Gøran Paulsen

Gøran Paulsen
The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway · Department of Physical Performance

PhD in exercise physiology

About

122
Publications
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Introduction
Main research area: Recovery from exercise and adaptation to training, with focus on skeletal muscles. Current projects: Development of muscular power in elite athletes.
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - December 2012
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH)

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Purpose: This study examined the associations among common assessments for measuring strength and power in the lower body of high-performing athletes, including both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Methods: A total of 100 participants, including both male (n = 83) and female (n = 17) athletes (21 [4] y, 182 [9] cm, 78 [12] kg), were recru...
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Core training promises more than it can hold: A review of current literature and practical experience Introduction: Core training has a significant place in the training program of many athletes, from the recreational exerciser to the elite athlete. But does core training work as intended? Main section: In this article, the authors are critical to...
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The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an individualized power training program based on force‐velocity (FV) profiling on physical function, muscle morphology, and neuromuscular adaptations in older men. Forty‐nine healthy men (68±5yrs) completed a 10‐week training period to enhance muscular power. They were randomized to either a gene...
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Purpose: This study examined the test-retest reliability of common assessments for measuring strength and power of the lower body in high-performing athletes. Methods: A total of 100 participants, including both male (n = 83) and female (n = 17) athletes (21 [4] y, 182 [9] cm, and 78 [12] kg), were recruited for this study, using a multicenter a...
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Rakovic, E, Paulsen, G, Helland, C, Haugen, T, and Eriksrud, O. Validity and reliability of a motorized sprint resistance device. J Strength Cond Res 36(8): 2335-2338, 2022-An increasing number of sprint-related studies have used motorized devices to provide resistance while sprinting. The aim of this study was to establish within-session reliabili...
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Background: To detect longitudinal changes of resting metabolic rate (RMR) resulting from the effects of energetic stress, reliable RMR measurements are crucial. The Vyntus CPX is a new automated indirect calorimetry system for which RMR reliability has not been determined. Additionally, its agreement with common predictive RMR formulas is unknown....
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The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an individualized training program based on force‐velocity (FV) profiling on jumping, sprinting, strength, and power in athletes. Forty national level team sport athletes (20±4yrs, 83±13 kg) from ice‐hockey, handball, and soccer completed a 10‐week training intervention. A theoretical optimal...
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The syndrome of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) includes wide-ranging effects on physiological and psychological functioning, performance, and general health. However, RED-S is understudied among male athletes at the highest performance levels. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate surrogate RED-S markers prevalence in Norwegi...
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The present study explored the impact of pre‐altitude serum (s)‐ferritin and iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) following altitude training. Measures of Hbmass and s‐ferritin from 107 altitude sojourns (9‐28 days at 1800‐2500 m) with world‐class endurance athletes (males n=41, females n=25) were analyzed together with iron...
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The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of short‐term high‐frequency failure versus non‐failure blood flow‐restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on changes in satellite cells (SC), myonuclei, muscle size and strength. Seventeen untrained men performed 4 sets of BFRRE to failure (Failure) with one leg and not to failure (Non‐fai...
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Andersen, V, Paulsen, G, Stien, N, Baarholm, M, Seynnes, O, and Saeterbakken, AH. Resistance training with different velocity loss thresholds induce similar changes in strengh and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 velocity-based resistance training programs when performing re...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of force-velocity (FV) variables assessed across 5 Keiser leg press devices. Methods: A linear encoder and 2 independent force plates (MuscleLab devices) were mounted on each of the 5 leg press devices. A total of 997 leg press executions, covering a wide range of forces and v...
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Purpose: Preconditioning exercise is a widely used strategy believed to enhance performance later the same day. The authors examined the influence of preconditioning exercises 6 hours prior to a time-to-exhaustion (TTE) test during treadmill running. Methods: Ten male competitive runners (age = 26 [3] y, height = 184 [8] cm, weight = 73 [9] kg,...
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Purpose: We tested whether a single session of heavy-load resistance priming conducted in the morning improved double-poling (DP) performance in the afternoon. Methods: Eight national-level male cross-country skiers (mean [SD]: 23 [3] y, 184 [6] cm, 73 [7] kg, maximum oxygen consumption = 69 [6] mL·kg-1·min-1) carried out 2 days of afternoon per...
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We tested whether explosive resistance training with partial range of motion (ROM) would be as effective as full ROM training using a noninferiority trial design. Fifteen subjects with strength training experience took part in an explosive –concentric only– leg press training program, three times per week for 10 weeks. One leg was randomly assigned...
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Introduction and hypothesis Urinary incontinence (UI) is common in women who exercise. We aimed to investigate new onset UI in formerly inactive, overweight or obese women (BMI > 25) participating in three different strength training modalities compared with a non-exercising control group. Methods This was a secondary analysis of an assessor blind...
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No prospective studies have investigated if repeated testing of physical performance and body composition are associated with exercise attendance or patterns in fitness club members. This study aimed to investigate if repeated physical testing was associated with exercise attendance and patterns in gym members and to report prospective data on use...
