available
The marketing fi rm is that business organisation which responds to the imperatives of consumer-orientation. Its style of management is marked by its adherence to the criteria of goal separation, participation in marketing transactions, entrepreneurial sovereignty and reciprocal entrepreneurial management, all of which are explored in this pioneeri...
Chapter
Response to Jorge M. Oliveira-Castro’s comments: “Behavior Analysis and Psychological Concepts: Commentary on Foxall’s Intentional Behaviorism. Intentional Behaviorism addresses an issue that should be familiar to all behavior analysts whose work extends beyond the laboratory, namely the validity of the interpretation of behavior when an experiment...
Chapter
Intentional behaviorism entails, first, theoretical minimalism, in which an extensional model of behavior is formulated and tested by standard third-personal techniques of hypothesis testing. This identifies the point at which extensional explanation breaks down requiring the investigator to make recourse to intentionality in order to account for a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Problematic smartphone use has been associated with negative effects in work and school environments. This study proposes the application of a behavioural economics perspective to establish whether heavy smartphone users show a tendency to devalue the consequences of their behaviour in the long term. To address this proposition, the study s...
Article
Evaluation of firm performance must consider the effects that its products and services have upon consumers. This can be accomplished when measures of consumer behavior inform marketing strategies. Consumer behavior analysis, a field of research that integrates operant behavioral economics and marketing, has developed several measures of consumer b...
Book
The marketing firm is that business organisation which responds to the imperatives of consumer-orientation. Its style of management is marked by its adherence to the criteria of goal separation, participation in marketing transactions, entrepreneurial sovereignty and reciprocal entrepreneurial management, all of which are explored in this pioneerin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evaluation of firm performance must consider the effects that its products and services have upon consumers. This can be accomplished when measures of consumer behavior inform marketing strategies. Consumer behavior analysis, a field of research that integrates operant behavioral economics and marketing, has developed several measures of consumer b...
Article
Full-text available
The accurate delineation of various forms of business organization requires a comparative analysis of their objectives, functions, and organizational structures. In particular, this paper highlights differences in managerial work between business firms and non-profits exemplified by the charitable organization. It adopts as its template the theory...
Presentation
Full-text available
I am delighted at the publication of this book because it is a culmination of a whole program of research from the initial conceptual analysis, through theoretical and empirical phases to the philosophical evaluation of the work in terms of how it explains human economic behavior. Economic behavior, exemplified by consumer choice, is the paradigm c...
Book
Full-text available
Intentional behaviorism is a philosophy of psychology that seeks to ascertain the place and nature of cognitive explanation of behavior by empirically determining the scope of an extensional account of behavior based on the limitations of a behavioral approach to explanation. This book draws on an empirical program of research in economic psycholog...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of the marketing firm locates the rationale of the modern business enterprise that lies in its responding profitably to the imperatives of marketing orientation. Economic theories of the firm generally fail to recognize these imperatives, enhanced consumer choice and sophistication, which entail marketing orientation as the rationale of...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we use the theory of the marketing firm to explain marketing relationships between consumers and firms selling fish in the context of developing the e-commerce sector for the fishery industry. We use a unique dataset composed of quantitative and qualitative data to provide a behavioral economic analysis and interpretation. The result...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reveals the mutual relationship between a firm's marketing behavior and its financial consequences. With panel data from publicly traded companies covering 17 years, we obtained the total expenditures in marketing of each company to represent marketing behavior and five financial outcomes, depicting the reinforcers. Each metric was compo...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reveals the mutual relationship between a firm's marketing behavior and its financial consequences. With panel data from publicly traded companies covering 17 years, we obtained the total expenditures in marketing of each company to represent marketing behavior and five financial outcomes, depicting the reinforcers. Each metric was compo...
Article
This study empirically investigates the marketer and customer's co‐creation process within the context of the marketing firm. Based on principles from bilateral contingencies, findings from a conjoint study (n = 98) indicate that utilitarian and informational reinforcing consequences from the marketer have a stronger impact on customers' co‐creatio...
Article
This article discusses the marketer and customer co‐creation process within the context of bilateral contingencies. Bilateral contingencies occur when the marketers' behavior is reinforced (and/or punished) by the customers' behavior, whereas the behavior of the customers is reinforced (and/or punished) by the marketers' actions. Using the example...
Article
Full-text available
Social media platforms constitute a new frontline for brands to build relationships with their customers. Nevertheless, the literature on social media engagement behavior is unidimensional, as it focuses on customer engagement while neglecting the customer's influence on managerial decisions. The current paper goes a step further by applying the th...
