Gjalt de Graaf

Gjalt de Graaf
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Department of Political Science and Public Administration

PhD

About

93
Publications
51,477
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2,857
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
1783 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Introduction
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - October 2015
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2005 - December 2010
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
January 2005 - present

Publications

Publications (93)
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter’s aim is to unearth values and value conflicts in the public realm. By elaborating two different and related research strategies that have successfully been adopted in different empirical studies, we describe how we can study these tricky things called values in their context. More specifically, the goal of this chapter is to uncover v...
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Auditors serve several masters. They have a clear obligation towards society, which expects them to be honest in checking the books of what are sometimes influential and wealthy institutions. At the same time, auditors are hired and paid by their clients, the companies they audit, who may have clear expectations in return. Sometimes the different o...
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Business schools are the “nurseries” of the corporate world. This article offers an empirical analysis of the business student ethos on the basis of research conducted at three Dutch universities. A theoretical framework in the tradition of virtue ethics and dubbed “moral ethology” is used to identify the values business schools convey to their stu...
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In policy research, the search for the correct balance between proximity and independence has never been easy. Policymakers need proximity to the research in order to ensure that it is relevant. Yet, there are also concerns about the rigour of research. To analyze this relationship in more detail, this paper focuses on the ‘extreme case’ of the WOD...
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Many professors will recognize the dilemma when having to choose between the values of professionalism and of collegiality. Everyone will endorse these two values as important in academic teaching, yet professors sometimes find them conflicting. The central research question of this manuscript is threefold: which value conflicts do academic teacher...
Chapter
In this chapter, Macaulay and de Graaf chart the history of the EGPA Permanent Study Group Quality and Integrity of Governance from its origins, as a European equivalent to the American Society for Public Administration’s ethics chapter, to its achievements in advancing European scholarship and the field of integrity and ethics itself. The authors...
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The use of social media produces new value conflicts in public governance. The police force is a public organization directly confronted with these changes. However, there is no systematic understanding of these conflicts in daily police practice or of the coping strategies used. This article presents an explorative understanding of the value confl...
Article
Depuis le début des années 1990, le discours sur la « bonne gouvernance » gagne en importance. La question de savoir ce que signifie et ce que suppose la « bonne gouvernance », et à partir de quel moment on peut parler de « bonne » gouvernance dans ce discours n’est cependant pas toujours évidente. Bon nombre de spécialistes de l’administration pub...
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How often integrity violations occur in Western governance, and the precise nature of these violations, is as yet not very clear. Data on this subject—drawn from experience in the Netherlands—are presented here. The main research question is: What is the scale of integrity violations within Dutch public governance and what is the nature of these vi...
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How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political scientists intuitively connect PVs to the actual public...
Article
Since the early 1990s, discourse on ‘good governance’ has become more prevalent. What ‘good governance’ means and entails, however, and when we can speak of ‘good’ governance in this discourse, is not always clear. Many scholars in public administration and other social sciences writing about good governance have used visual interpretations of good...
Article
Whistleblowing and whistleblowers have received a great deal of attention over the last decade. By now we know quite a bit about the whistleblower. Whistleblowing, and in particular internal reporting systems, has received less attention. When it comes to effective whistleblowing, we know least about those factors we can most easily influence. Here...
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In their critique of Spicer’s and Wagenaar’s account of value pluralism (VP), Talisse, Overeem, and Verhoef seem to suggest either that VP does not exist or that it is irrelevant for public administration (PA). My argument is that in public governance, there are many conflicting intrinsic values. This means we can speak of incommensurability, the k...
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The study of public values (PVs) is generating growing interest in public administration and public management, yet many challenges and unanswered questions remain. For the study of PVs to progress, we need to go beyond the traditional boundaries of public administration and management, to explore how and why scholars in different disciplines use t...
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Good governance involves managing conflicting values, leading to the main research question, which consists of three parts: Which public value profiles do public administrators have, which value conflicts do they experience, and which coping strategies are used? Here, previous literature on public value conflicts is discussed first and linked to th...
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Although public–private partnerships (PPPs) are often evaluated in terms of efficiency, their impact on public values is often neglected. In order to find out what we know about the public values–PPPs relation, this article reviews public administration literature and describes two opposite perspectives. The first perspective argues that public val...
