Giuseppe Primiero

Giuseppe Primiero
University of Milan | UNIMI · Department of Philosophy

MA, PhD

About

128
Publications
16,745
Reads
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610
Citations
Introduction
Logician, Philosopher of Computation and Information, my research focuses on formal models of dynamic rationality for intelligent mechanical and natural information systems. Specialties Logic, Philosophy of Logic, Philosophy of Mathematics, Reasoning Representation, Belief Dynamics, Intelligent Interaction, Type Theories, Constructivism, Philosophy of Information, Computing & Philosophy
Additional affiliations
September 2020 - December 2020
September 2018 - present
University of Milan
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Associate Professor of Logic
August 2014 - August 2018
Middlesex University, UK
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 2003 - July 2004
Leiden University
Field of study
  • Philosophy
September 2002 - January 2006
Università degli Studi di Palermo
Field of study
  • Philosophy
September 1997 - December 2001
Università degli Studi di Palermo
Field of study
  • Philosophy

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows how safety and liveness properties are not necessarily preserved by different kinds of copies of computational artefacts and proposes procedures to preserve them, which are consistent with ethical analyses on software property rights infringement. Safety and liveness are second-order properties that are crucial in the definition of...
Article
Review scores collect users’ opinions in a simple and intuitive manner. However, review scores are also easily manipulable, hence they are often accompanied by explanations. A substantial amount of research has been devoted to ascertaining the quality of reviews, to identify the most useful and authentic scores through explanation analysis. In this...
Preprint
In this paper we present the probabilistic typed natural deduction calculus TPTND, designed to reason about and derive trustworthiness properties of probabilistic computational processes, like those underlying current AI applications. Derivability in TPTND is interpreted as the process of extracting $n$ samples of outputs with a certain frequency f...
Article
Information transmission in social networks is riddled with issues of reliability and trustworthiness. One of the main sources of disinformation can be traced back to agents—human or artificial—whose political or cultural agenda is guided by conspiracy theories. Modelling and understanding the behaviour of such agents within social networks is ther...
Article
Full-text available
The process of completing, correcting and prioritising specifications is an essential but very complex task for the maintenance and improvement of software systems. The preservation of functionalities and the ability to accommodate changes are main objectives of the software development cycle to guarantee system reliability. Logical theories able t...
Chapter
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Current research in Explainable AI includes post-hoc explanation methods that focus on building transparent explaining agents able to emulate opaque ones. Such agents are naturally required to be accurate and trustworthy. However, what it means for an explaining agent to be accurate and trustworthy is far from being clear. We characterize accuracy...
Conference Paper
Depth-Bounded Boolean Logics (DBBL for short) are well-understood frameworks to model rational agents equipped with limited deductive capabilities. These Logics use a parameter k>=0 to limit the amount of virtual information, i.e., the information that the agent may temporarily assume throughout the deductive process. This restriction brings severa...
Chapter
Stochastic multi-agent systems raise the necessity to extend probabilistic model checking to the epistemic domain. Results in this direction have been achieved by epistemic extensions of Probabilistic Computation Tree Logic and related Probabilistic Interpreted Systems. The latter, however, suffer of an important limitation: they require the probab...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years probabilistic model checking has be- come an important area of research because of the dif- fusion of computational systems of stochastic nature. Despite its great success, standard probabilistic model checking suffers the limitation of requiring a sharp specification of the probabilities governing the model behaviour. The theory of...
Chapter
Review scores collect users’ opinions in a simple and intuitive manner. However, review scores are also easily manipulable, hence they are often accompanied by explanations. A substantial amount of research has been devoted to ascertaining the quality of reviews, to identify the most useful and authentic scores through explanation analysis. In this...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recent developments in the formalization of reasoning, especially in computational settings, have aimed at defining cognitive and resource bounds to express limited inferential abilities. This feature is emphasized by Depth Bounded Boolean Logics, an informational logic that models epistemic agents with inferential abilities bounded by the amount o...
Article
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The role of misinformation diffusion during a pandemic is crucial. An aspect that requires particular attention in the analysis of misinfodemics is the rationale of the source of false information, in particular how the behavior of agents spreading misinformation through traditional communication outlets and social networks can influence the diffus...
Article
Full-text available
In Information Systems development, resilience has often been treated as a non-functional requirement and little or no work is aimed at building resilience in end-users through systems development. The question of how values and resilience (for the end-user) can be incorporated into the design of systems is an on-going research activity in user-cen...
Article
We present a logic to model the behaviour of an agent trusting or not trusting messages sent by another agent. The logic formalizes trust as a consistency checking function with respect to currently available information. Negative trust is modeled in two forms: distrust as the rejection of incoming inconsistent information; mistrust, as revision of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper contributes to the computer ethics debate on software ownership protectionby examining the ontological, methodological, and ethical problems related to propertyright infringement that should come prior to any legal discussion. The ontologicalproblem consists in determining precisely what it is for a computer program to be acopy of anothe...
