Glenn R. Carroll

Glenn R. Carroll
Stanford University | SU · Graduate School of Business

PhD

About

190
Publications
58,563
Reads
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19,733
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2004 - June 2019
Durham University
Position
  • Professor
September 2000 - present
Stanford University
Position
  • Professor
September 1983 - July 2000
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Cortese Professor of Management

Publications

Publications (190)
Article
Research shows that perceived authenticity conveys value in many disparate domains. The analytical attention of this research focuses on producers of products and services, identifying which actions and structures the typical individual associates with authenticity. Far less is known about how individuals and audiences differ in their interest, rec...
Article
Restaurant hygiene grading schemes are considered exemplars of targeted transparency policies. We investigate the impact of an administrative design feature found in many schemes: repeated interactions between health inspectors and restaurateurs. Data was analyzed from 336,208 inspections of 27,119 restaurants conducted by 493 inspectors from 2000...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews and explores the use of demographic ideas, models and data in the study of organizations, products and corporations. The chapter discusses four different frameworks analysts use to study these topics, but concentrates on internal organizational demography and corporate demography, as these are more active areas. Within corporat...
Article
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The goal of this symposium is to attract attention to and stimulate research on interaction between organizational dynamics and local community characteristics in organizational theory, strategy and entrepreneurship fields by clarifying how the concept of community (and the attendant focus on inter-relationships of individual and organizational act...
Article
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This study explores how and when the institutionalized classification system for products (or services) in a specific national market domain affects consumer perceptions of authenticity. We argue that “type authenticity” presupposes a well-established and taken-for-granted classification system for a product or service. In domains with such systems...
Article
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Many individuals in advanced consumer economies prefer authentic producers, products, and services. An important but overlooked question concerns the psychology behind such preferences: How do individuals act on authenticity when they encounter it? We suggest that the answer resides, at least in part, in the distinction between two fundamental but...
Article
This study explores the social history of the tiki bar and associated phenomena, from its origins in the 1930s up to the present. In doing so, we aim to contribute to theory on consumer research about social categories and authenticity. Piecing together fragmented accounts and materials, we first sketch a brief socio-historical narrative of the tik...
Presentation
Full-text available
Emergence of ”Tex-Mex” label and social category
Presentation
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Article
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Organizations normally benefit from being perceived as authentic. Yet an ongoing puzzle persists about self-claims of authenticity: although the weight of findings suggests that individuals will devalue organizations touting themselves as authentic, some findings suggest that such self-claims may be rewarded. The authors suggest that this puzzle ca...
Article
Research on social categories has become one of the more active lines of research on organizations. Much of this research presumes the pre-existence of at least the "seed" of the category and then proceeds to study and explain how the category developed and became institutionalized. By contrast, this study joins several recent others in attempting...
Article
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While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity–type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic–we aim to document empirically the unique app...
Data
Identifying authenticity keywords using all our ideas surveys. (DOCX)
Data
Summary of AOI keyword surveys. (DOCX)
Data
Scores of keywords from AOI surveys. (DOCX)
Data
Product descriptions, study 2 & 3. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
An emerging body of research consistently demonstrates that individuals in developed consumer markets value authenticity. But how individuals respond to organizations that tout their identities as authentic is not so well understood. We argue that organizational attempts at explicitly proclaiming their own identity as authentic will generally be re...
Chapter
Organizational ecology constitutes a theoretical perspective on populations of organizations; it relies on a common general conception of the organizational world shaped by processes of selection and also employs common methodological presumptions and practices. Systematic development and testing of ecological theory takes place within cumulative t...
Research
Full-text available
"On the evaluation of authenticity by audiences and the supply of authenticity by organizations" Presentation slides from talk in Bologna Italy, Medici Summer School 2015.
Chapter
Full-text available
Consumers and scholars show increasing interest in authenticity in products, services, performances and places. As typically used, authenticity is an attribution which is socially constructed and appears in many domains of social life. The interest in authenticity presumes that its attribution conveys value and emerging evidence agrees. Authenticit...
Chapter
Consumers and scholars show increasing interest in authenticity in products, services, performances, and places. As typically used, authenticity is an attribution that is socially constructed and appears in many domains of social life. The interest in authenticity presumes that its attribution conveys value and emerging evidence agrees. Authenticit...
Chapter
Organizational ecology refers to a sociologically oriented research program on organizations. It involves the empirical study of populations of organizations and a theoretical emphasis on processes of selective replacement of relatively inert organizations. Much organizational ecology research uses common methodological presumptions and practices,...
