Gonen Sharon

Gonen Sharon
Tel-Hai College · MA program in Galilee Studies

Professor
www.prehistoricgalilee.site

About

64
Publications
36,936
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,099
Citations
Citations since 2016
32 Research Items
1216 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
Nineteen broken and complete bone fish hooks and six grooved stones recovered from the Epipaleolithic site of Jordan River Dureijat in the Hula Valley of Israel represent the largest collection of fishing technology from the Epipaleolithic and Paleolithic periods. Although Jor-dan River Dureijat was occupied throughout the Epipaleolithic (~20-10 ky...
Article
This study presents, for the first time, an environmental reconstruction of a sequence spanning nearly the entire Mediterranean Epipaleolithic (∼22.0–11.9 ka cal. BP). The study is based on a well-dated, high-resolution pollen record recovered from the waterlogged archaeological site Jordan River Dureijat (JRD), located on the banks of Paleolake Hu...
Article
This study presents, for the first time, an environmental reconstruction of a sequence spanning nearly the entire Mediterranean Epipaleolithic (~22.0e11.9 ka cal. BP). The study is based on a well-dated, high-resolution pollen record recovered from the waterlogged archaeological site Jordan River Dureijat (JRD), located on the banks of Paleolake Hu...
Article
On April 25, 1882, Prince Albert Victor and Prince George of Wales (later King George V), guided by R.E. Conder of the Palestine Exploration Fund, explored the sources of the Jordan River. On their way westward to Tel Dan, in a region known as the Nukheileh, they discovered several dolmens. The dolmens were some of the earliest ever reported from t...
Article
Thousands of dolmens are scattered throughout the southern Levant, mainly in Syria, Israel, and Jordan. These megalithic burials, dated to the early stages of the Bronze Age, are an understudied and little understood phenomenon of Levantine archaeology. Unlike in Europe and other parts of the world, rock art has rarely been reported from Levantine...
Article
Full-text available
For more than 10,000 years between the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum and the beginning of the Holocene, people repeatedly returned to the same spot on the southern edge of Paleolake Hula in the Upper Jordan Valley to fish, hunt and exploit other aquatic or semi-aquatic resources at the Epipaleolithic site of Jordan River Dureijat. Preliminary da...
Article
Flint-bearing Eocene outcrops are well known from west of the northern Jordan Rift Valley, appearing as a strip of land along the Eastern Galilee and extensively used by prehistoric knappers as a rich source of quality raw material. In this paper we report for the first time on the flint extraction and reduction site of Kela, located within an isol...
Chapter
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar traits in different species, resulting from adaptation to separate ecosystems. Two Acheulean giant core methods, discussed in this chapter, illustrate this mechanism in an early stage of human cultural evolution. Victoria West core method was used only in central South Africa, while the T...
Article
JOURNAL OF THE ISRAEL PREHISTORIC SOCIETY
Article
The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov (GBY) and the Mousterian site of Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO) are open-air sites situated on the bank of the Upper Jordan River at its southern estuary in the Hula Valley, Israel. Both sites were deposited on the shore of a paleo-Lake Hula, a shallow body of water that persisted throughout a considerable...
Chapter
Chapter 6 aims to provide a comprehensive description of the flint assemblages, a major component of the archaeological horizons of Gesher Benot Yaʻaqov. Analyses consist of taphonomic, morphological, technological, and typological observations, which enable characterization and reconstruction of the operational sequences of flint. Both cores and c...
Chapter
Chapter 3 is concerned with the geography, geology, stratigraphy, and chronology of the site of Gesher Benot Yaʻaqov. The geographical landmarks of the study area are presented in detail and the structural, morphotectonical, and geomorphological processes of the area are discussed. The different exposures of the Benot Yaʻakov Formation, in which th...
Chapter
Chapter 4 presents a detailed account of the field and laboratory methodologies used at Gesher Benot Yaʻaqov. It provides a comprehensive description of the excavation methods and techniques pertaining to the grid, elevations, coordinates, sieving, sediment sampling, drafting of maps and cross-sections, and conservation. Laboratory methods include...
Chapter
In-depth study of Acheulian limestone artifacts from Gesher Benot Yaʻaqov (0.79 Ma) has revealed that limestone nodules procured from fluvial deposits were transported to the lake margin and exploited throughout the occupational sequence (ca. 50 ka). Analyses of the limestone assemblages show that individual artifacts went through several use-stage...
Chapter
Chapter 2 presents the history of the archaeological discoveries and excavations at Gesher Benot Yaʻaqov, from as early as the 1930s to very recently. Throughout these years, the area of the site was subjected to recurrent activities of construction, destruction, and drainage. The chapter provides a detailed account of the history of research on Ge...