Article
Full-text available
We present a review of Raymond Turner’s Book Computational Artifacts – Towards a Philosophy of Computer Science (2018), focusing on three main topics: Design, Malfunction, and Validity.
Book
Computing, today more than ever before, is a multi-faceted discipline which collates several methodologies, areas of interest, and approaches: mathematics, engineering, programming, and applications. Given its enormous impact on everyday life, it is essential that its debated origins are understood, and that its different foundations are explained....
Article
Logics of design have been formulated until recently to offer systematic treatments of the way systems express the relation between resources, processes and their outputs. We present a logic of systems design which explicitly formalizes this relation as a decidable checking problem on resource access and define computable efficiency and optimality...
Chapter
Full-text available
The problem of determining what information to trust is crucial in many contexts that admit uncertainty and polarization. In this paper, we propose a method to systematically reason on the trustworthiness of sources. While not aiming at establishing their veracity, the method allows creating a relative reference system to determine the trustworthin...
Article
Full-text available
Malware has been around since the 1980s and is a large and expensive security concern today, constantly growing over the past years. As our social, professional and financial lives become more digitalised, they present larger and more profitable targets for malware. The problem of classifying and preventing malware is therefore urgent, and it is co...
Article
Full-text available
The epistemology of computer simulations has become a mainstream topic in the philosophy of technology. Within this large area, significant differences hold between the various types of models and simulation technologies. Agent-based and multi-agent systems simulations introduce a specific constraint on the types of agents and systems modelled. We...
Book
This book presents a systematic philosophical and historical analysis of operating systems (0S). The discussion starts with the evolution of OSs since before their birth. It continues with a comprehensive philosophical analysis grounded in technical aspects. Coverage looks at software and (where appropriate) hardware as well as their historical dev...
Article
Full-text available
Software management systems need to preserve integrity by the handling, approval, tracking and execution of changes on the packages of the current installation profile. This is a problematic task, which needs to be accounted for both in terms of installation of new packages and removal of conflicting ones. While existing approaches are able to iden...
Article
Defining identity for entities is a long-standing logical problem in philosophy, and it has resurfaced in current investigations within the philosophy of technology. The problem has not yet been explored for the philosophy of information and of computer science in particular. This paper provides a logical analysis of identity and copy for computati...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We consider the problem of reaching a common decision in an unsupervised community of agents relying only on local rules. In particular, we investigate a best-of-2 problem requiring the agents to decide whether a property φ holds or not for their world. We present a model based on a semantics for public announcements in a multi-agent system, which...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces the Middlesex RoboTic platfOrm (MIRTO), an open-source platform that has been used for teaching First Year Computer Science students since the academic year 2013/2014, with the aim of providing a physical manifestation of Software Engineering concepts that are often delivered using only abstract or synthetic case studies. In t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Defining identity for entities is a longstanding logical problem in philosophy, and it has resurfaced in current investigations within the philosophy of technology. The problem has not yet been explored for the philosophy of information, and of Computer Science in particular. This paper provides a logical analysis of identity and copy for computati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
—In the past ten years distributed ledgers such as Bitcoin and smart contracts that can run code autonomously have seen an exponential growth both in terms of research interest and in terms of industrial and financial applications. These find a natural application in the area of Sensor Networks and Cyber-Physical Systems. However, the incentive arc...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present a multi-conclusion natural deduction calculus characterizing the dynamic reasoning typical of Adaptive Logics. The resulting system AdaptiveND is sound and complete with respect to the propositional fragment of adaptive logics based on CLuN. This appears to be the first tree-format presentation of the standard linear dynamic proof system...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a multi-conclusion natural deduction calculus characterizing the dynamic reasoning typical of Adaptive Logics. The resulting system AdaptiveND is sound and complete with respect to the proposi-tional fragment of adaptive logics based on CLuN. This appears to be the first tree-format presentation of the standard linear dynamic proof syste...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the topics investigated in this book and it frames them in a broader historical and philosophical analysis of programming and computing technology.
Chapter
Efficient and reliable computing is based on validity and correctness. Techniques to ensure these essential features have been in place since the early days of computing. The present study focuses on the hardware testing, data validation and program correctness techniques designed and implemented for LEO I and II machines in the UK during the 1950s...
