Gonzalo Gajardo

Gonzalo Gajardo
Universidad de Los Lagos · Biological Sciences and Biodiversity

PhD

About

109
Publications
27,989
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2,451
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 1987 - December 2014
Laboratorio de Genética, Acuicultura & Biodiversity. Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno
Position
  • Principal Investigator
March 1986 - present
Universidad de Los Lagos
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • https://www.google.cl/search?urceid=navclient&hl=es&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1T4PCTC_esCL376CL376&q=frontiers+Gonzalo+Gajardo
March 1986 - present
Universidad de Los Lagos
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • The brine shrimp Artemia as a model extremophile for studying adaptation and speciation, and as a live diet for Larviculture (www.laboratoriogenetica.cl). Impact of exotic and naturalized salmonids on native biodiversity (www.biodiversity.cl).

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
We assessed the adaptive contribution of the mitochondrial genes involved with the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation of the blue mussel Mytilus chilensis, a native and heavily exploited species in the inner sea of Chiloé Island, southern Chile. The assembled mitochondrial transcriptome of individuals from two ecologically different fa...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algae blooms (HABs) monitoring has been implemented worldwide, and Chile, a country famous for its fisheries and aquaculture, has intensively used microscopic and toxin analyses for decades for this purpose. Molecular biological methods, such as high-throughput DNA sequencing and bacterial assemblage-based approaches, are just beginning to...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-021-01376-9
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Further biogeographical studies of parasites are vital to improve our understanding of biodiversity distribution and predict the impacts of global change. Hypersaline lakes are good laboratories to investigate the avian cestode abundance and species diversity given the abundance of hosts (waterbirds and Artemia) and their broad latitudinal distribu...
Article
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The study of adaptive population differences is relevant for evolutionary biology, as it evidences the power of selective local forces relative to gene flow in maintaining adaptive phenotypes and their underlying genetic determinants. However, human-mediated hybridization through habitat translocations, a common and recurrent aquaculture practice w...
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The health of the world’s oceans are intrinsically linked to the biodiversity of the ecosystems they sustain. The importance of protecting and maintaining ocean biodiversity has been affirmed through the setting of the UN Sustainable Development Goal 14 to conserve and sustainably use the ocean for society’s continuing needs. The decade beginning 2...
Article
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Phytoplankton blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs), have serious impacts on ecosystems, public health, and productivity activities. Rapid detection and monitoring of marine microalgae are important in predicting and managing HABs. We developed a toolkit, the Suitcase Lab, to detect harmful algae species in the field. We demonstrated the Su...
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Background Vibrio species display variable and plastic fitness strategies to survive and interact with multiple hosts, including marine aquaculture species that are severely affected by pathogenic Vibrios. The culturable Vibrio sp. strain ArtGut-C1, the focus of this study, provides new evidence of such phenotypic plasticity as it accumulates polyh...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algae blooms (HABs) cause acute effects on marine ecosystems due to their production of endogenous toxins or their enormous biomass, leading to significant impacts on local economies and public health. Although HAB monitoring has been intensively performed at spatiotemporal scales in coastal areas of the world over the last decades, procedu...
Article
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The hypersaline lagoons located in evaporation basins or salars (salt flats) in the Atacama Desert are extreme environments harbouring a specialised biota able to survive harsh conditions for life. The knowledge of the parasitic biodiversity of these extreme habitats is still scarce despite their functional importance in regulating relevant non-eco...
Article
Las comunidades costeras de pesca artesanal (conocidas a pequeña escala como “caletas”) son sistemas socioecológicos complejos que se adaptan a las perturbaciones dependiendo de su complejidad y propiedades inherentes. La capacidad de evaluar y monitorear esta respuesta adaptativa proporciona información sobre la sostenibilidad de las caletas, nece...
Article
Full-text available
The brine shrimp genus Artemia Leach (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), a keystone group in hipersaline wetlands all over the world, offers an excellent model to study species interactions (parasitism) and to explore “hidden fauna” (avian endoparasites). The present study is the first report on the parasite infection of the South American species Artemia p...
Article
Full-text available
Hypersaline lakes or brines are unique ecosystems with unique value and biodiversity that provide economic (mining) and noneconomic services (waterbird habitat). As they are shrinking around the world due to brine diversion and climatic oscillations, this article alerts on the fragility of Andean high‐altitude hypersaline lagoons in Salar de Atacam...
Article
The brine shrimp Artemia is a highly required, convenient and cost‐effective live food used in fish and shellfish larviculture. Its cysts, originating from a limited number of inland salt lakes, are traded worldwide. Over the past decades, Artemia pond production in solar saltworks, integrated with salt production, has emerged as an alternative to...
