Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez

Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
University of Antioquia | UdeA · Grupo de Neurociencias de Antioquia. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology Area

Ph.D.

About

118
Publications
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Publications

Publications (118)
Article
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Astrocytes are specialized glial cells that are essential components of the neurovascular unit (NVU) and are involved in neurodevelopment, brain maintenance and repair, and neurodegeneration. Astrocytes mediate these processes by releasing cellular mediators such as extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are vehicles of cell-cell communication and have...
Chapter
An imbalance in lipid metabolism in Alzheimer disease (AD) is still poorly understood. Phospholipids (PLs) have multifactorial participation in AD, including the hyperactivation of phospholipases, mitochondrial stress, peroxisomal dysfunction, and irregular fatty acid composition. The reestablishment of physiological conditions of cholesterol, sphi...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) act as mediators and biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases. Two distinct forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) are known: a late-onset sporadic form (SAD) and an early-onset familial form (FAD). Recently, neurovascular dysfunction and altered systemic immunological components have been linked to AD n...
Article
Introduction: Obesity is a public health problem that is associated with cerebrovascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke. The coexistence of obesity with cerebral ischemia has been suggested to be considerably detrimental to the neurological system. Objective: Hence, in this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of a 20% high fructose diet (H...
Article
The neurovascular unit (NVU) is responsible for synchronizing the energetic demand, vasodynamic changes, and neurochemical and electrical function of the brain through a closed and interdependent interaction of cell components conforming to brain tissue. In this review, we will focus on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as a molecular pivot, which p...
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Therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease have been extensively studied due to its recurrence and abundance among neurodegenerative diseases. It is thought that the accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) products, a consequence of an up-regulation of the b-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), is the main triggering mechanism during the earl...
Article
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is the most common form of dementia, and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most frequent hereditary ischemic small vessel disease of the brain. Relevant biomarkers or specific metabolic signatures could provide powerful tools to manage these...
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Objectives: Cerebral ischemia is caused by a reduction of the blood flow in a specific area in the brain, triggering cellular cascades in the tissue that result in neuronal death. This phenomenon leads to neurological decline in patients with stroke. The extent of the injury after stroke could be related to the condition of obesity. Thus, we aim to...
Chapter
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is linked with different biomarkers, although it is thought to be mainly caused by the generation of reactive oxygen species. Therefore new treatment strategies to ameliorate AD are focusing on the area of oxidative neural cell injury. The treatment of many diseases is highly dependent on natural product...
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Introduction Bexarotene, a retinoid X receptor agonist, improves cognition in murine models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study evaluated the effects of bexarotene on pathological and electrophysiological changes in very old triple transgenic AD mice (3xTg-AD mice). Methods 24-month-old 3xTg-AD mice were treated with bexarotene (100 mg/kg/day...
Article
Multiple studies on cerebral ischemia have been performed in animal models to propose different strategies of neuroprotection that mitigate either the early or late consequences of the disease. These therapies have been successful in reducing the volume of infarction, the proinflammatory cascade, and the amount of free radicals, as well as reversin...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is the leading cause of disability in elderly people worldwide. Current pharmacological therapies do not cure the disease, and for this reason, some pharmacotherapy studies have investigated preventive treatments focused on modifiable nutritional factors such as diet. Quercetin (Qc) i...
Article
Stroke is the second cause of death and first cause of physical disability around the world; it affects the brain parenchyma through oxygen deficiency and spreads excitotoxicity. The complexity of the disease has made it difficult to find effective therapies. It is necessary to identify new treatments that effectively act within the narrow therapeu...
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Vascular dementia is a transversal phenomenon in different kinds of neurodegenerative diseases involving acute and chronic brain alterations. Specifically, the role of phospholipids in the pathogenesis of dementia remains unknown. In the present study, we explored phospholipid profiles a month postischemia in cognitively impaired rats. The two-vess...
Data
Total changes in lipid fractions from hippocampus and serum after global ischemia. Cholesterol esters (A,D) triglycerides (B,E), free fatty, acid (C,F) from hippocampus and serum, respectively, from ischemic and control rats are shown. Individual concentrations of lipids are expressed as molar percentage. Myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0),...
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In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques initiates a cascade of pathological events where the overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA) by excess glutamate (Glu) triggers oxidative processes that lead to the activation of microglial cells, inflammation, and finally neuronal death. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids exert neuroprot...
Article
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Astrocytes play metabolic and structural support roles and contribute to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), linking communication between neurons and the endothelium. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) likely exerts a dual effect on the endothelium and astrocytes due to its involvement in migration and angiogenesis; the overactivation of...
