Glenn Rayp

Glenn Rayp
Ghent University | UGhent · Department of Economics

About

92
Publications
28,959
Reads
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2,481
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
1100 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Finding a good parametric approximation to the productivity distribution is a problem of general interest. This paper argues that heterogeneity in productivity is best captured by finite mixture models (FMMs). FMMs build on the existence of unobserved subpopulations in the data. As such, they are generally consistent with models of firm dynamics di...
Research
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KERNINZICHTEN 1. De uitbreiding van legale migratiekanalen wordt vaak beschouwd als een belangrijk middel om irreguliere migratie terug te dringen. Tegelijk zou het de impact van de veroudering van de bevolking in de (Westerse, rijke) migratiebestemmingslanden milderen, de economische ontwikkeling in de herkomstlanden bevorderen, én het inkomen van...
Research
Full-text available
Expanding legal migration pathways is often framed as a panacea to curb irregular migration and mitigate the effects of population aging in immigration countries, while also fostering source countries’ economic development and immigrants’ income. Yet, policy initiatives to expand migration have not gained significant momentum, and available migrati...
Research
Full-text available
Circular migration has been advocated in policy circles as a ‘triple win’ since it allows destination countries to fill labour shortages with flexible workforce; migrants to earn higher incomes and benefit from skills upgrading; and origin countries to benefit from remittances and the newly acquired skills of returning migrants. In this paper, we d...
Chapter
The concluding chapter brings together the different contributions of the book, which in their own way all analyse relevant and new aspects of migration in the Global South. In doing so, the chapter focuses on common issues and interests in migration at a Global South level and the differences to those of established industrialised countries, as we...
Book
Full-text available
This topical volume deals with the major challenges of migration in the Global South and their governance, which are traditionally much less considered than migration to industrialized countries and its consequences. It is written in view of the intergovernmental agreement of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, negotiated un...
Article
We propose a fully nonparametric framework to test to what extent technological change is factor-biased and heterogeneous. We show in a Monte Carlo simulation that our framework resolves the endogeneity issue between productivity and input choice and provides accurate estimates of firm-specific biases. For all Belgian manufacturing industries analy...
Article
Full-text available
The intensified international migration pressures of the recent decades prompted many developed countries to revise their immigration regulations and increase border controls. However, the development of these reforms as well as their effectiveness in actually managing immigration flows remains poorly understood. The main reason is that migration r...
Chapter
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The authors construct an indicator of regional integration based on a Bayesian state-space approach. The state-space model is helpful in estimating the overall level of regional integration by using all information contained in a set of indicators. The authors apply this model to the level of regional integration between members of the OECD. The va...
Article
Resumen En esta introducción al número monográfico se sitúa la arquitectura de la gobernanza mundial del trabajo en el contexto de la globalización y se analiza el panorama jurídico teniendo en cuenta los recientes incidentes y debates. Los autores ofrecen una visión general de los mecanismos mundiales de protección de los derechos en el trabajo, q...
Article
Dans ce texte destiné à introduire notre numéro spécial, les auteurs replacent les différents éléments de la gouvernance mondiale du travail dans le contexte de la mondialisation. Ils soulignent les limites d'un encadrement des droits au travail par les seuls États-nations, ainsi que le potentiel des formes de régulation «hybrides», mettant à contr...
Article
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This paper analyses migratory streams to Belgian municipalities between 1990-2007. The Belgian population register constitutes a rich and unique database of yearly migrant in flows and stocks broken down by nationality, which allows us to empirically explain the location choice of immigrants at municipality level. Specifically, we aim at separating...
Article
This article examines the impact of start-ups (active for 1 up to 5 years) and young firms (active for 6 up to 10 years) on industry-level efficiency growth in six EU countries, covering the period 2002–2009. Using semi-parametric estimates of meta-frontier efficiency, it is found that surviving entrants gradually raise their efficiency level in al...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper a semiparametric stochastic metafrontier approach is used to obtain insight into the performance of manufacturing firms in Europe. We differ from standard TFP studies at the firm level as we simultaneously allow for inefficiency , noise and do not impose a functional form on the input–output relation. Using AMADEUS firm-level data cov...