Article
Full-text available
Machine awareness is a disputed research topic, in some circles considered a crucial step in realising Artificial General Intelligence. Understanding what that is, under which conditions such feature could arise and how it can be controlled is still a matter of speculation. A more concrete object of theoretical analysis is algorithmic iteration for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A problematic aspect of software management systems in view of integrity preservation is the handling, approval, tracking and eventual execution of change requests. In the context of the relation between clients and repositories, trust can help identifying all packages required by the intended installation. Negative trust, in turn, can be used to a...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse the problem of contradictory information distribution in networks of agents with positive and negative trust. The networks of interest are built by ranked agents with different epistemic attitudes. In this context, positive trust is a property of the communication between agents required when message passing is executed bottom-up in the...
Article
Full-text available
We present our approach to teaching functional programming to First Year Computer Science students at Middlesex University through projects in robotics. A holistic approach is taken to the curriculum, emphasising the connections between different subject areas. A key part of the students' learning is through practical projects that draw upon and in...
Conference Paper
We offer a proof system and a NetLogo simulation for trust and distrust in networks where contradictory information is shared by ranked lazy and sceptic agents. Trust and its negative are defined as properties of edges: the former is required when a message is passed bottom-up in the hierarchy or received by a sceptic agent; the latter is attribute...
Conference Paper
Robotic coordination is a crucial issue in the development of many applications in swarm robotics, ranging from mapping unknown and potentially dangerous areas to the synthesis of plans to achieve complex tasks such as moving goods between locations under resource constraints. In this context, stigmergy is a widely employed approach to robotic coor...
Conference Paper
Properties of trust are becoming widely studied in several applications within the computational domain. On the contrary, negative trust attribution is less well-defined and related issues are yet to be approached and resolved. We present a natural deduction calculus for trust protocols and its negative forms, distrust and mistrust. The calculus de...
Conference Paper
Properties of trust are becoming widely studied in several applications within the computational domain. On the contrary, negative trust attribution is less well-defined and related issues are yet to be approached and resolved. We present a natural deduction calculus for trust protocols and its negative forms, distrust and mistrust. The calculus de...
Chapter
Full-text available
During the last decade, the philosophy of computer science has carved an important space within the landscape of philosophical investigations. The range of questions and problems it addresses is wide and varied: the methodology of design, the ontology and semantics of computational artefacts, abstraction and implementation, to name a few. This chap...
Article
We offer a formal treatment of the semantics of both complete and incomplete mistrustful or distrustful information transmissions. The semantics of such relations is analysed in view of rules that define the behaviour of a receiving agent. We justify this approach in view of human agent communications and secure system design. We further specify so...
Article
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This paper introduces how logic is connected to computer science and gives an overview of some of the main sources. It is intended as an introduction a to a journal special issue on the history and philosophy of logic in computer science.
Conference Paper
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We consider security threats in software installation processes, posed by transitively trusted dependencies between packages from distinct repositories. To analyse them, we present SecureNDC, a Coq implemented calculus using an explicit trust function to bridge repository access and software package installation rights. Thereby, we resolve a versio...
Article
Full-text available
Modelling, reasoning and verifying complex situations involving a system of agents is crucial in all phases of the development of a number of safety-critical systems. In particular, it is of fundamental importance to have tools and techniques to reason about the doxastic and epistemic states of agents, to make sure that the agents behave as intende...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce a method for the assessment of trust for n-open systems based on a measurement of fidelity and present a prototypic implementation of a complaint architecture. We construct a MAPE loop which monitors the compliance between corresponding figures of interest in cyber- and physical domains; derive measures of the system's trustworthiness;...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software evolution and its laws are essential for antifragile system design and development. In this paper we model early-stage perfective and corrective changes to software system architecture in terms of logical operations of expansion and safe contraction on a theory. As a result, we formulate an inference-based notion of property specification...
Chapter
Full-text available
Standard views on logical consequence stem historically from the propositions as truth-bearers tradition on the one hand, and from the assertoric standpoint on truth for propositions by proof-objects, on the other. A further step in the evolution of the notion of logical validity is represented by the formulation of correctness on computational pro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of Cyber-Physical Systems needs to address the heterogeneity of several components that interact to build a single application. In this paper we present a model to enable easy integration and interaction of micro-controllers. Specifically, we describe the Arduino Service Interface Protocol (ASIP), we provide an implementation and cl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
MIRTO is a new, inexpensive, open-source robot. The specification, the necessary libraries, and sample code are freely available. It has been used to teach undergraduate students program-ming and as an extensible base platform for students engineering robots. While it is typically programmed in traditional programming languages, it has also been dr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The widespread availability of information in the digital age places a significant demand on the privacy needs of individu-als. However, privacy considerations in requirements man-agement are often treated as non-functional concerns and in particular, early feedback of privacy concerns is not easily embedded into current requirements practice. Luci...
Book
The relation between logic and knowledge has been at the heart of a lively debate since the 1960s. On the one hand, the epistemic approaches based their formal arguments in the mathematics of Brouwer and intuitionistic logic. Following Michael Dummett, they started to call themselves 'antirealists'. Others persisted with the formal background of th...