Chapter
In recent years, evolutionary psychology and behavioral genetics have emerged as prominent theoretical perspectives within the social sciences. Yet despite broad levels of commonality between the disciplines—including an emphasis on adaptation, evolved mechanisms that guide behavior, and consequences of mismatch between these mechanisms and novel e...
Article
Consumers and scholars show increasing interest in authenticity in products, services, performances, and places. As typically used, authenticity is an attribution that is socially constructed and appears in many domains of social life. The interest in authenticity presumes that its attribution conveys value and emerging evidence agrees. Authenticit...
Chapter
Sociological theory offers many possible contributions to strategic management, although most of these are not widely recognized as such. Sociological ideas about sustainable advantage among firms involve both capability-based and position-based approaches. Key mechanisms include organizational structure, ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTU...
Chapter
By initial conditions, we refer to the social and economic conditions present at the establishment of a new firm or organization. Research demonstrates that both internal and external initial conditions can pattern themselves in the organization’s structure, and these conditions often exert effects throughout much of the firm’s lifetime.
Article
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Organization theory highlights the spread of norms of rationality in contemporary life. Yet rationality does not always spread without friction; individuals often act based on other beliefs and norms. We explore this problem in the context of restaurants and diners. We argue that consumers potentially apply either of two social codes when forming v...
Article
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Although the 1997 handover of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China was a major political transformation, its impact on new business formation has not been fully scrutinized. Theory suggests contradictory forces may operate before, during, and after such a transformation: either a decline due to uncertainty or an increase due to opportunities...
Article
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Institutional theory highlights the spread of norms of rationality in organizations and other aspects of contemporary life. Yet the spread of rationality does not always proceed without friction; in some contexts, individuals act on the basis of other beliefs and values. This paper explores a specific instance of this general issue in the context o...
Article
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Drawing on theories of social movements and organizations, the authors examine how the expanding presence of commercial organizations and the growing diversity of their forms foster policy change securing rights for a group of challengers. In particular, they suggest that these organizations can operate as bridges and can signal the legitimacy of t...
Article
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e present two studies that together test a fundamental yet rarely examined assumption underlying the contemporary appeal of authenticity—namely, that consumers assign higher value ratings to organizations regarded as authentic. Study 1 conducts content analysis of unsolicited online restaurant reviews entered voluntarily by consumers in three major...
Article
Drawing on theories of social movements and organizations, we examine how the expanding presence of commercial organizations and the growing diversity of their forms can foster policy change securing rights for a group of challengers in a community. Empirically, we analyze organizations linked to lesbians/gays and the promulgation of local ordinanc...
Article
Many organizational populations display increasing variation over time in characteristics thought to be central to survival, as we show here for hard disk drive producers. We develop a simple model that might account for this pattern. In it, technological advance follows a trajectory consistent with a proportionate random process (akin to a Gibrat...
Article
Recent sociological theory and research highlights food, drink, and restaurants as culturally meaningful and related to social identity. An implication of this view holds that the prevalence of corporate chain restaurants affects the sociological character of communities, as many activists, popular-based movements, and theorists contend. The analys...
Chapter
Research on general market entry usually focuses on large enterprises. Often, however, small entrants can alter the competitive dynamics of an industry. This volume brings together the most prominent thought leaders and the best research on the asymmetric entrant-incumbent dynamics. The ideas presented offer a more nuanced perspective on how, when,...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding when new forms will emerge constitutes a core theoretical issue for organizational theory. The ecological theory of form emergence falls short of providing a full explanation because it treats legitimation as a primitive (unexplained) concept. Here, we use Hannan, Pólos, and Carroll's (2007) revised theory of organizational evolution...
Article
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Despite the centrality of products in many strategic and managerial theoretical frameworks, little is known systematically about how and why specific products come and go from markets. We argue that narrowing this gap will likely enhance management theory, and we propose that research on product demography—the social lives of products—is a promisin...
Article
In some organizational applications, the principle of allocation (PoA) and scale advantage (SA) oppose each other. While PoA implies that organizations with wide niches get punished, SA holds that large organizations gain an advantage because of scale efficiencies. The opposition occurs because many large organizations also possess wide niches. How...
Article
This chapter attempts to strengthen theoretical connections between interpretive cultural studies of authenticity and organizational studies. Adopting an unstructured qualitative approach, we use the domain of contemporary food and dining to develop a conceptual framework for assessing authenticity. We start by recognizing the two very different cl...
Article
Full-text available
