Glenn A Gaesser

Glenn A Gaesser
Arizona State University | ASU · College of Health Solutions

PhD

About

279
Publications
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11,186
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Publications

Publications (279)
Article
Background: Low moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels and obesity are associated with increased cardiometabolic disease risk. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe MVPA and cardiometabolic risk characteristics of insufficiently active African American women with obesity (N = 60) enrolled in a culturally tailored MVPA in...
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Background Postexercise hypotension (PEH) can play a major role in the daily blood pressure management among individuals with hypertension. However, there are limited data on PEH in persons with obesity and hypertension, and no PEH data in this population beyond 90 min postexercise. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if PEH could b...
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We hypothesized that exercise training would prevent gains in body weight and body fat, and worsening of cardiometabolic risk markers, during a 4-week period of indulgent food snacking in overweight/obese men. Twenty-eight physically inactive men (ages 19-47 yr) with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 consumed 48 donuts (2/day, 6 days/week; ~14,500 kc...
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We propose a weight-neutral strategy for obesity treatment on the following grounds: (1) the mortality risk associated with obesity is largely attenuated or eliminated by moderate-to-high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or physical activity (PA), (2) most cardiometabolic risk markers associated with obesity can be improved with exercise t...
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Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) declines with advancing age and is a predictor of morbidity and mortality risk. The purpose here was to assess the utility of constant load tests performed either above or below peak work rate obtained from a graded exercise test for verification of VO2 max in older adults. Twenty-two healthy older adults (9M, 13F, 6...
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High-glycemic index (high-GI) foods (so-called fast carbs) have been hypothesized to promote fat storage and increase risk of obesity. To clarify whether dietary GI impacts body weight, we searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for observational studies reporting associations between BMI and dietary GI, and for meta-analyse...
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PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for meta-analyses that provided risk estimates (±95% confidence intervals) for associations between intakes of whole and refined grains and risk of total and site-specific cancer. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guid...
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Abstract: The associations between intakes of whole and refined grains and risk of total and site-specific cancer incidence or mortality were assessed by a review of all relevant meta-analyses of observational studies. Nine meta-analyses indicated that whole grain intake was associated with lower risk of total cancer incidence and mortality, with r...
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Although dietary guidance recommends increasing consumption of whole grains and concurrently limiting consumption of refined and/or enriched grain foods, emerging research suggests that certain refined grains may be part of a healthy dietary pattern. A scientific expert panel was convened to review published data since the release of 2015 dietary g...
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Background Sedentary time is associated with chronic disease and premature mortality. We tested a multilevel workplace intervention with and without sit-stand workstations to reduce sedentary time and lower cardiometabolic risk. Methods Stand and Move at Work was a group (cluster) randomized trial conducted between January 2016 and December 2017 a...
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Although dietary guidance recommends increasing consumption of whole grains and concurrently limiting consumption of refined and/or enriched grain foods, emerging research suggests that certain refined grains may be part of a healthy dietary pattern. A scientific expert panel was convened to review published data since the release of 2015 dietary g...
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Multicomponent interventions that use sit-stand workstations (SSW) to reduce workplace sitting time have been largely successful. However, the long-term maintenance (i.e., >12 months) of this behavior change is relatively unknown. We aimed to evaluate the 24-month maintenance of reductions in workplace sitting time, along with the effects of introd...
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Long-term effects of workplace sedentary behavior interventions on cardiometabolic risk are poorly understood. Stand and Move at Work was a multi-site group randomized trial in 24 worksites (N=630, 74% female, 45±11 years of age) of office-based employees in Phoenix, AZ and Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Worksites in the STAND+ study arm received 12 mon...
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Background Smart Walk is a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, smartphone-delivered intervention designed to increase physical activity (PA) and reduce cardiometabolic disease risk among African American (AA) women. Objective This study aimed to describe the development and initial usability testing results of Smart Walk. Methods...