Article
Full-text available
Efficiency has emerged as an important consumer value and thus has increased the importance of the in‐store search as one facet of consumer transaction costs. This paper contributes to the development of a marketing theory of the firm by analyzing the consumers' in‐store efficiency ratios and the retailers' natural sources of resistance to offer ef...
Article
Reputation systems in peer‐to‐peer markets can shed light on how individuals who operate in such markets manage both the consumer behavior setting scope and reinforcers, thus behaving similarly to marketing firms. Based upon the probability discounting framework, this paper investigated the influence of reputation on subjective values and willingne...
Article
Full-text available
The research investigated whether economic context and prior financial reinforcement/punishment moderate the effectiveness of marketing behavior in generating gains for the firm. An experiment with a longitudinal design was conducted using 1,759 companies from 2000 to 2017. The results demonstrate that marketing is effective in gaining market share...
Article
Airlines are increasingly using social media for initiating and sustaining consumer brand engagement through interaction and sharing. This study introduces a conceptual model on brand post engagement on social media and contributes to extant knowledge on the effectiveness of the determinants of such engagement in the airline industry. Facebook bran...
Preprint
Full-text available
Airlines are increasingly using social media for initiating and sustaining consumer brand engagement through interaction and sharing. This study introduces a conceptual model on brand post engagement on social media and contributes to extant knowledge on the effectiveness of the determinants of such engagement in the airline industry. Facebook bran...
Preprint
Full-text available
The theory of the marketing firm proposes that the rationale of the modern business enterprise in customer-oriented economies lies in its being an organization that responds profitably to the imperatives of marketing-orientation. Economic theories of the firm, neoclassical and Austrian, tend to avoid marketing considerations and in particular do no...
Preprint
Full-text available
Models of brand choice have not explained the formation of brand repertoires nor heterogeneity in consumers’ preferences. Based upon the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM), the present research proposed that consumers maximize utility as a function of the level of utilitarian (functional) and informational (social) reinforcement offered by brands....
Book
This book is concerned with the psychological explanation of consumer choice. It pays particular attention the roles of perception and emotion in accounting for consumers' actions and their interactions with the desires and beliefs in terms of which consumer choice is frequently analysed. In this book Gordon Foxall extends and elaborates his theo...
Chapter
Full-text available
The possibility that the neural correlates of consumer behavior can be identified is intriguing for consumer theorists and market analysts alike. The possibility of explaining consumer choice in terms of neural events promises to link consumer psychology with biology and to relate some of the most ubiquitous aspects of human behavior to their evolu...
Chapter
This chapter contributes to the development of a marketing theory of the firm, one that suggests in behavioural-scientific terms how to define and quantify the links between parties to transactions. In particular, it argues that such interrelationships be conceptualised within an economic-psychological framework that emphasises the bilateral contin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The rapidly changing digital environment has redefined the way most companies interact with their customers. With consumers increasingly adopting digital technologies, a successful digital marketing strategy requires a thorough understanding of how and why consumers behave as they do. The purpose of the study is to explore the possibility of unders...
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine functional foods, a relatively recent development in the food industry, from the perspective of consumer decision-making. It deals specifically with consumers’ attitudinal dispositions towards such products and seeks an overall comprehension of the elements of decision-making factors that precede their purchase....
Article
Full-text available
Based upon the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM), previous analysis has shown that consumers tend to maximize utility as a function of the level of utilitarian (functional) and informational (social) reinforcement offered by brands. A model of consumer brand choice was developed, which applied a Cobb-Douglas utility function to the parameters that...
Article
Full-text available
This study further develops the theoretical and empirical literature on the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM) in three ways through an empirical analysis of the Great Britain (GB) biscuit category. First, following a literature review and a category analysis, a more complex model is constructed using the BPM structure and then testing the hypothes...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the ability of connectionist models to explain consumer behavior, focusing on the feedforward neural network model, and explores the possibility of expanding the theoretical framework of the Behavioral Perspective Model to incorporate connectionist constructs. Numerous neural network models of varying complexity are develope...
Book
This concise introduction presents a rigorous analysis of consumer choice from the perspective of consumer behavior analysis. Gordon Foxall provides a deeper understanding of what consumers actually buy and the nature of the utility that shapes and maintains patterns of consumption.
Article
Full-text available
Airbnb is an online marketplace for peer-to-peer accommodation rental services. In contrast to traditional rental services, personal profile images, i.e. the sellers’ facial images, are present along with the housing on offer. This study aims to investigate the impact of a seller’s facial image and their expression upon buyers’ behavior in this con...