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Good governance codes usually end with a list of public values no one could oppose. A recurrent issue is that not all of these values—however desirable they are—can be achieved at the same time. With its focus on performance and procedural values of governance, this article zooms in on the conflict between two different types of values, signifying...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the complicated question of what causes integrity violations.1 It has corruption as its center of attention, which may seem surprising given the previous argument for broadening the scope of “integrity violations” to reflect a broader “dark side” than simply corruption. We must limit ourselves to corruption, however, not onl...
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Over the past decade, public services have come under increasing pressure to perform like private-sector organisations. This study demonstrates that professionals have much leeway in coping with changes caused by IT developments, distributed knowledge and more demanding public which have all created new pressures on public services. The authors con...
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Public administrators nowadays find themselves in a differentiated polity, which affects them in many ways. Images of the new public administrator clash with the classic images of the 'old' one: the public administrator who neutrally and obediently carries out orders of elected politicians. Since Weber, many interesting studies have been done on th...
Chapter
When managerial decisions are examined, somehow the business context must be included in the analysis. In this chapter, causalities that transcend individuals are promoted as unit of analysis in empirical moral research, namely, discourse. Studying managerial decisions in their discursive context is an interesting way to study the moral side of the...
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This article explores the nature of integrity violations in Dutch casinos. In such organizations, risk may be minimized, but it cannot be eliminated. Casinos, therefore, have a clear interest in constantly seeking to improve their safety standards and cultures. This article empirically analyzes the nature of documented integrity violations in Dutch...
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This article presents the results of a study exploring travellers' preferences for middle-distance travel using Q-methodology. Respondents rank-ordered 42 opinion statements regarding travel choice and motivations for travel in general and for car and public transport as alternative travel modes. By-person factor analysis revealed four distinct pre...
Article
Images of the modern public administrator clash with yesteryear's neutral public servants obediently carrying out the orders of elected politicians. Partly influenced by the literature on New Public Management, people often argue that public administrators today should ensure quality services, give value for public funds, be responsive, operate str...
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The main objective of the article is to review relevant literature on (competing) public values in public management and to present a number of perspectives on how to deal with value conflicts in different administrative settings and contexts. We start this symposium with the assumption that value conflicts are prevalent, the public context can be...
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Introductie: Goed Bestuur als management van spanningen tussen publieke waarden Zeger van der Wal, Gjalt de Graaf en Cor van Montfort [Keywords] Good governance, public values, public management [Engelstalig abstract] In this introduction to the Symposium issue on Good Governance, we first introduce the central theme of the symposium. We notice tha...
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In this literature review we present and discuss the key concepts of this symposium issue: (good) governance, (public) values, and the management of tensions between public values. The article concludes with an overview of strategies on how to deal with public values as a prelude to the remainder of the symposium, and discusses the implications of...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the results of a study exploring travellers' preferences for middle-distance travel using Q-methodology. Respondents rank-ordered 42 opinion statements regarding travel choice and motivations for travel in general and for car and public transport as alternative travel modes. By-person factor analysis revealed four distinct pre...
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The articles of this symposium were all part of the First Global Dialogue on Ethical and Effective Governance, a conference organized by the VU University in Amsterdam in May 2009. In this introduction we focus on the subtitle of the conference: governing with integrity and governing effectively/efficiently — both are intrinsically valued. The impo...
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The archives of three bureaus of integrity are analyzed in order to study the reasons for reporting integrity and law violations within public organizations. Peer reporting accounts for only a small percentage of cases; most investigations originate from routine and continuous institutional controls. What are the reasons peers choose to report or n...
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Telefoon: 020 5986813 Samenvatting: In dit onderzoek wordt verslag gedaan van empirisch onderzoek (middels Q methodologie) naar de loyaliteiten van gemeentelijke topambtenaren. Vier verschillende loyaliteitsconcepties worden onderscheiden. Binnen elke conceptie wordt een andere afweging gemaakt tussen de verschillende objecten van loyaliteit.
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Q methodology is seldom used by academics and practitioners in the field of administrative ethics, but it has important potential for empirical studies. Q offers a procedure and conceptual framework with which to study subjectivity in the social context. It has the advantage of bringing marginalized viewpoints to the fore but also has some drawback...
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What is the nature of corruption in Western democracies? To answer this research question, the authors study 10 Dutch corruption cases in depth, looking at confidential criminal files. The cases allow them to sketch a general profile of a corruption case. The authors offer nine propositions to portray the nature of corruption. They conclude that co...
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In recent administrative and organizational literature much attention has been paid to values that guide organizational and managerial behaviour in the public and private domain. Comparative empirical research efforts, however, are sparse. This article reports the results of a comparative empirical survey of 382 managers from a variety of public an...
