Giusi Micela

Giusi Micela
National Institute of Astrophysics | INAF · Astronomical Observatory of Palermo

PhD

About

864
Publications
58,241
Reads
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16,982
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 1991 - present
INAF-Istituto Nazionale di Astronomia
Education
October 1988 - October 1991
Università degli Studi di Palermo
Field of study
  • Physics/Astrophysics

Publications

Publications (864)
Article
Full-text available
Detections of molecules in the atmosphere of gas giant exoplanets allow us to investigate the physico-chemical properties of the atmospheres. Their inferred chemical composition is used as tracer of planet formation and evolution mechanisms. Currently, an increasing number of detections is showing a possible rich chemistry of the hotter gaseous pla...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abridged. We observed the 40 Myr old star DS Tuc A with XMM-Newton and recorded two X-ray bright flares, with the second event occurring about 12 ks after the first one. Their duration from the rise to the end of the decay was of about 8-10 ks in soft X-rays (0.3-10 keV). The flares were also recorded in the band 200-300 nm with the UVM2 filter of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is an ambitious project designed to obtain astrophysical parameters and elemental abundances for 100,000 stars, including large representative samples of the stellar populations in the Galaxy, and a well-defined sample of 60 (plus 20 archive) open clusters. We provide internally consistent results calibrated...
Article
Context. The field of exo-atmospheric characterisation is progressing at an extraordinary pace. Atmospheric observations are now available for tens of exoplanets, mainly hot and warm inflated gas giants, and new molecular species continue to be detected, revealing a richer atmospheric composition than previously expected. Thanks to its warm equilib...
Preprint
Detections of molecules in the atmosphere of gas giant exoplanets allow us to investigate the physico-chemical properties of the atmospheres. Their inferred chemical composition is used as tracer of planet formation and evolution mechanisms. Currently, an increasing number of detections is showing a possible rich chemistry of the hotter gaseous pla...
Preprint
Full-text available
The field of exo-atmospheric characterisation is progressing at an extraordinary pace. Atmospheric observations are now available for tens of exoplanets, mainly hot and warm inflated gas giants, and new molecular species continue to be detected revealing a richer atmospheric composition than previously expected. Thanks to its warm equilibrium tempe...
Article
Context. With an unprecedented astrometric and photometric data precision, Gaia EDR3 provides, for the first time, the opportunity to systematically detect and map, in the optical bands, the low-mass populations of the star forming regions (SFRs) in the Milky Way. Aims. We aim to provide a catalogue of the Gαiα EDR3 data (photometry, proper motions...
Preprint
Atmospheric studies at high spectral resolution have shown the presence of molecules, neutral and ionised metals, and hydrogen in the transmission spectrum of ultra-hot Jupiters, and have started to probe the dynamics of their atmospheres. We analyse the transmission spectrum of MASCARA-1b, one of the densest ultra-hot Jupiters orbiting a bright (V...
Preprint
Great strides have been made in recent years in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation and evolution of planetary systems; despite this, many observational facts still do not have an explanation. A great contribution to the study of planetary formation processes comes from the study of young, low-mass planets, with short orbi...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the last 15 years different ground-based spectroscopic surveys have been started (and completed) with the general aim of delivering stellar parameters and elemental abundances for large samples of Galactic stars, complementing Gaia astrometry. Among those surveys, the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey (GES), the only one performed on a 8m cla...
Preprint
With an unprecedented astrometric and photometric data precision, Gaia EDR3 gives us, for the first time, the opportunity to systematically detect and map in the optical bands, the low mass populations of the star forming regions (SFRs) in the Milky Way. We provide a catalogue of the Gaia EDR3 data (photometry, proper motions and parallaxes) of the...
Preprint
Exoplanetary properties depend on stellar properties: to know the planet with accuracy and precision it is necessary to know the star as accurately and precisely as possible. Our immediate aim is to characterize in a homogeneous and accurate way a sample of 27 transiting planet-hosting stars observed within the GAPS program. We determined stellar p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: We aim to refine the orbital and physical parameters and determine the sky-projected planet orbital obliquity of five eccentric transiting planetary systems: HAT-P-15, HAT-P-17, HAT-P-21, HAT-P-26, and HAT-P-29. Each of the systems hosts a hot Jupiter, except for HAT-P-26 that hosts a Neptune-mass planet. Methods: We observed transit events of...
Preprint
Active region evolution plays an important role in the generation and variability of magnetic fields on the surface of lower main-sequence stars. However, determining the lifetime of active region growth and decay as well as their evolution is a complex task. We aim to test whether the lifetime for active region evolution shows any dependency on th...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report the discovery and characterization of the transiting extrasolar planet TOI-1710$\:$b. It was first identified as a promising candidate by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Its planetary nature was then established with SOPHIE and HARPS-N spectroscopic observations via the RV method. The stellar parameters for the host star...