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The consumption of fiber-rich foods may negate the deleterious effects of high-fat meals on postprandial triglyceridemia and endothelial function. Despite supportive data in adults, little is known about the effects of high-fat and high-fiber foods on cardiovascular health parameters in pediatric populations. In this crossover trial, male and femal...
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Both glycemic index and dietary fiber are associated with cardiovascular disease risk, which may be related in part to postprandial vascular effects. We examined the effects of both glycemic index (GI) and dietary (mainly cereal) fiber on postprandial endothelial function. Eleven adults (5 men; 6 women; age = 42.4 ± 16.1 years; weight = 70.5 ± 10.7...
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Objectives: The winter holiday period is associated with weight gain from overconsumption of calories from fat and sugar. Such short-term lifestyle change has the ability to decrease diversity of the gut microbiome and enhance the harvest of energy from the hosts' diet, both of which are relevant factors in obesity. Exercise may influence gut micr...
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Refined grain intake is widely assumed to be associated with adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and obesity. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee recommended that to improve dietary quality, the US population should replace most refined grains with whole grains. This...
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Background: African American (AA) women perform low levels of physical activity (PA) and are disproportionally burdened by cardiometabolic disease conditions when compared to White women and the U.S. population as a whole. These disparities emphasize the need for innovative and effective interventions to increase PA and reduce cardiometabolic dise...
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Purpose: To review enrollment strategies, participation barriers, and program reach of a large, 2-year workplace intervention targeting sedentary behavior. Approach: Cross-sectional, retrospective review. Setting: Twenty-four worksites balanced across academic, industry, and government sectors in Minneapolis/Saint Paul (Minnesota) and Phoenix...
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Purpose: We assessed resting central/peripheral blood pressure (BP), postexercise BP and hemodynamic responses [stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR)] after acute exercise and 2 wk of aerobic training in lean and centrally obese men matched for BP. Methods: Eight lean (body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m; viscera...
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To determine whether age affects cycling efficiency and the energy cost of walking (Cw), 190 healthy adults, ages 18–81 yr, cycled on an ergometer at 50 W and walked on a treadmill at 1.34 m/s. Ventilation and gas exchange at rest and during exercise were used to calculate net Cw and net efficiency of cycling. Compared with the 18–40 yr age group (...
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We investigated whether two different bouts of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen young (27 ± 1 yr), nonexercise-trained men underwent three randomized conditions: 1) four 4-min intervals at 85–95% of maximum heart rate separated by 3 min of active recovery (HIIE 4 × 4), 2) 16 1-mi...
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Dear Sirs: On the basis of finding that both overweight and obesity were associated with higher all-cause mortality,1 the Global BMI Mortality Collaboration asserted that strategies are needed to “combat the entire spectrum of excess adiposity in many countries.” This assumes that elevated body mass index (BMI) is the primary cause of the higher m...
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Purpose: We examined the effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with multiple 2-min walking breaks or one 30-min continuous walking session on glucose control and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Methods: Ten overweight/obese, physically inactive participants (5 men; 32±5 y, BMI 30.3±4.6 kg·m) participated in this randomized four-trial crosso...
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Aims: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves peak oxygen uptake and left ventricular diastology in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, its effects on myocardial strain in HFpEF remain unknown. We explored the effects of HIIT and moderate-intensity aerobic continuous training (MI-ACT) on left and...
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Background: American workers spend 70-80% of their time at work being sedentary. Traditional approaches to increase moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may be perceived to be harmful to productivity. Approaches that target reductions in sedentary behavior and/or increases in standing or light-intensity physical activity [LPA] may not interf...
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Objectives: To compare acute cognitive effects following bouts of standing (STAND), cycling (CYCLE) and walking (WALK) to a sit-only (SIT) condition. Design: Randomized cross-over full-factorial study. Methods: Nine overweight (BMI=29±3kg/m(2)) adults (30±15years; 7 females, 2 males) completed four conditions (SIT, STAND, WALK and CYCLE) acros...