Conference Paper
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the presence of a facial image and its expression have any influence on the choices made by the user within the context of peer-to-peer accommodation rental. The relative impact of facial expressions is investigated using theory from evolutionary psychology. Impact of facial expression was investigate...
Conference Paper
The objective of marketing promotion from the point of view of the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM) is to identify and facilitate reinforcing brand related communication with consumers at each step of the marketing funnel. The purpose of the study was to analyze content that could increase post popularity on an airline companys Facebook site, ope...
Article
Full-text available
Although the literature establishes the importance of pricing in relation to traditional retailers and e-commerce, few studies consider its importance in social commerce. This study uses eye tracking to examine observational behavior as fixation time on price and the total fixation time on a Facebook page that displays clothing products. This study...
Book
Full-text available
A striking characteristic of addictive behavior is the pursuit of immediate reward at the risk of longer term detrimental outcomes. It is typically accompanied by the expression of a strong desire to cease from or at least control consumption that has such consequences, followed by lapse, further resolution, relapse, and so on. Understood in this w...
Article
Full-text available
The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts...
Chapter
The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilater...
Chapter
This chapter spells out the philosophy of explanation devised in Chap. 6 in the context of the psychological explanation of consumer choice. It works through the operations involved in Intentional Interpretation: the adoption of the intentional stance, treating the consumer as an intentional system, and assuming it to be a rational maximizer of uti...
Chapter
Cognitive interpretation is further explored in Chapter 9, this time from the standpoint of a macro-cognitive psychology (MaCP)which links the Intentional Interpretation to processes of collective intentionality in which consumers create the contingencies of reinforcement to which they will respond. Chapter 8 set forth the necessity to develop a co...
Chapter
How can we responsibly ascribe beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and other apparently intra-psychic concepts in the explanation of consumer behavior? It is necessary to specify that we do this “responsibly” because it is so tempting to invent a mental account of behavior that purports to explain it. Our first task is to discover whether an intentiona...
Chapter
This chapter continues to seek to link the micro- and macro-depictions of decision making by means of a meso-cognitive psychology (MeCP) that demonstrates the capacity of individual consumers to choose and even create the contingencies to which their behavior will be subject. It does this by tracing the ways in which reinforcement histories support...
Chapter
Laying the foundations of psychological explanation requires the identification of the limitations or bounds of radical behaviorism. There are three stages in this procedure. First, the essence of an extensional explanation needs to be spelled out so that the pros and cons of this methodology can be appreciated. The purpose of the extensional model...
Chapter
In this chapter Cognitive Interpretation is explored in terms of a micro-cognitive psychology (MiCP). This relates the Intentional Interpretation to neuroscience and metacognitive functioning in which a rapidly operating impulsive mode of decision making must be brought into balance by a slower executive mode. At least it must if the problems assoc...
Chapter
Since this chapter proposes the use of intentional idioms to explain consumer behavior, it is important to establish the bases of such terminology in human experience and then to show how we can apply this knowledge in the third-personal interpretation of choice. This chapter is concerned, therefore, with the origins of subjectively held intentiona...
Chapter
Thus far we have been concerned with consumer choice as behavior which we traced through the behavioral perspective of the BPM, and consumer choice as action, traced through the action perspective and the decision perspective. This concluding chapter offers a tentative view of consumer choice as agency, on the basis that actions are bodily movement...
Chapter
The discussion of ascribing intentionality leads to consideration of Dennett’s (The intentional stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987) intentional stance as a means of generating a first approximation of the behavior of an intentional system by treating it in an idealized manner as a utility maximizer that has the intentionality apt to it given it...
Chapter
The behaviorist model of consumer choice that must be tested to the point of exhaustion in order to ascertain the necessary position and expository scope of an Intentional Interpretation is derived and described. The contribution of this extensional model of consumer choice, the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM), based on an empirical research pro...
Chapter
This book suggests how we might approach the explanation of the central pattern of behavior in affluent, marketing-oriented societies. The task is well worth the effort since it is a central component of both social scientific endeavor and the need to comprehend ourselves in the twenty-first century. While our parents and grandparents were primaril...
Article
Evaluating the ways in which we construe consumer choice, this book examines the psychology, methods and realities of the role it plays for today’s consumer. Confronted by competing brands and products, services, and e-tailed opportunities that are but a click away, how does the consumer choose among them to achieve the particular array of goods to...
Article
This study explores the extent to which young volunteers perform voluntary service for selfless reasons by investigating the role of altruism, empathy, and beliefs in their commitment to voluntary projects that last for an extended period of time. A sample of young volunteers who have begun a voluntary long-term project completed a survey on the th...