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The aim of the study was to examine the test-retest reliability and agreement across methods for assessing individual force-velocity (FV) profiles of the lower limbs in athletes. Using a multicenter approach, 27 male athletes completed all measurements for the main analysis, with up to 82 male and female athletes on some measurements. The athletes...
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Purpose: To determine if generic off-ice physical fitness tests can provide useful predictions of ice hockey players' match performance. Methods: Approximately 40 to 60 defenders and 70 to 100 forwards from the Norwegian male upper ice hockey league were tested for strength (1-repetition maximum in squat and bench press), power (40-m sprint and...
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The present randomized cross-over controlled study aimed to compare the rate of recovery from a strength-oriented exercise session vs. a power-oriented session with equal work. Sixteen strength-trained individuals conducted one strength-oriented session (five repetitions maximum (RM)) and one power-oriented session (50% of 5RM) in randomized order....
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An increasing number of sprint-related studies have employed robotic devices to provide resistance while sprinting. The aim of this study was to establish within-session reliability and criterion validity of sprint times obtained from a robotic resistance device. Seventeen elite female handball players (22.9 ± 3.0 y; 176.5 ± 6.5 cm; 72.7 ± 5.5 kg;...
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Background: Altitude training stresses several physiological and metabolic processes and alters the dietary needs of the athletes. International Olympic Committee (IOC)’s Nutrition Expert Group suggests that athletes should increase intake of energy, carbohydrate, iron, fluid and antioxidant-rich foods while training at altitude. Objective: We inv...
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PurposeHigh-repetition, low-load resistance exercise in group class settings has gained popularity in recent years, with BodyPump as a prime example. For individuals using exercise for body-weight management, the energy expenditure during exercise is of interest. Therefore, we herein aimed to estimate the energy expenditure during a session of Body...
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Shaw, MP, Andersen, V, Sæterbakken, AH, Paulsen, G, Samnøy, LE, and Solstad, TEJ. Contemporary training practices of Norwegian powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The aim of this study was to explore the contemporary training practices of Norwegian powerlifters. One hundred twenty-four Norwegian powerlifters completed an electron...
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Purpose: Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a widely used tool to assess subjective perception of effort during exercise. The authors investigated between-subject variation and effect of exercise mode and sex on Borg RPE (6-20) in relation to heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and capillary blood lactate concentrations. Methods: A total of...
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Purpose: Previous studies have found an acute performance improvement with longer pole lengths in double poling (DP) at low-to-moderate speeds. We investigated the influence of pole lengths (PL) on O2-cost, 3D kinematics, and performance in DP at moderate-to-high speeds before (Pre) and after (Post) eight training sessions with long poles on a rol...
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Objective: We aimed to assess the responsiveness of monitoring measures on cumulative training from the previous 1 up to 7 days in elite triathletes. Methods: Six male well-trained triathletes (31.8 ± 6.8 yrs, VO 2max 70.5 ± 4.0 ml/kg/min) participated in a 9 weeks observational study during the pre-competition training period. Training load and ti...
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The purpose of the present study was to compare time results from a roller-skiing double poling (DP) time trial with different physiological variables, muscular strength variables, and DP characteristics in both male and female young competitive skiers with the same relative training background. In order to do this, 28 (16 women and 12 men) well-tr...
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Objectives: To determine the combined effects of slow isokinetic resistance training and eccentric overload and compare it to traditional resistance training on strength, power, body composition and muscle hypertrophy in young ice hockey players. Design: Experimental, randomized trial. Methods: Twenty-two resistance-trained ice hockey players...
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Background Various altitude training regimes, systematically used to improve oxygen carrying capacity and sports performance, have been associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether increased intake of common antioxidant-rich foods attenuates these processes. Methods In a randomized controlled trial, 31 eli...
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https://tidsskriftet.no/en/2019/06/klinisk-oversikt/muscle-soreness-and-rhabdomyolysis
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Background: During the stance phase of running, the elasticity of the Achilles tendon enables the utilisation of elastic energy and allows beneficial contractile conditions for the triceps surae muscles. However, the effect of changes in tendon mechanical properties induced by chronic loading is still poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis th...
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Background: Exercise for patellofemoral pain (PFP) is traditionally knee focused, targeting quadriceps muscles. In recent years, hip-focused exercise has gained popularity. Patient education is likely an important factor but is underresearched. Purpose: To compare 3 treatment methods for PFP, each combined with patient education: hip-focused exe...
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Purpose: To quantify age of peak performance and performance improvements in the years preceding peak age in elite weightlifting and powerlifting athletes using results from powerlifting World Championships in 2003-2017 and weightlifting World Championships and Olympic Games in 1998-2017. Methods: Individual performance trends were derived by fi...
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Background Overweight and obesity are associated with musculoskeletal pain, particularly in the female population. However, regular resistance training may positively affect these complaints. Objective The present study aimed to investigate between group differences in musculoskeletal pain in previously inactive women, allocated to three different...