Article
Full-text available
Artefacts do not always do what they are supposed to do, due to a variety of reasons, including manufacturing problems, poor maintenance, and normal wear-and-tear. Since software is an artefact, it should be subject to malfunctioning in the same sense in which other artefacts can malfunction. Yet, whether software is on a par with other artefacts w...
Data
Full-text available
In this paper, we approach the problem of modelingthe human component in technical systems with a view on thedifference between the use of model and theory in sociology andcomputer science. One aim of this essay is to show that buildingof theories and models for sociology can be compared to andimplemented in Higher Order Logic. We validate this wor...
Article
Full-text available
Software-intensive science (SIS) challenges in many ways our current scientific methods. This affects significantly our notion of science and scientific interpretation of the world, driving at the same time the philosophical debate. We consider some issues prompted by SIS in the light of the philosophical categories of ontology and epistemology.
Article
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We provide a full characterization of computational error states for information systems. The class of errors considered is general enough to include human rational processes, logical reasoning, scientific progress and data processing in some functional programming languages. The aim is to reach a full taxonomy of error states by analysing the reco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we approach the problem of modeling the human component in technical systems with a view on the difference between the use of model and theory in sociology and computer science. One aim of this essay is to show that building of theories and models for sociology can be compared to and implemented in Higher Order Logic. We validate thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
System integrity can be put at risk by unintentional transitivity of resource access. We present a natural deduction calculus for an access control model with an explicit trust function on resources. Its inference relation is designed to limit unintentionally transitive access from untrusted parties. We also offer results for ordered cut and normal...
Chapter
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An important aspect of defining IQ standards is that sound in- formation conforming to a specification should be error-free . We propose to assess information quality dimensions and check their standards by way of an algorithmic procedure. We design an effective procedural way to determine if and where IQ standards fail and to establish algorithmic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resilience is becoming an important and alternative response to provision of services in the state sector and has been the subject of much examination in the social sciences and psychology literature. In Information Systems development, resilience has often been treated as non-functional requirement and little or no work is aimed at building resili...
Article
Full-text available
We present the methodological principles underlying the scientific activities of the DHST Commission on the History and Philosophy of Computing. This volume collects refereed selected papers from the First International Conference organized by the Commission.
Conference Paper
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A novel approach to teaching Computer Science has been developed for the academic year 2013/14 at Middlesex University, UK. The whole first year is taught in an holistic fashion, with programming at the core, using a number of practical projects to support learning and inspire the students. The Lisp derivative, Racket, has been chosen as the main p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present a unified framework to model and verify degrees of belief in a system of agents. In particu-lar, we describe an extension of the temporal-epistemic logic CTLK and we introduce a semantics based on interpreted systems for this extension. In this way, degrees of beliefs do not need to be provided externally, but can be derive...
Article
We briefly present three problems related to promiscuous trust in connection to germane notions of honesty and competence in systems design.
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon of digital computation is explained (often differently) in computer science, computer engineering and more broadly in cognitive science. Although the semantics and implications of malfunctions have received attention in the philosophy of biology and philosophy of technology, errors in computational systems remain of interest only to...
Conference Paper
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Modal modifiers such as Alleged oscillate between being sub-sective and being privative. If individual a is an alleged assassin (at some parameter of evaluation) then it is an open question whether a is an assassin (at that parameter). Standardly, modal modifiers are nega-tively defined, in terms of failed inferences or non-intersectivity or non-ex...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we offer a system J-Calc that can be regarded as a typed λ -calculus for the {→, ⊥} fragment of Intuitionistic Justification Logic. We offer different interpretations of J-Calc, in particular, as a two phase proof system in which we proof check the validity of deductions of a theory T based on deductions from a stronger theory T . We...
Article
Full-text available
Contextual type theories are largely explored in their applications to programming languages, but less investigated for knowledge representation purposes. The combination of a constructive language with a modal extension of contexts appears crucial to explore the attractive idea of a type-theoretical calculus of provability from refutable assumptio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we offer a formal approach to the scantily investigated problem of vague expressions with indexicals, in particular including the spatial indexical 'here' and the temporal indexical 'now'. We present two versions of an adaptive fuzzy logic extended with an indexical, formally expressed by a modifier as a function that applies to pred...
Article
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This paper addresses the problem of upgrading functional information to knowledge. Functional information is defined as syntactically well-formed, meaningful and collectively opaque data. Its use in the formal epistemology of information theories is crucial to solve the debate on the veridical nature of information, and it represents the companion...
Article
This paper introduces a multi-modal polymorphic type theory to model epistemic processes characterized by trust, defined as a second-order relation affecting the communication process between sources and a receiver. In this language, a set of senders is expressed by a modal prioritized context, whereas the receiver is formulated in terms of a conte...