Chapter
Chapter 7 aims to provide a comprehensive description of the basalt assemblages, a major component of the archaeological horizons of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov. Analyses consist of taphonomic, morphological, technological, and typological observations, which enable characterization and reconstruction of the operational sequences of basalt. These involve...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the results of the analyses of the lithic assemblages of Gesher Benot Yaʻaqov and their behavioral, social, and cognitive implications. We discuss the place of these lithic assemblages within the Acheulian record and present a summary of the reduction sequences of each of the raw materials. We provide a comparative view of t...
Chapter
Chapter 5 presents a detailed account of the excavated archaeological layers at Gesher Benot Yaʻaqov. It provides data on the location and stratigraphic position of each excavated unit in the study area, as well as details of the surface exposed, thickness and volume of the layers, and their sedimentological characteristics. When available, the res...
Book
This manuscript is the 4th Volume of the Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov (GBY) monograph sub-series. The goal of the book is to publish the lithic assemblages originating in the excavations of the Acheulian site at Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov (GBY), Israel. The authors provide the readers with detailed descriptions of the lithic assemblages, illustrations (maps, pho...
Chapter
Full-text available
Eight excavation seasons at the Mousterian site of Nahal Mahanyeem Outlet (NMO) on the banks of the Upper Jordan River offer a glimpse into the life ways of MP people during a hunting expedition in the Northern Dead Sea Rift. This open-air site, OSL dated to ca. 60ky BP, is interpreted as recording a series of short-term hunting events. The NMO hor...
Article
Numerous sites showing human occupation during the Pleistocene were discovered at the Hula Valley — in the northern segment of the Jordan Valley, Israel. At the Middle Paleolithic site of Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO; OSL dated to ca. 65,000 B.P.), two testudine species were recovered, a freshwater turtle — the Western Caspian Turtle (Mauremys cf....
Article
Full-text available
The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350–2000 BCE) is known as the “Dark Ages,” following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of n...
Article
Full-text available
After nearly 150 years of research, many aspects of the emergence of the Acheulian techno-complex in Europe are still under debate. They include: the chronology of the appearance of the Acheulian, its geographical origin, the technology and typology of its assemblages, the actual stages (if any) of its development and the tempo and intensity of its...
Article
Full-text available
We report here on the identification and characterization of thin basalt anvils, a newly discovered component of the Acheulian lithic inventory of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov (GBY). These tools are an addition to the array of percussive tools (percussors, pitted stones and anvils) made of basalt, flint and limestone. The thin anvils were selected from par...
Article
Full-text available
We present ostracod data from the Middle Palaeolithic open air site of Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO) at the southern edge of the Hula Basin, northern Israel. Sediments of two Pleistocene water bodies are exposed at the site. The first one is an archaeologically sterile, light-colored limnic carbonate with an Early Pleistocene age. It contains an o...
Article
Full-text available
Jordan River Dureijat (JRD), an Epipaleolithic site on the banks of the Jordan River south of its outlet from the Hula Valley, was discovered as a result of a drainage operation in the year 1999. The site, located 1.2 km north of the Benot Ya’aqov Bridge, is 14C dated to between 14,000 and 15,000 Cal BC. This paper presents the results of a survey...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present the sedimentary features and the luminescence chronology for Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO), an archaeological open air site at the southern margin of the Hula Basin (Northern Jordan Rift Valley, Israel). The site is characterized by a lithic assemblage ascribed primarily to the Middle Paleolithic Mousterian tradition, and b...
Article
Full-text available
A detailed palynological sequence of the late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) open-air site Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO), northern Jordan Rift Valley, Israel, dated to ca. 65–51 ka, constitutes a rare case of a south Levantine archaeo-palynological study for this period. The sequence is characterized by relatively high Arboreal Pollen (AP) ratios, compar...
Article
Full-text available
The lithic assemblage excavated from the Mousterian site of Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO) enables us to reconstruct a brief moment in the life of the Middle Palaeolithic hunter. The site, located on the eastern bank of the Jordan River at its outflow south from the Hula Valley, is a short-term, task specific hunting location at the shore of the Pal...
Chapter
Full-text available
We discuss the results of an experiment which was designed to explore post-depositional damage observed on prehistoric bifaces. Often, post-depositional damages are inflicted when the artifacts are rolled by rivers or waves, and their edges are chipped off by battering. This process was simulated in the experiment, where the damage history was reco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present the sedimentary features and the optical luminescence chronology for Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO), an archaeological open-air site at the southern margin of the Hula Basin (Northern Jordan Valley, Israel). The site is characterized by a lithic assemblage ascribed primarily to the Middle Paleolithic Mousterian tradition an...