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Purpose: To compare 24-h and postprandial glucose responses to incremental intervals of standing (STAND), walking (WALK) and cycling (CYCLE) to a sit-only (SIT) condition. Methods: Nine overweight/obese (BMI= 29 ± 3 kgm) adults (30 ± 15 yr) participated in this randomized crossover full-factorial study, with each condition performed 1 wk apart....
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We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants (35.1 ± 8.1 y; BMI = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2) were randomized to eight weeks (3 sessions/week) of either HIIT (10...
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Background: The assessment of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in youth is complicated by inherent variability in growth and maturation during childhood and adolescence. This study provides descriptive summaries of the EE of a diverse range of activities in children ages 7 to 13. Methods: A sample of 105 7- to 13-year-old child...
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Higher excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) and sprint interval exercise (SIE) may contribute to greater fat loss sometimes reported after interval training compared continuous, steady-state exercise (SSE) training. We compared excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after HIE, SIE, and SS...
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We compared SenseWear Armband versions (v) 2.2 and 5.2 for estimating energy expenditure in healthy adults. Thirty-four adults (26 women), 30.1 ± 8.7 years old, performed two trials that included light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities: (1) structured routine: seven activities performed for 8-min each, with 4-min of rest between activit...
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Weight loss is routinely recommended for overweight and obese individuals for purposes of reducing morbidity and mortality risk, especially from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, sustained weight loss presents a daunting challenge, and most individuals who lose weight eventually regain most, if not all, of their lost...
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Despite their popularity, meta-analyses demonstrate that low-carbohydrate diets are no more effective for weight loss than low-fat or balanced diets. Carbohydrates are essential for high-intensity exercise because the maximum rate of energy production is substantially higher for carbohydrates compared to fats. Low-carbohydrate diets reduce toleranc...
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A constant-load exercise bout to exhaustion after a graded exercise test to verify maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during cycle ergometry has not been evaluated in sedentary adults with obesity.Nineteen sedentary men (n=10) and women (n=9) with obesity (age = 35.8 ± 8.6 y; body mass index (BMI) = 35.9 ± 5.1 kg[BULLET OPERATOR]m; body fat percentage...
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To compare ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response to accumulated standing (STAND), cycling (CYCLE), and walking (WALK) to a sitting-only (SIT) day in adults. Nine overweight or obese (Body Mass Index= 28.7±2.7 kg/m) adults (30±15 yr) participated in this randomized cross-over full-factorial study. Four conditions (WALK, STAND, CYCLE, SIT) were ra...
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The study compares MET-defined cutpoints used to classify sedentary behaviors in children using a simulated free-living design. A sample of 102 children (54 boys and 48 girls; 7-13 years) completed a set of 12 activities (randomly selected from a pool of 24 activities) in a random order. Activities were predetermined and ranged from sedentary to vi...
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Gluten-free diets have gained popularity with the public at a rate greater than would be expected based on the prevalence of gluten-related disorders such celiac disease, nonceliac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. This article reviews gluten-related disorders, indications for gluten-free diets, and the possible health benefits of gluten. Desp...
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Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a more powerful predictor of mortality than body mass index or adiposity, and improving CRF is more important than losing body fat for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data on reduced morbidity and mortality associated with increased CRF are strong and consistent. By contrast, data...
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The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of the Nike + Fuelband for estimating PAEE...
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Actigraph (AG) and SenseWear Armband (SWA) monitors have been widely used in estimating energy expenditure (EE) in youth. However, little is known about the relative accuracy of the monitors in relation to a criterion method for youth. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of various AG regression equations and SWA with t...
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We determined the oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate responses to two high-intensity interval exercise protocols differing in interval length. On separate days, 14 recreationally active males performed a 4x4 (four, 4-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 3 minutes recovery at 50 W), and 16x1 (16, 1-minute intervals at...