Article
Aims. We present the complete Bayesian statistical analysis of the HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES), which monitored the radial velocities of a large sample of M dwarfs with HARPS-N at TNG over the last 6 yr. Methods. The targets were selected in a narrow range of spectral types from M0 to M3, 0.3 M ⊙ < M ★ < 0.71 M ⊙ , in order to study...
Article
The characterization of exoplanets, their formation, evolution, and chemical changes is tightly linked to our knowledge of their host stars. In particular, stellar X-rays and UV emission have a strong impact on the dynamical and chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres. We analyzed 25 XMM-Newton observations encompassing about eight years and to...
Preprint
The detection of lines in emission in planetary atmospheres provides direct evidence of temperature inversion. We confirm the trend of ultra-hot Jupiters orbiting A-type stars showing temperature inversions on their daysides, by detecting metals emission lines in the dayside of KELT-20b. We first detect the planetary emission by using the G2 stella...
Article
Full-text available
The Ariel mission will characterise the chemical and thermal properties of the atmospheres of about a thousand exoplanets transiting their host star(s). The observation of such a large sample of planets will allow to deepen our understanding of planetary and atmospheric formation at the early stages, providing a truly representative picture of the...
Article
Full-text available
The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanets Large-survey (ARIEL) is the fourth medium (M4) mission selected in the context of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 programme, with a launch planned in 2028. During 4 years of flight operations, ARIEL will probe the chemical and physical properties of approximately 1000 known exoplanets by observing...
Article
Context. Impulsive short-term variations occur in all kinds of solar-type stars and are the result of complex phenomena such as stellar magnetic field reconnection, low-level variability, or in some cases even star-planet interactions. The radiation arising from these events is often highly energetic and, in stars hosting planets, may interact with...
Preprint
We present the complete Bayesian statistical analysis of the HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES), which monitored the radial velocities of a large sample of M dwarfs with HARPS-N at TNG, over the last 6 years. The targets were selected in a narrow range of spectral types from M0 to M3, $0.3$ M$_\odot < M_\star < 0.71$ M$_\odot$, in order to...
Article
Full-text available
CONTEXT: In the last 15 years different ground-based spectroscopic surveys have been started (and completed) with the general aim of delivering stellar parameters and elemental abundances for large samples of Galactic stars, complementing Gaia astrometry. Among those surveys, the GaiaESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, the only one performed on a 8m c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun. This small, low-mass, mid M dwarf is known to host an Earth-mass exoplanet with an orbital period of 11.2 days within the habitable zone, as well as a long-period planet candidate with an orbital period of close to 5 years. We report on the analysis of a large set of observations taken with the ESPRE...
Article
Full-text available
Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years. These theoretical expectations remain untested so far as the detection and characterization of very young planets is extremely challenging...
Article
Transiting planets at young ages are key targets for improving our understanding of the evolution of exo-atmospheres. We present results of a new X-ray observation of V 1298 Tau with XMM-Newton, aimed to determine more accurately the high-energy irradiation of the four planets orbiting this pre-main-sequence star, and the possible variability due t...
Article
We present a precise characterization of the TOI-561 planetary system obtained by combining previously published data with TESS and CHEOPS photometry, and a new set of 62 HARPS-N radial velocities (RVs). Our joint analysis confirms the presence of four transiting planets, namely TOI-561 b (P = 0.45 d, R = 1.42 R⊕, M = 2.0 M⊕), c (P = 10.78 d, R = 2...
Preprint
Full-text available
The characterization of exoplanets, their formation, evolution and chemical changes is tightly linked to the knowledge of their host stars. In particular stellar X-rays and UV emission have strong impact on the dynamical and chemical evolution of planetary atmospheres. We analyzed 25 XMM-Newton observations encompassing about eight years and totali...
Article
Aims. In this paper we introduce CaRM , a semi-automatic code for the retrieval of broadband transmission spectra of transiting planets through the chromatic Rossiter-McLaughlin method. We applied it to HARPS and ESPRESSO observations of two exoplanets to retrieve the transmission spectrum and we analyze its fitting transmission models. Methods. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a precise characterization of the TOI-561 planetary system obtained by combining previously published data with TESS and CHEOPS photometry, and a new set of $62$ HARPS-N radial velocities (RVs). Our joint analysis confirms the presence of four transiting planets, namely TOI-561 b ($P = 0.45$ d, $R = 1.42$ R$_\oplus$, $M = 2.0$ M$_\oplus$...