Article
Full-text available
The entame core method was defined after studying the Acheulean bifaces from the site of Ternifine, Algeria. This specialized core method for the production of larges flakes (> 10 cm) used for biface blanks involves the detachment of primary large flakes from skillfully selected quartzite cobbles. While technologically simple, a competent selection...
Article
Full-text available
Acheulian biface industries based on the production of large flakes as the primary blank used for handaxe and cleaver manufacturing have long been acknowledged in the study of the African Acheulian. Nevertheless, this group of assemblages has not received its due attention in the study of the Acheulian techno-complex. The aim of this paper is to de...
Article
Full-text available
A new Acheulian locality, NBA (North of Bridge Acheulian), was discovered north of the well-known Early-Middle Pleistocene site of Gesher Benot Ya´aqov (GBY) as a result of a massive drainage operation of the Jordan River in 1999. A preliminary test excavation enabled reconstruction of the stratigraphy of the site's layers. The Ar/ Ar date of 658±1...
Article
Full-text available
The Acheulian Technocomplex exhibits two phenomena: variability and conservatism. Variability is expressed in the composition and frequencies of tool types, particularly in the varying frequencies of bifaces (handaxes and cleavers). Conservatism is expressed in the continuous presence of bifaces along an immense time trajectory. The site of Gesher...
Article
Full-text available
Home Is Where the Hearth Is One aspect of human intelligence is the ability to organize our living and working spaces. It was generally thought that this capability arose with modern humans in the past 100,000 years or so. However, Alperson-Afil et al. (p. 1677 ) found evidence of domestic organization 800,000 years ago at a Pleistocene hominin cam...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to detach large (larger than 10 cm) flakes from giant cores and use them as blanks for the production of handaxes and cleavers is a technological hallmark distinguishing the Acheulian culture from its African predecessor, the Developed Oldowan, approximately 1.5 million years ago. Acheulian knappers applied a variety of fundamentally di...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of large scrapers has been reported from Acheulean sites worldwide but they are rarely described in detail. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY), a similar group of artifacts, named here "massive scrapers," was identified as a significant component of the lithic assemblage. In this paper, we define and describe this Acheulean tool type and di...
Article
Full-text available
Raw material properties and availability have always been considered as having a definitive impact on the morphology, size and production technology of Acheulian large cutting tools. Shape and size of the naturally available raw material blocks have been cited as key factors in determining Acheulian biface blank production technology as well as too...
Article
Full-text available
his book on Acheulean technology by Gonen Sharon represents his doctoral research and is divided into six main chapters, followed by Appendix A (site descrip- tions) and Appendix B (analytical attribute lists). This is a welcome study since such books elaborating on the com- parative technological and behavioral attributes of the Acheulean are rare...
Article
Full-text available
Lithic production in the Late Neolithic workshop site of Har Qeren XIV (western Negev, Israel) was focused solely on the manufacture of large cortical knives made on massive flint flakes. All stages of the reduction sequence are represented in the vicinity, from the removal of large flakes off massive flint nodules, through roughing out, to the fin...
Article
Full-text available
The Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel) has revealed a unique association of edible nuts with pitted hammers and anvils. Located in the Dead Sea rift, on the boundary between the Arabian and African plates, the site dates to the Early-Middle Pleistocene, oxygen isotope stage 19. In a series of strata, seven species of nuts, most of whic...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (6)
Archived project
Data, pictures of tools and sites, methodology and theory on large flake Acheulian site is now available on line at https://www.prehistoricgalilee.site/ data primary from Sharon, G. (2007). Acheulian Large Flake Industries -Technology, Chronology, Distribution and Significance. Inst. of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem. (also available at the site)
Project
The Middle Paleolithic site of Nahal Mahanayeem Outlet (NMO), OSL dated to 60k years BP, on the bank of the Upper Jordan River, is unique among Levantine Middle Paleolithic sites. NMO is interpreted as an open-air, short-term and task-specific hunting and butchering locality, with a small, but highly significant, lithic assemblage. Hence, NMO flint assemblage is ideal for usewear trace study that can support or refute the interpretations emerging from the data. This study will apply high resolution traceology study of numerus NMO artifacts accompanied by controlled experiments. The research is collaborative study between Israel and well established and equipped traceology laboratory of the IPHES, Spain. Results will be compared with the large body of data available for Iberian MP sites (e.g. Abric Romaní).