We study how tape drive producers respond to the almost continuous emergence of new drive formats across the technology’s history. The analysis characterizes the technological formats of tape drives according to their degree of contrast (distinctiveness and visibility) from other formats. High contrast implies strong boundaries, which prevent infor...
Article
Sociologists and other social scientists have long recognized that certain economic transactions involve more than a simple trade of goods or services for money. A long-standing theme in economic anthropology and sociology emphasizes the symbolic or moral character of certain economic exchanges or transactions (Weber 1902, Veblen 1899; Malinowski,...
Article
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Little theory and research addresses the ways organizational context affects the demography of products. We examine this question here by focusing on an organization's mode of market entry. Specifically, we explore differences between firms entering a market de novo (start-up) and those entering de alio (diversification from another market). We ana...
Article
Building theories of organizations is challenging: theories are partial and "folk" categories are fuzzy. The commonly used tools--first-order logic and its foundational set theory--are ill-suited for handling these complications. Here, three leading authorities rethink organization theory. Logics of Organization Theory sets forth and applies a new...
Article
Full-text available
Simulation modeling provides a powerful methodology for advancing theory and research on complex behaviors and systems, yet it has been embraced more slowly in management than in some associated social science disciplines. We suspect that part of the reason is that simulation methods are not well understood. We therefore aim to promote understandin...
Article
Full-text available
Building theories of organizations is challenging: theories are partial and "folk" categories are fuzzy. The commonly used tools--first-order logic and its foundational set theory--are ill-suited for handling these complications. Here, three leading authorities rethink organization theory. Logics of Organization Theory sets forth and applies a new...
Book
Logics of Organization Theory: Audiences, Codes, and Ecologies By Michael T. Hannan, László Pólos, Glenn R. Carroll Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2007 Organizational Behavior, Management Building theories of organizations is challenging: theories are partial and “folk” categories are fuzzy. The commonly used tools— first-order logic and it...
Book
How do corporations and other organizations maintain and transmit their cultures over time? Culture and Demography in Organizations offers the most reliable and comprehensive answer to this complex question to date. The first book on the subject to ground its analysis in mathematical tools and computer simulation, it goes beyond standard approaches...
Article
Neo-institutionalists have criticized organizational ecology's density-dependent theory of legitimation for being a "black box" leaving the details of the legitimation process unspecified, and ignoring the pre-eminently political nature of the creation of new organizational forms. In the present paper, we show that Hannan, Polos and Carroll's (2007...
Article
We examine the classic question of how religious diversity in a community affects church membership in a period of high growth and social change. Culling the literature, we develop hypotheses about five possible mechanisms underlying a diversity-growth relation: (1) secularization; (2) organization environment isomorphism; (3) organizational compet...
Article
This paper describes a dynamic analysis of technological advances among hard disk drive (HDD) manufacturers in the areal density of their products across the history of the industry. The study provides (additional) evidence supporting a view of technological racing with leap-frogging rather than with persistent leadership domination in the HDD cont...
Book
Most analysts of corporations and industries adopt the focal perspective of a single prototypical organization. Many analysts also study corporations primarily in terms of their internal organizational structures or as complex systems of financial contracts. Glenn Carroll and Michael Hannan bring fresh insight to our understanding of corporations a...
Article
Full-text available
We demonstrate how organizational ecology can contribute to strategic management and managerial practice by using resource-partitioning theory to make predictions with respect to: (i) the short-run performance (i.e. growth and profitability) consequences of broad (generalist) vis-ý-vis focus (specialist) strategies; (ii) the detrimental performance...
Article
This article examines some evolutionary consequences of architectural inertia in organizations. The main theorem holds that selection favors architectural inertia in the sense that the median level of inertia in a closed population of organizations increases over time. The other key theorems hold that the selection intensity favoring architectural...
Article
Although the concept of niche has been extremely useful in sociological theory and research, some aspects of the concept have not been clearly developed. This article advances a theoretical reconstruction of the concept of niche, with special application to organizations. The proposed formal model unifies several active lines of sociological theory...
Article
Recent research on organizational ecology is reviewed. Three levels of analysis and approaches to evolution are distinguished: (a) the organizational level, which uses a developmental approach; (b) the population level. which uses a selection approach; and (c) the community level, which uses a macroevolutionary approach. Theoretical and empirical r...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational change can be usefully conceptualized in terms of both its process and its content. Process refers to how change occurs. Content describes what actually changes in the organization. Theories and analyses of organizational change seek to explain why organizations change as well as what the consequences are of change. Empirical evidenc...
Article
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This article develops a formal theory of the structural aspects of organizational change. It concentrates on changes in an organization's architecture, depicted as a code system. It models the common process whereby an initial architectural change prompts other changes in the organization, generating a cascade of changes that represents the full re...