Article
To explore the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities on the consumer purchasing situation, we arranged a scenario where participants (n = 451) purchased workout clothes. The results (r = 0.996, p = 0.000) show that (1) relative to other relevant marketing activities, CSR activity was not the most salient antecedent stimulus, (2...
Article
Full-text available
Consumer behavior analysis provides an operant understanding of consumption as the result of the scope of the consumer behavior setting and the pattern of reinforcement that maintains it. The theory of the marketing firm shows how organizations respond to consumer behavior by managing the consumer behavior setting scope and pattern of reinforcement...
Article
The aims of this special issue are to introduce managerial economists to a school of behavioral economics they may not yet have encountered by way of accounts by leading researchers of its basic tenets, methods, and applications. This overview introduces the papers by setting them in the context of the development of operant behavioral economics.
Article
Models of brand choice have not explained the formation of brand repertoires nor heterogeneity in consumers’ preferences. Based upon the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM), the present research proposed that consumers maximize utility as a function of the level of utilitarian (functional) and informational (social) reinforcement offered by brands....
Chapter
Full-text available
The subject matter of consumer behaviour analysis is to a large extend the exploration of the possibility of using the concepts and methods of behaviour analysis applied in research, on a more simple level, for the study of consumer choice behaviour in real market settings. In the current chapter we focus on the matching law and give a critical lit...
Chapter
This paper is concerned with the concept of entrepreneurship in the large and complex business corporation with its network of management and organisational processes. Although, therefore, it fully recognises the significance of individual talents and dynamism as entrepreurship characteristics - of ten associated with charismatic, risk-bearing foun...
Book
This book considers marketing management within the overall corporate system of business policy-making, strategic planning and the implementation and control of effective plans. The information requirements of marketing management are highlighted and the marketing information system concept is developed within the framework of managerial informatio...
Book
This volume is concerned with understanding the factors that determine innovation and its contribution to corporate achievement. It considers the whole range of innovation, consumer and industrial, and both final and intermediate buying behaviour. Although the tenor of the book is towards understanding and evaluation, its ultimate concerns are with...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of a conception of the marketing firm (Foxall, 1999a) conceived within behavioral psychology and based on a corresponding model of consumer choice, (Foxall, 1990/2004) permits an assessment of the levels of behavioral and organizational analysis amenable to neuroscientific examination. This paper explores the ways in which the bilater...
Article
Full-text available
Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested an expanded TBP model, which included personal norms and self-identity as cognitive variables, in a sample of current young volunteers of a general charity in the UK. Actual volunteering was measured via continued observation throughout the duration of the projects. An integrative model of sustained volunteering was proposed becau...
Article
Full-text available
The behavioral perspective model's (BPM; Foxall, 1990) retailing literature is built on extensive empirical research and techniques that were originally refined in choice experiments in behavioral economics and behavior analysis, and then tested mostly on British consumer panel data. We test the BPM in the context of Norwegian retailing. This artic...
Article
The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis'of the data. We discus...
Article
Although previous studies have identified several regularities in buying behavior, no integrated view of individual differences related to such patterns has been yet proposed. The present research examined individual differences in patterns of buying behavior of fast-moving consumer goods, using panel data with information concerning purchases of 4...
Article
Full-text available
An introduction is presented in which the editors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the quantitative analysis of consumer behavior, individual differences in consumer buying patterns, and the role of informational reinforcement in consumer choice.
Article
Purpose – Despite the call from the public domain to use normal‐sized models (NM) in advertising and the fact of the recent movement in the practitioner's domain concerning the use of NM, knowledge of the advantages/disadvantages concerning the use of NM in comparison to small‐sized models (SM) is lacking. Prior research indicates that framing chan...
Article
Full-text available
An e-mail marketing experiment based on the behavioral perspective model was conducted to investigate consumer choice. Conversion e-mails were sent to two groups from the same marketing database of registered consumers interested in children's books. The experiment was based on A-B-A-C-A and A-C-A-B-A withdrawal designs and consisted of sending B =...
Article
In this article we address the issue of applying operant psychology to derive plausible and useful interpretations of complex firm behavior in natural settings. The objective is to discuss an appropriate methodology based on case study design, developed specifically in Vella and Foxall (2011), to produce an operant interpretation of secondary docum...
Article
A central aim of consumer behaviour analysis has been to delineate the place of cognitive explanation in consumer research and marketing. The strategy has involved first the exhaustion of noncognitive, behaviourist explanation in order to elucidate the necessary role of cognitive explanation. Behaviour analysis has proved relevant to a wide range o...

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Projects (7)
Project
To aid explanation in economic psychology
Project
To create and test a philosophy of economic psychology