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Purpose This study explored the agreement between a single-run and a multiple-run method for force–velocity (Fv) profiling of sprinting athletes; we evaluated both absolute values and changes over time caused by sprint training. Methods Seventeen female handball players (23 ± 3 years, 177 ± 7 cm, 73 ± 6 kg) performed 30 m un-resisted and resisted...
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Eccentric cycling training induces muscle hypertrophy and increases joint power output in non-athletes. Moreover, eccentric cycling can be considered a movement-specific type of strength training for cyclists, but it is hitherto unknown if eccentric cycling training can improve cycling performance in trained cyclists. Twenty-three male amateur cycl...
Data
Baseline values and changes (delta) within each group. (DOCX)
Article
Purpose: To investigate how self-selected pole length (PL) of ∼84% (PL84%) compared with ∼90% (PL90%) of body height influenced performance during a 700-m time trial with undulating terrain on snow. Methods: Twenty-one cross-country skiers, 7 of whom were women, performed 4 trials at a maximal effort in a counterbalanced fashion with PL84% and P...
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Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate muscle hypertrophy, strength, myonuclear and satellite cell (SC) responses to high-frequency blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE). METHODS: Thirteen individuals (24±2 years [mean ± SD], 9 males) completed two 5-day-blocks of 7 BFRRE sessions, separated by a 10-day rest period. Four sets of unilateral kn...
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on myofiber areas (MFA), number of myonuclei and satellite cells (SC), muscle size and strength in powerlifters. METHODS Seventeen national level powerlifters (25±6 yrs [mean±SD], 15 men) were randomly assigned to either a BFRRE group (n=9) performing two bloc...
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Objective Elderly muscle seems less sensitive to the anabolic stimulus of a meal. Changes in blood concentrations of leucine are suggested as one important trigger of the anabolic response in muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether native whey protein, containing high amounts of leucine, may be a more potent stimulator of muscle pr...
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During rapid deceleration of the body, tendons buffer part of the elongation of the muscle–tendon unit (MTU), enabling safe energy dissipation via eccentric muscle contraction. Yet, the influence of changes in tendon stiffness within the physiological range upon these lengthening contractions is unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of tr...
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McGhie, D, Østerås, S, Ettema, G, Paulsen, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Strength determinants of jump height in the jump throw movement in women handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to improve the understanding of the strength demands of a handball-specific jump through examining the associations between ju...
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an arduous 1-wk military course on measures of physical performance, body composition, and blood biomarkers. Methods: Participants were apprentices in an annual selection course for the Norwegian Special Forces. Fifteen soldiers (23 ± 4 yr, 1.81 ± 0.06 m, 78 ± 7 kg) completed a...
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High doses of isolated antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E, have demonstrated the potential to blunt cellular adaptations to training It is, however, unknown whether intake of high doses of antioxidants from foods has similar effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate whether intake of antioxidant‐rich foods affects adaptat...
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This study aimed to evaluate whether an individualised sprint-training program was more effective in improving sprint performance in elite team-sport players compared to a generalised sprint-training program. Seventeen elite female handball players (23 +/- 3 y, 177 +/- 7 cm, 73 +/- 6 kg) performed two weekly sprint training sessions over eight week...
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Aim: Autophagy and unfolded protein response (UPR) appear to be important for skeletal muscle homeostasis and may be altered by exercise. Our aim was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise and training on indicators of UPR and autophagy in healthy untrained young men (n = 12, 27 ± 4 years) and older men (n = 8, 61 ± 6 years) as well as...
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Purpose: Although strength and sprint training are widely used methods in competitive cycling, no previous studies have compared the acute responses and recovery rates following such sessions among highly trained cyclists. The primary aim of the current study was to compare power production and biochemical markers of metabolic stress and muscle dam...
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Background Protein intake is essential to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and the amino acid leucine seems to possess a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to other amino acids. Native whey has higher leucine content and thus a potentially greater anabolic effect on muscle than regular whey (WPC-80). This study compar...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training with or without vibration to cross-country (XC) skiers' endurance training on double poling (DP) performance, physiological and kinematic adaptations. Twenty-one well-trained male XC skiers combined endurance- and upper-body strength-training three times per week,...
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the immediate and prolonged immune response in circulating cytokine and adipocytokine concentrations after two different resistance exercise bouts: hypertrophic (HYP1, 5 × 10, 80% of 1RM) and maximal explosive (POW1, 10 × 5, 60% of 1RM) resistance exercise bouts and how 12 weeks of resistance training...
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Background: Supplementation with large doses of antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, has been shown to blunt some adaptations to endurance training. The effects of antioxidant supplementation on adaptations to strength training is sparsely studied. Herein we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute stress responses to...
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Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power are crucial performance determinants in most sports disciplines. Numerous studies have published power data from elite athletes over the years, particularly in runners, cyclists, rowers and crosscountry skiers. In this invited review, we define the current " world records " in human upper limits of aerobic and an...