Article
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Introduction Cerebral ischemia is the third cause of death’s risk in Colombia and the first cause of physical disability worldwide. Different studies silencing the cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) has shown that its activity reduction is benefit in ischemic contexts. However, its effect on neural cell production after cerebral ischemia has not been...
Chapter
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the second leading cause of death in the world and the first cause of disability in adults, being a 34% of affected people younger than 65 years old. Which is an important consequence by sedentary lifestyle and a high intake of fats and sugars. One of the major shortcomings of current therapeutical approach is the...
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Objective: To evaluate the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) at late stages of stroke. Methods: Anti-CD25 antibody (or PBS as a control) was injected to reduce the pool of Tregs in Wistar rats; then, ischemia was induced transiently by middle cerebral artery occlusion during 60 min and reperfusion was allowed for 7 d. Then, Treg frequency was anal...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is pathologically characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid (βA) peptides in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Flavonoids have recently been used to prevent and treat a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, but little is known about bioflavonoids. I...
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Lipids are considered important factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we realized a comparative analysis of the phospholipid profile and phospholipid composition of the temporal cortex from E280A-familiar AD (FAD), sporadic AD (SAD), and healthy human brains. Findings showed a significant decrease of lysophosphatid...
Article
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Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular episode that generates a high incidence of death and physical and mental disabilities worldwide. Excitotoxicity, release of free radicals, and exacerbated immune response cause serious complications in motor and cognitive areas during both short and long time frames post-ischemia. CDK5 is a kinase that is wide...
Article
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Introduction: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. It is characterized by histopathological hallmarks such as senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, as well as a concomitant activation of microglial cells and astrocytes that release pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2, leading to neuronal dysfunction...
Article
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Astrocytes are commonly involved in negative responses through their hyperreactivity and glial scar formation in excitotoxic and/or mechanical injuries. But, astrocytes are also specialized glial cells of the nervous system that perform multiple homeostatic functions for the survival and maintenance of the neurovascular unit. Astrocytes have neurop...
Article
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Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares se han convertido en un problema de salud mundial debido a su alta tasa de mortalidad y discapacidad. En Colombia constituyen la tercera causa de riesgo de muerte y en el mundo son la primera causa de discapacidad física y mental. Se han evaluado muchas estrategias terapéuticas en modelos experimentales y en ensay...
Article
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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit the activation of the immune response which could down-regulate the systemic and focal activation observed during ischemic stroke. In fact, in animal models, Tregs infiltrate the infarcted brain and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and infarct volume, mainly in late stages of ischemia. Recently, an...
Article
Full-text available
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit the activation of the immune response which could down-regulate the systemic and focal activation observed during ischemic stroke. In fact, in animal models, Tregs infiltrate the infarcted brain and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and infarct volume, mainly in late stages of ischemia. Recently, an...
Chapter
The amount of scientific research focusing on bioactive substances from plants has increased quickly in recent years, because such substances are promising sources of therapeutic candidates, due to their diverse benefits resulting from their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiatherosclerotic, and neuroprotective activities, among ot...
Article
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CDK5 is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in the normal function of the adult brain and plays a role in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. However, its over-regulation has been associated with Tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive deficits. Our previous studies have demonstrated that CDK5 targeting using shRNA-miR provides neuropr...
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Latin-American people with dementia will increase to an astounding 368% in 2050, higher than USA and Europe. In addition, to sporadic dementia type like Alzheimer, and vascular dementia (VaD) progression after Cerebrovascular disease is also found. These incidences are increased in Colombia by specific populations affected with pure Neurodegenerati...
Article
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β-amyloid (Aβ) is produced by the β-secretase 1 (BACE1)-mediated enzymatic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein through the amyloidogenic pathway, making BACE1 a therapeutic target against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Alterations in lipid metabolism are a risk factor for AD by an unknown mechanism. The objective of this study was to determine the...
Article
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Post-stroke cognitive impairment is a major cause of long-term neurological disability. The prevalence of post-stroke cognitive deficits varies between 20% and 80% depending on brain region, country, and diagnostic criteria. The biochemical mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive impairment are not known in detail. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is...
Article