Preprint
Full-text available
The brine shrimp Artemia Leach (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), a keystone species in extremely saline wetlands all over the world, offers an excellent model to study species interactions (parasitism) and to elucidate “hidden fauna” (avian endoparasites). The present study is the first report on the parasite infection of the South American species Artemi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The brine shrimp Artemia Leach (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), a keystone species in extremely saline wetlands all over the world, offers an excellent model to study species interactions (parasitism) and to elucidate “hidden fauna” (avian endoparasites). The present study is the first report on the parasite infection of the South American species Artemi...
Article
Full-text available
Different pathways of propagation and dispersal of non-native species into new environments may have contrasting demographic and genetic impacts on established populations. Repeated introductions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Chile in South America, initially through stocking and later through aquaculture escapes, provide a unique setti...
Article
This study presents preliminary evaluations for the potential use of Oil Bodies (OBs), spherical intracellular organelles that store lipids in the rapeseed Brassica napus, as a dietary supplement in aquaculture feeds. Objectives are straightforward: to evaluate OBs capacity to microencapsulate the highly valued but liable lipid-soluble pigment asta...
Article
Full-text available
Laguna de los Cisnes (53°15’S) is a remote and unusual salty lagoon located in the Chilean Patagonia, declared natural monument to protect bird diversity in the area, which could also serve as a natural laboratory to monitor climate change. This study reports basic water, sediment and plankton characteristics observed during a summer (December) sam...
Article
Full-text available
The populations of Artemia (or brine shrimp) from the Americas exhibit a wide variation in the amount of interphase heterochromatin. There is interest in understanding how this variation affects different parameters, from the cellular to the organismal levels. This should help to clarify the ability of this organism to tolerate brine habitats regul...
Article
Full-text available
Previous researches have established that the swim speed of some microcrustaceans is influenced by chemical compounds emitted by conspecifics. We examined the hypothesis that cuticular compounds present on the body surface of A. franciscana, the most widespread member of Artemia genus, play a role in the swim speed of conspecific males. The movemen...
Article
The palm ruff, Seriolella violacea (Cojinoba), is a potential new species for Chilean aquaculture. To approach Cojinoba larviculture, an experimental Artemia enrichment emulsion, containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) = 2.5, supplemented with vitamin E, astaxanthin, and β-glucan, was evaluated in both Artemia and Cojinoba...
Article
Full-text available
Two behavioral experiments were performed to test that A. franciscana shows specific courtship patterns, which in part, would be governed by semiochemicals released by females. The courtship ethogram, based on 30 adult virgin pairs (1 female v/s 1 male) individually video recorded for 1 hour, revealed that males display four independent activity pa...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge about the genetic underpinnings of invasions-a theme addressed by invasion genetics as a discipline-is still scarce amid well documented ecological impacts of non-native species on ecosystems of Patagonia in South America. One of the most invasive species in Patagonia's freshwater systems and elsewhere is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykis...
Article
Full-text available
AimThe ecological effects of biological invasions are well documented, but little is known about the effects of invaders on the genetic structure of native species. We examined the phylogeography, genetic variation and population structuring of two galaxiid fishes, Aplochiton zebra and A. taeniatus, threatened by non-native salmonids, and whose con...
Article
Full-text available
The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea) and a diversity of halophilic microorganisms coexist in natural brines, salterns and laboratory cultures; part of such environmental microbial diversity is represented in the gut of Artemia individuals. Bacterial diversity in these environments was assessed by 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi...
Data
Table S3. Results of bayescan and lositan programs for outlier detection in (a) brown trout and (b) rainbow trout.
Data
Table S4. (a) Differentiation of brown trout populations expressed as (a) pairwise FST comparisons (below diagonal) and Dest (above diagonal) among Chilean and Falklands populations and (b) as pairwise FST estimated from neutral (below diagonal) and gene-linked (above diagonal) markers.
Data
Table S5. Correlations between PST, FST, PST/FST and geographical distance.
Data
Table S2. Summary genetic statistics for brown trout considering (a) global sample (over all populations) and (b) population-specific.
Data
Full-text available
Figure S2. Relationship between observed (solid line) and neutral (dashed line) PST/FST, for four phenotypic traits of (a) brown trout and (b) rainbow trout.
Data
Figure S1. Individual growth curves, represented as cumulative scale growth profiles (mm) at each growth circulus, among invasive brown trout (n: 5) and rainbow trout (n: 7) populations.
Data
Table S1. Strains of rainbow trout and brown trout introduced in Chile and the Falkland Islands.
Article
Full-text available