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Because informal health care is now recognized to be indispensable to health care systems, different forms of respite care have been developed and publicly funded that supposedly alleviate caregivers' perceived burdens and help prolong the care giving task. Nonetheless, the use of respite care services is low even among substantially strained careg...
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ABSTRACT This paper summarises the empirical results of a study on the scale, nature and outcome of corruption cases in The Netherlands. It turns out that the number of convictions for corruption offences in The Netherlands has remained very stable in recent decades. Research into the nature of corruption leads to the conclusion that civil servants...
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This paper summarises the empirical results of a study on the scale, nature and outcome of corruption cases in The Netherlands. It turns out that the number of convictions for corruption offences in The Netherlands has remained very stable in recent decades. Research into the nature of corruption leads to the conclusion that civil servants who are...
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This article examines experienced differences in values between employees in the public and private sector. To elucidate them, the authors interviewed 30 employees of the public sector previously employed in the private sector and 30 employees of the private sector previously employed in the public sector, all of them in the Netherlands. The major...
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To investigate informal caregivers' attitudes toward respite care. Interviews with informal caregivers during open-house support groups (three) for informal caregivers, conducted late 2004 at Informal Care Support Centres in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A Q-methodological study was conducted. Informal caregivers were asked to rank-order...
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Veterinarians serve two masters: animal patients and human clients. Both animal patients and human clients have legitimate interests, and conflicting moral claims may flow from these interests. Earlier research concludes that veterinary students are very much aware of the complex and often paradoxical relationship they have and will have with anima...
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The more we know about the causes of corruption, the better we can decide which policy instruments to use to combat corruption. The primary question of this article is: how can the causes of corruption in Western countries be studied? Here, an overview is presented of the causes of corruption mentioned in the literature using the kind of causality...
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Most Western societies seem to have embarked on a runaway weight-gain train, equipped with too many accelerators and not enough brakes. Adolescents have been identified as a public health risk group in this area. To uncover youths' attitudes about their health lifestyle, with a focus on overweightness, we conducted a discourse analysis using Q-meth...
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Due to the domain characteristics of business ethics, a contractarian theory for business ethics will need to be essentially different from the contract model as it is applied to other domains. Much of the current criticism of contractarian business ethics (CBE) can be traced back to autonomy, one of its three boundary conditions. After explaining...
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No abstract available.
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How do business and government managers perceive each other's value orientations? The debate on ethics in the public and private sectors has largely neglected this question. A survey of 231 top-level government officials and 151 business executives in the Netherlands found remarkable differences between the moral self-images of public and private s...
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Veterinarians have obligations towards both the animals they treat and their clients, the owners of the animals. With both groups, veterinarians have complicated relations; many times the interests of both groups conflict. In this article, using Q-methodology as a method for discourse analysis, the following question is answered: How do Dutch pract...
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Veterinary students were asked their views on their future professional responsibilities as veterinarians, with emphasis on the animal patient-human client-veterinarian relationship. How do veterinary students view their relationship with animal patients and their owners? The article provides discourse descriptions, based on Q-methodology, of first...
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Veterinarians have obligations towards both the animals they treat and their clients, the owners of the animals. Veterinarians have complicated, and often conflicting, relationships with both groups. In this article, Q-methodology was used as a method for discourse analysis to determine how Dutch large animal practitioners conceptualize animals and...
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Large animal practitioners' perspective their professional relationships and responsibilities Veterinarians have obligations towards both the animals they treat and their clients, the owners of the animals. Veterinarians have complicated, and often conflicting, relationships with both groups. In this article, Q-methodology was used as a method for...
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This article discusses five propositions about managerial moral tractability -- that is, a morality that is amenable to the complexity of managers’ continual pressure to decide and act -- in their customer relations. The propositions come from the comparison of three case studies of different types of managers. To analyze the morality of managers,...
Book
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Ethical problems continually confront managers in the workplace, but how do they know what the “right” thing to do is? A manager’s world is more complicated than choosing between “doing well” and “doing good.” It is difficult enough to identify the ethical dimensions of their decisions in the first place, let alone consider the consequences of the...
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Within discourse theory, language is seen as constitutive of reality. Furthermore, facts and values are viewed as inseparable. This has consequences for business ethics. In this paper the relationship between discourse theory and business ethics is discussed. Both the descriptive and prescriptive aspects of business ethics are taken into account. F...

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