Book
This insightful book incorporates perspectives from several disciplines to provide a unique systematic analysis of emerging public and private initiatives in global labour rights governance. The expert contributors explore the complexities of labour rights governance in a global economy characterized by transnational supply chains. They assess how...
Article
Belgium was one of the first continental countries to undergo the industrialization process during the 19th century. Along with the growing manufacturing base came the development of an extensive transportation infrastructure. As a result, the Belgian internal market became fully integrated towards the beginning of the 20th century, making the coun...
Research
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This paper brings together the literature on both gravity equations explaining trade and probit regressions explaining the probability of an integration agreement. This is done by estimating them simultaneously in a qualitative vector autoregression model. The qualitative VAR allows us to estimate their interdependence without having to resort to i...
Article
In this article we examine the quantitative growth of growing number of advertisements (ads) placed by local shopkeepers in the three-daily chronicle of Ghent between 1706 and 1800. We test whether this evolution can be explained by international (shipping) commerce, a determinant to which the literature seems to have paid less attention. In this p...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the motives behind the formation of intra-African regional integration agreements (RIAs). We focus specifically on rents because they can explain the drive for integration even in the absence of a positive effect on welfare. Whether they are meant to foster rent-seeking or to suppress it, the level of corruption is posited to ha...
Article
In this paper, we show the effect of school staff autonomy on educational performance. The value-added compared to the existing body of literature is that we employ variation in autonomy within the same country and within the same school type in order to reduce the omitted variable problem. To fully capture the informational advantage of local acto...
Article
In this article we examine the quantitative growth of growing number of advertisements (ads) placed by local shopkeepers in the three-daily chronicle of Ghent between 1706 and 1800. We test whether this evolution can be explained by international (shipping) commerce, a determinant to which the literature seems to have paid less attention. In this p...
Article
Full-text available
Despite great accomplishments in the migration literature, the determinants of South-South migration remain poorly understood. In an attempt to fill this gap, this paper formulates and tests an empirical model for intraregional migration in sub-Saharan Africa within an extended human capital framework, taking into account spatial interaction. Using...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the determinants of bilateral immigrant flows to 19 OECD countries between 1998 and 2007 from both advanced and developing origin countries. We pay particular attention to dynamics by including both the lagged migrant flow and the migrant stock to capture partial adjustment and network effects. To correct for the dynamic pan...
Article
In their introduction to this Special Issue, the authors situate the architecture of global labour governance against the background of the challenges posed by globalization. Noting the limitations of a conventional governmental approach to labour governance, they suggest considering new “hybrid” regulatory modes and mechanisms, which involve a com...
Article
In this paper a semiparametric stochastic metafrontier approach is used to obtain insight into firm level competitiveness in Europe. We differ from standard TFP studies at the firm level as we simultaneously allow for inefficiency, noise and do not impose a functional form on the input-output relation. Using AMADEUS firm-level data covering 10 manu...
Article
We use a nonparametric approach to investigate the relationship between farm produc- tivity and farming scale. A Kernel regression is used on data of mixed cropping systems to study the determinants of production including different factors that have been identifieed in literature as missing variables in the testing of the inverse relationship such...
Chapter
A broad range of countries has witnessed a substantial increase in income inequality in the past 30 years. One of the major hypotheses put forward to explain increasing income inequality is the impact of globalization. International trade and international investment have increased considerably during the same period. Furthermore, by consecutive wa...
Article
This paper extends the assessment of the impact of globalisation and technological change on the bargaining power and preferences of employees, by taking worker heterogeneity into account. In contrast with previous studies, two separate unions – representing low-skilled and high-skilled workers respectively – are considered. Using Belgian firm-leve...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the subject of the impact of globalization and regionalization on the labour markets. The papers of the special issue are placed within this subject. Design/methodology/approach – Although the subject is not treated exhaustively, the papers presented are new contributions dealing with labour market institutio...