Preprint
In this paper we introduce CaRM, a semi-automatic code for the retrieval of broadband transmission spectra of transiting planets through the chromatic Rossiter-McLaughlin method. We applied it to HARPS and ESPRESSO observations of two exoplanets to retrieve the transmission spectrum and we analyze its fitting transmission models. We used the strong...
Article
Aims. We aim to investigate the origin of the discrepant results reported in the literature about the presence of Na I in the atmosphere of HD 209458 b, based on low- and high-resolution transmission spectroscopy. Methods. We generated synthetic planetary atmosphere models and we compared them with the transmission light curves and spectra observed...
Article
Full-text available
The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is an ambitious project designed to obtain astrophysical parameters and elemental abundances for 100,000 stars, including large representative samples of the stellar populations in the Galaxy, and a well-defined sample of 60 (plus 20 archive) open clusters. We provide internally consistent results calibrated...
Article
Atmospheric studies at high spectral resolution have shown the presence of molecules, neutral and ionised metals, and hydrogen in the transmission spectrum of ultra-hot Jupiters, and have started to probe the dynamics of their atmospheres. We analyse the transmission spectrum of MASCARA-1b, one of the densest ultra-hot Jupiters orbiting a bright (V...
Preprint
The hot Jupiter WASP-80b has been identified as a possible excellent target for detecting and measuring HeI absorption in the upper atmosphere. We observed 4 primary transits of WASP-80b in the optical and near-IR using the HARPS-N and GIANO-B high-resolution spectrographs, focusing on the HeI triplet. We further employed a three-dimensional hydrod...
Preprint
Transiting planets at young ages are key targets for improving our understanding of the evolution of exo-atmospheres. We present results of a new X-ray observation of V1298 Tau with XMM-Newton, aimed to determine more accurately the high-energy irradiation of the four planets orbiting this pre-main-sequence star, and the possible variability due to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Current theories of planetary evolution predict that infant giant planets have large radii and very low densities before they slowly contract to reach their final size after about several hundred million years. These theoretical expectations remain untested to date, despite the increasing number of exoplanetary discoveries, as the detection and cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Comparisons of the alignment of exoplanets with a common host star can be used to distinguish among concurrent evolution scenarios. However, multi-planet systems usually host mini-Neptunes and super-Earths, whose size make orbital architecture measurements challenging. We introduce the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect Revolutions technique, which can acc...
Article
Full-text available
In this White Paper, which was submitted in response to the European Space Agency (ESA) Voyage 2050 Call, we recommend the ESA plays a proactive role in developing a global collaborative effort to construct a large high-contrast imaging space telescope, e.g. as currently under study by NASA. Such a mission will be needed to characterize a sizable s...
Preprint
Multiband photometric transit observations or low-resolution spectroscopy (spectro-photometry) are normally used to retrieve the broadband transmission spectra of transiting exoplanets in order to assess the chemical composition of their atmospheres. In this paper, we present an alternative approach for recovering the broadband transmission spectra...
Article
Context. The ESPRESSO spectrograph is a new powerful tool developed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets. Its design allows an unprecedented radial velocity precision (down to a few tens of cm s ⁻¹ ) and long-term thermomechanical stability. Aims. We present the first stand-alone detection of an extrasolar planet by blind radial velocity s...
Article
This paper is part of an effort to correct the transmission spectra of a transiting planet orbiting an active star. In Paper I (Cracchiolo et al. 2020) we have demonstrated a methodology to minimize the potential bias induced by unocculted star spots on the transmission spectrum, assuming a spot model parameterized by filling factor and temperature...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ESPRESSO spectrograph is a new powerful tool to detect and characterize extrasolar planets. Its design allows unprecedented radial velocity precision (down to a few tens of cm/s) and long-term thermo-mechanical stability. We present the first standalone detection of an extrasolar planet by blind radial velocity search using ESPRESSO and aim at...
Article
In recent years, the advent of a new generation of radial velocity instruments has allowed us to detect planets with increasingly lower mass and to break the one Earth-mass barrier. Here we report a new milestone in this context by announcing the detection of the lowest-mass planet measured so far using radial velocities: L 98-59 b, a rocky planet...
Preprint
This paper is part of an effort to correct the transmission spectra of a transiting planet orbiting an active star. In Paper I (Cracchiolo et al. 2020) we have demonstrated a methodology to minimize the potential bias induced by unocculted star spots on the transmission spectrum, assuming a spot model parameterized by filling factor and temperature...
Preprint
Full-text available
The advent of a new generation of radial velocity instruments has allowed us to break the one Earth-mass barrier. We report a new milestone in this context with the detection of the lowest-mass planet measured so far using radial velocities: L 98-59 b, a rocky planet with half the mass of Venus. It is part of a system composed of three known transi...