Invasion success may be expected to increase with residence time (i.e., time since first introduction) and secondary releases (i.e., those that follow the original introduction), but this has rarely been tested in natural fish populations. We compared genetic and phenotypic divergence in rainbow trout and brown trout in Chile and the Falkland Islan...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions create complex eco-logical and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from success-ful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between invaders and the pathogens encountered in their new environment can have a large effect on invasion success. Invaders can become free from their natural pathogens and reallocate costly immune resources to growth and reproduction, thereby increasing invasion success. Release from enemies and relaxation of selective pressures...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of invasive species to adapt to novel conditions depends on population size and environmental mismatch, but also on genetic variation. Away from their native range, invasive species confronted with novel selective pressures may display different levels of neutral versus functional genetic variation. However, the majority of invasion stu...
Conference Paper
Biological invasions represent one of the greatest threats to aquatic ecosystems, particularly in locations a high degree of isolation and endemism, such as southern South America. In this region, salmonids are top-level invaders, but information about their dispersal, persistence, and population dynamics is still limited. Here, we used available h...
Article
Full-text available
The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are...
Article
1. Direct ecological effects of biological invasions have been widely documented, but indirect genetic effects on native species are poorly known. In many cases, this is because of the lack of information on the genetic structure of species affected by invasions. 2. We used microsatellite DNA loci to estimate the genetic structure and gene flow pat...
Article
Full-text available
The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands), where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is...
Data
Hybrid assignments based on (a) simulated membership proportions of 100 multilocus genotypes per class using HYBRIDLAB and (b) results of admixture analysis using STRUCTURE: A. zebra parentals, A. taeniatus parentals, F1 hybrids, F2 hybrids and backcrosses. Results from the admixture analysis in STRUCTURE are for K = 2, averaged from 20 runs. Each...
Data
Nucleotide sequence alignment of mitochondrial DNA of Aplochiton zebra (A) and Aplochiton taeniatus (B) according to (a) COI haplogroups and (b) Cyt b haplogroups. (DOC)
Data
Microsatellite allele frequencies per locus per species (Aze1-Aze4). (DOC)
Conference Paper
Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are two galaxiid fishes endemic to Patagonia and, in the case of Aplochiton zebra, also present in the Falklands Islands where they are threatened by salmonid invasions. Identification of Aplochiton is complicated because the two species are ecologically and morphologically very similar and include resident...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is a major source of invasive aquatic species, despite the fact that cultured organisms often have low genetic diversity and tend to be maladapted to survive in the wild. Yet, to what extent aquaculture escapees become established by means of high propagule pressure and multiple origins is not clear. We analysed the genetic diversity of...
Article
Mate choice significantly impacts upon population divergence and therefore speciation, recognition of equals being critical in cases where species and divergent populations coexist. The New World species of the brine shrimp Artemia, A. franciscana and A. persimilis, were compared through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for the following traits:...
Article
Full-text available
Exotic salmonids were deliberately introduced to the Southern Hemisphere during the last part of the 20th century, initially to boost sport fishing and later to develop an aquaculture industry. Early introductions were justified by governments on purely utilitarian arguments as it was felt that translocated salmonids would capitalize on otherwise '...
Article
Full-text available
The Chilean saline lakes are distributed mainly in the Atacama desert in northern Chile and the southern Patagonian plains. The scarce studies are restricted mainly to northern Chilean saline lakes, and these revealed that the main component in these ecosystems are the halophylic copepod Boeckella poopoensis Marsh 1906, or the brine shrimp Artemia...
Article
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are the world’s two most widespread exotic fishes, dominate the fish communities of most cold- temperate waters in the southern hemisphere and are implicated in the decline and extirpation of native fish species. Here, we provide the first direct comparison of the impacts of rainbow and...
Article
Full-text available
Rhizobacteria are capable of stimulating plant growth through a variety of mechanisms that include improvement of plant nutrition, production and regulation of phytohormones, and suppression of disease causing organisms. While considerable research has demonstrated their potential utility, the successful application of plant growth promoting rhizob...
Article
Zooplankton diversity in shallow salt lakes of the Andean countries in South America is low and distribution is highly dependent on salinity, which varies from moderate to high. At salinities lower than 90 g/l, the halophilic copepod Boeckella poopoensis (Marsh, 1906) predominates, whereas above that level the anostracan Anemia franciscana (Kellogg...
Article
The brine shrimp Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda), a paradigmatic inhabitant of hypersaline lakes, has molecular features to survive under stressful conditions, such as the p26 heat shock protein. We report the RFLP fingerprinting pattern (four restriction enzymes) of a 217 bp fragment of exon2 of the Hsp26 gene in six Artemia franciscana and four...
Article
Full-text available
Chromosomal rearrangements have played a key role in the speciation of the New World sexual Artemia species (Crustacea, Anostraca) A. franciscana and A. persimilis. The species differ by a chromosome duplication (2n+2=44 in A. persimilis vs 2n=42 in A. franciscana), and a greater amount of heterochromatin (HCH) in A. franciscana. To investigate thi...