Article
This paper points out that there may be a logical consistency issue in choosing the reference wage in efficiency wage models. We have shown that defining the outside option in the efficiency wage logic as the market-clearing wage solves this difficulty, and is justifiable in terms of the assumed behaviour of workers and employers. The model that we...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical research on international tax competition has mainly considered cor- porate taxation. Because of the limited international mobility of labour, labour tax competition tends to be overlooked. This may be unjusti ed. The tax base in labour taxation is the wage mass that depends on employment. While labour is largely in- ternationally immobil...
Article
This paper analyses to what extent the decision to start exporting may be subject to spillovers of the internationalisation behaviour of other (foreign and domestic) firms. We distinguish between two possible channels: effects on productivity and effects on the perceived level of sunk costs of exporting. For both channels, we consider geographical...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to describe product market competition in the Belgian economy for the period 1997]2004 and to illustrate some causality with market regulation. The analysis is held at the industry level, for selected manufacturing and services industries. Emphasis is given to the profit elasticity (PE) measurement of competition (the gBoon...
Article
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[eng] Transportation costs and monopoly location in presence of regional disparities. . This article aims at analysing the impact of the level of transportation costs on the location choice of a monopolist. We consider two asymmetric regions. The heterogeneity of space lies in both regional incomes and population sizes: the first region is endowed...
Article
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In this article we propose an econometric approach that steers clear of parameter heterogeneity, omitted variable bias and endogeneity problems, from which suffers the econometric analysis of economic growth. We propose to investigate the relation between income inequality and economic growth in a cointegrated VAR setting and present an application...
Article
Governments in developing countries play an important role in the growth process, most notably through their budgetary policies. This potentially beneficial role is, however, hindered by government expenditure inefficiency. This is illustrated in a basic model of public spending and economic growth. Government efficiency is estimated for 52 develop...
Article
We show that the way individual income data should be aggregated into an index of inequality in order to explain countries' growth performance is theory specific. A simulation set-up shows that the use of a wrong measure might obscure the inequality - growth relationship and that the relative performance of different measures of inequality can be i...
Article
We analyse the immigration flows to Western Europe in the sixties. We develop a theoretical model tailored to account for some of the key features of this period, i.e., trade in manufacturing that essentially involved advanced countries, the growing administration of labour markets in Western Europe and the huge inflow of low skilled immigrants fro...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we assess the impact of international trade on union bargaining power in five EU countries, using a two-step estimation procedure. In the first step, we use firm-level data to estimate union bargaining power at sector level within a production function framework. We simultaneously test for the bargaining regime and estimate, rather t...
Article
Consumers’ buying behavior is not consistent with their positive attitude toward ethical products. In a survey of 808 Belgian respondents, the actual willingness to pay for fair-trade coffee was measured. It was found that the average price premium that the consumers were willing to pay for a fair-trade label was 10%. Ten percent of the sample was...
Article
Full-text available
We examine whether or not affiliate production in Central and Eastern Europe (CEEC) affects factor demand in the EU, at the investing firm and sector levels. Using firm level data, we estimate parent labor demand elasticities for a number of manufacturing sectors, following a flexible cost function approach. We find evidence of inter-sector heterog...
Article
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We show the relevance of government expenditure inefficiency using the Barro (1990) model. We estimate government inefficiency for 52 developing countries using a data envelopment analysis. The estimated inefficiencies are subsequently used in a general to specific approach in order to identify their determinants. We find the government expenditure...
Article
Feenstra and Hanson [NBER Working Paper No. 6052 (1997)] propose a procedure to correct the standard errors in a two-stage regression with generated dependent variables. Their method has subsequently been used in two-stage mandated wage models [Feenstra and Hanson, "Quarterly Journal of Economics" (1999) Vol. 114, pp. 907-940; Haskel and Slaughter,...
Article
In this paper we propose an explanation for the substantial migration inflows that occurred in North-Western Europe in the 1960s using a modified Heckscher-Ohlin model to show how migration inflows and the product specialisation pattern were linked to the skill premium of countries. In the 1960s, wages of low-skilled workers were essentially determ...
Article
Full-text available
As in any other field of applied macro-economic or econometric research, researchers who study income inequality have to look for suitable data. Although most researchers just draw on some ready-made dataset, finding reliable data is not that straightforward and can even be very troublesome. This paper highlights some of the pitfalls in the use of...