Article
To date, only 18 exoplanets with radial velocity (RV) semi-amplitude <2 m s−1 have had their masses directly constrained. The biggest obstacle to RV detection of such exoplanets is variability intrinsic to stars themselves, e.g. nuisance signals arising from surface magnetic activity such as rotating spots and plages, which can drown out or even mi...
Preprint
To date, only 18 exoplanets with radial velocity (RV) semi-amplitudes $<2$ m/s have had their masses directly constrained. The biggest obstacle to RV detection of such exoplanets is variability intrinsic to stars themselves, e.g. nuisance signals arising from surface magnetic activity such as rotating spots and plages, which can drown out or even m...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Ariel mission will characterise the chemical and thermal properties of the atmospheres of about a thousand exoplanets transiting their host star(s). The observation of such a large sample of planets will allow to deepen our understanding of planetary and atmospheric formation at the early stages, providing a truly representative picture of the...
Article
Radial velocity (RV) searches for Earth-mass exoplanets in the habitable zone around Sun-like stars are limited by the effects of stellar variability on the host star. In particular, suppression of convective blueshift and brightness inhomogeneities due to photospheric faculae/plage and starspots are the dominant contribution to the variability of...
Preprint
[abridged] We analyse four transits of WASP-33b observed with the optical high-resolution HARPS-N spectrograph to confirm its nodal precession, study its atmosphere and investigate the presence of star-planet interactions.We extract the mean line profiles of the spectra by using the LSD method, and analyse the Doppler shadow and the RVs. We also de...
Preprint
Context. It is now well-established that small, rocky planets are common around low-mass stars. However, the detection of such planets is challenged by the short-term activity of the host stars. Aims. The HArps-N red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES) program is a long-term project at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo aimed at the monitoring of nearby,...
Article
Full-text available
Stellar magnetic activity produces time-varying distortions in the photospheric line profiles of solar-type stars. These lead to systematic errors in high-precision radial-velocity measurements, which limit efforts to discover and measure the masses of low-mass exoplanets with orbital periods of more than a few tens of days. We present a new data-d...
Article
Context. The dispersal of protoplanetary disks sets the timescale that is available for planets to assemble, and thus it is one of the fundamental parameters in theories of planetary formation. Disk dispersal is determined by several properties of the central star, the disk itself, and the surrounding environment. In particular, the metallicity of...
Article
Context. Observations of young close-in exoplanets are providing initial indications for the characteristics of the population and clues to the early stages of their evolution. Transiting planets at young ages are also key benchmarks for our understanding of planetary evolution via the verification of atmospheric escape models. Aims. We performed r...
Preprint
The dispersal of protoplanetary disks sets the timescale available for planets to assemble, and thus it is one of the fundamental parameters in theories of planetary formation. Disk dispersal is determined by several properties of the central star, the disk itself, and the surrounding environment. In particular, the metallicity of disks may impact...
Article
Context. The high number of super-Earth and Earth-like planets in the habitable zone detected around M-dwarf stars in recent years has revealed these stellar objects to be the key to planetary radial velocity (RV) searches. Aims. Using the HARPS-N spectrograph within The HArps-n red Dwarf Exoplanet Survey (HADES) we have reached the precision neede...
Article
Context. Transiting sub-Neptune-type planets, with radii approximately between 2 and 4 R⊕, are of particular interest as their study allows us to gain insight into the formation and evolution of a class of planets that are not found in our Solar System. Aims. We exploit the extreme radial velocity (RV) precision of the ultra-stable echelle spectrog...
Article
The ground segment for the ESA M4 Ariel exoplanet space mission is introduced. The ground segment encompasses the framework necessary to support the development of the Ariel mission to launch, in-flight operations and calibration, data processing pipeline and data handling, including user support. The structure of the ground segment and assumed res...
Article
Context. Transiting ultra-hot Jupiters are ideal candidates for studying the exoplanet atmospheres and their dynamics, particularly by means of high-resolution spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios. One such object is KELT-20b. It orbits the fast-rotating A2-type star KELT-20. Many atomic species have been found in its atmosphere, with blueshift...
Preprint
We performed a radial velocity (RV) monitoring of the 40 Myr old star DS Tuc A with HARPS at the ESO-3.6m to determine the planetary mass of its 8.14-days planet, first revealed by TESS. We also observed two planetary transits with HARPS and ESPRESSO at ESO-VLT, to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect and characterise the planetary atmospher...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies of close-in planets orbiting M dwarfs have suggested that the M dwarf radius valley may be well-explained by distinct formation timescales between enveloped terrestrials, and rocky planets that form at late times in a gas-depleted environment. This scenario is at odds with the picture that close-in rocky planets form with a primordial gaseo...