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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays important roles in synaptic function. Its unregulated over-activation has been, however, associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Our previous studies revealed that CDK5 silencing ameliorates tauopathy and spatial memory impairment in the 3xTgAD mouse model. However, how CDK5 targeting affects...
Article
The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease postulates that disruption of the brain microvasculature is important for the accumulation of amyloid beta and increased neuroinflammation. Liver X Receptor agonist, GW3965, has been demonstrated to successfully modulate neuroinflammation and lipid metabolism in murine models of AD. This is partially d...
Article
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The liver X receptor agonist, GW3965, improves cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. Here, we determined if short-term GW3965 treatment induces changes in the DNA methylation state of the hippocampus, which are associated with cognitive improvement. Twenty-four-month-old triple-transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice were treated with GW3965 (50...
Article
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β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) initiates APP cleavage, which has been reported to be an inducer of tau pathology by altering proteasome functions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the exact relationship between BACE1 and PHF (Paired Helical Filaments) formation is not clear. In this study, we confirm that BACE1 and Hsc70 are upregulated i...
Article
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia worldwide. The pharmacological activation of nuclear receptors (Liver X receptors: LXRs or Retinoid X receptors: RXR) has been shown to induce overexpression of the ATP-Binding Cassette A1 (ABCA1) and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), changes that are associated with improvement in cognition and reduct...
Data
ApoE immunoreactivity increases in GCL but not in the ML of DG in GW3965-treated 3xTg-AD. (Figure A) Representative micrographs of GFAP (Red) and ApoE (Green) immunohistochemistry using confocal microscopy showing DG subregion, (Figure B) RFI of ApoE in the ML of DG of the hippocampus. (Figure C) RFI of ApoE in the GCL of DG of the hippocampus. Dat...
Data
LXR agonist increases ApoE in NeuN positive cell without any increase of the neuronal cells number. (Figure A, Figure B, Figure C and Figure D) Representative micrographs of NeuN (Red), ApoE (Green) immunofluorescence and Hoechst (Blue) using confocal microscopy on x20 of magnification in DG, CA3 and CA1 of the hippocampus. (Figure E) Representativ...
Data
High concentration of neither oAβ42 or oAβ42 plus GW3965 affect single evokedCA1 fEPSPs. fEPSPs slope over time after the following treatments: 1) 200 nM oAβ42 [n = 4—black dots] for 40 min and 2) 0.1 μM GW3965 (1 hour incubation before recording) and 40 min 200 nM oAβ42 [n = 4—red dots]. (PDF)
Data
No detectable reduction in amyloid beta. Amyloid plaque deposition in brains of treated and untreated mice groups were evaluated by Thio-S staining. (Figure A and Figure B) Representative micrographs of brain stained sections. Data were expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison...
Data
GW3965 treatment did not reduce amyloid plaque area in Subiculum, CA1 of the hippocampus and Entorhinal cortex in 3xTg-AD mice. Amyloid plaque deposition in brains of treated and untreated mice groups were evaluated byimmunohistochemistry with antibody anti-Aβ (6E10). (Figure A) Representative pictograms of Aβ immunohistochemistry from regions of i...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Several types of treatments have been tested to block or delay the onset of the disease, but none have been completely successful. Diet, lifestyle and natural products are currently the main scientific focuses. Here, we evaluate the effects of oral administration of...
Data
Differentially methylated Illumina probes of 3xTg-AD group treated with LXR agonist in comparison with DMSO-treated 3xTg-AD group
Article
Full-text available
Acute ischemic stroke is a cerebrovascular accident and it is the most common cause of physical disabilities around the globe. Patients may present with repeated ictuses, experiencing mental consequences, such as depression and cognitive disorders. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a kinase that is involved in neurotransmission and plasticity, bu...
Article
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral ischemia (CI) are neuropathologies that are characterized by aggregates of tau protein, a hallmark of cognitive disorder and dementia. Protein accumulation can be induced by autophagic failure. Autophagy is a metabolic pathway involved in the homeostatic recycling of cellular components. However, the role of au...
Article
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Stroke is the second most common cause of death in people over 45 years of age in Colombia and is the leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Cerebral ischemia is a stroke characterized by decreased blood flow due to the occlusion of one or more cerebral arteries, which can cause memory problems and hemiplegia or paralysis, among other imp...
Article
P35 AND RAC1 CONTRIBUTE TO NEUROPROTECTION FOLLOWING CDK5 RNAI: CDK5 plays an important role in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the normal function of the adult brain, and dysregulation can lead to Tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive impairment. In a previous study, we demonstrated that RNAi knock down of CDK5 reduced the formation...
Article
Astrocytes are specialized glial cells that make important contributions to neuronal support and the blood-brain barrier. This barrier limits the passage of certain fatty acids and lipids to the Central Nervous System (CNS), which the majority of lipids found in this tissue must be synthesized right there. Astrocytes are involved in the conversion...
Article
Full-text available
Astrocytes are specialized glial cells of the nervous system, which have multiple homeostatic functions for the survival and maintenance of the neurovascular unit. It has been shown that astrocytes have critical role in the dynamics pro survival conferring neuroprotective, angiogenic, immunomodulatory, neurogenic, antioxidants and regulatory synaps...
Article
Full-text available
Inappropriate activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) resulting from proteolytic release of the activator fragment p25 from the membrane contributes to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, β-amyloid (βA) aggregation, and chronic neurodegeneration. At 18 months of age, 3× Tg-AD mice were sacrificed after either 3 weeks (short term) or 1...
Article
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Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cer...