Article
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The econometric analysis of economic growth has always been subject to major flaws and shortcomings. Data scarcity and reliability, parameter heterogeneity, omitted variables bias, endogeneity problems, ... have seriously tainted estimation results. In this paper we propose an alternative framework that explicitly deals with these issues. We invest...
Article
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The paper investigates whether significant HOS effects are present in the EU from trade liberalization with the emerging economies. Regarding wage inequality, there is only evidence of a trade-induced technological change, but biased towards thelower-skilled-labor-intensive sectors. Relative wages in the EU member states are not affected differentl...
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of a sample of 808 Belgian citizens and using conjoint analysis, the importance of a ‘fair trade’ label for the coffee buying decision is studied, as well as the willingness-to-pay for such a label. Furthermore, the size of the consumer segment willing to buy ‘fair trade’ coffee and their characteristics are studied. On average, a fair...
Article
This paper deals with the effect of international trade with newly industrialized countries (NICs) on wage inequality in the European Union (EU). We apply a two-stage mandated wage-estimation procedure to assess the respective impact of trade and technology on the relative wages of low-skilled workers. We find weak evidence of a positive impact on...
Article
The paper investigates whether significant HOS effects are present in the EU from trade liberalization with the emerging economies. Regarding wage inequality, there is only evidence of a trade-induced technological change, but biased towards the lower-skilled-labor-intensive sectors. Relative wages in the EU member states are not affected different...
Article
Full-text available
We study to what extent factor demand in EU parent firms and countries is affected by FDI and affiliate production in the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). Since FDI may exert a direct as well as an indirect influence on factor demand, its effect on the investing firm level and the sector level may differ and hence we estimate both. Us...
Article
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this paper we shall examine the issue of the downward levelling of social protection in greater depth by answering two questions on how important this problem may become in the context of the EMU: a) To what extent has `benign neglect' of the possibility of a downward levelling of social protection been justified until now, at least in those countr...
Chapter
In the previous chapter, we examined the technological performance of Belgium in the strict sense. But technological performance of a nation is, of course, not a goal in itself. A strong technological position should be instrumental in terms of higher rates of economic growth, welfare, etc. Indeed, the performance of countries is measured in the fi...
Article
An Empirical Test of the Dixit-Norman Approach to Factor Price Equalization, Using Cointegration Techniques. — Factor price equalization (FPE) occurs when international trade equilibrium reproduces the integrated world equilibrium (IWE). This allows a straightforward test of a necessary condition for FPE provided one has an idea of the IWE. The aut...
Article
Factor price equalisation in the Dixit-Norman approach occurs when the international trade equilibrium reproduces allocations and output of the integrated world economy (IWE), in which the trading countries would form one economy with perfectly mobile goods and factors. Based on this concept, Deardorff (1994), gives a necessary condition for factor...
Article
Full-text available
This model enables the planning and assessment of export promotion activities. The model consists of four consecutive filters that are constructed using and applying a set of selection and decision rules. Information related to country and product category is brought together, and realistic export opportunities for Belgian are finally filtered out.
Article
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Educational tracking is a very controversial issue in education. The tracking debate is about the virtues of uniformity and vertical differentiation in the curriculum and teaching. The pro- tracking group claims that curriculum and teaching better aimed at children's varied interest and skills will foster learning efficacy. The anti-tracking group...
Article
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This paper shows the value of school autonomy for educational performance. To fully capture the informational advantage of local actors, we define school autonomy as the operational empowerment of the principals and teachers. The Flemish secondary school system in Belgium is analyzed as it is has a long history of educational school autonomy, but c...
Article
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The increase in the demand for high-skilled labour that results from both globalisation and technical change is by some perceived to generate an inequality- unemployment trade-off (IUT) within advanced countries (the North). However, empirical evidence suggests that to the extent that such a trade-off actually exists it is likely to differ across c...
Article
Full-text available
We use a nonparametric estimation of the production function to investigate the relationship between farm productivity and farming scale in poor smallholder agricultural systems in the north of Burundi. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a predominant small scale subsistence farming sector. A Kernel regression is used on dat...