Giuseppe Ippolito

Giuseppe Ippolito
Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive "L.Spallanzani" | inmi

MD, MSc(HCMO), FRCPE

About

907
Publications
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29,717
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Publications

Publications (907)
Article
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Background The aim of this study was to characterize the genome of a recombinant Enterovirus associated with severe and fatal nosocomial infection; it was typed as Echovirus 11 (E-11) according to the VP1 gene. Enterovirus infection is generally asymptomatic and self-limited, but occasionally it may progress to a more severe clinical manifestation,...
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic for more than 2 years and it still impacts our daily lifestyle and quality in unprecedented ways. A better understanding of immunity and its regulation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is urgently needed. Based on the current literature, we review here the various virus mutations...
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The emerging threat represented by SARS-CoV-2 variants, demands the development of therapies for better clinical management of COVID-19. MAD0004J08 is a potent Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) able to neutralize in vitro all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) including the omicron variant even if with significantly reduced potency...
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To assess the cross talk between immune cells and respiratory tract during SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analysed the relationships between the inflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 replication and immune cells phenotype in a reconstituted organotypic human airway epithelium (HAE). The results indicated that immune cells failed to inhibit SARS-CoV...
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Background Vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are proving to be very effective in preventing severe illness; however, although rare, post-vaccine infections have been reported. The present study focuses on virological and serological features of 94 infections that occurred in Lazio Region (Central Italy) between 27 December 2020, and...
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Introduction Transplantation among HIV positive patients may be a valuable therapeutic intervention. This study involves an HIV D+/R+ kidney–liver transplantation, where PBMC-associated HIV quasispecies were analyzed in donor and transplant recipients (TR) prior to transplantation and thereafter, together with standard viral monitoring. Methods Th...
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The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), needs better treatment options both at antiviral and anti-inflammatory levels. It has been demonstrated that the aminothiol cysteamine, an already human applied drug, and its disulfide product of oxidation, cystamine,...
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Background Omics data, driven by rapid advances in laboratory techniques, have been generated very quickly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim is to use omics data to highlight the involvement of specific pathways, as well as that of cell types and organs, in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, and to highlight their links with clinical phenotypes o...
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The evasion of the Interferon response has important implications in Zika virus (ZIKV) disease. Mutations in ZIKV viral protein NS4B, associated with modulation of the interferon (IFN) system, have been linked to increased pathogenicity in animal models. In this study, we unravel ZIKV NS4B as antagonist of the IFN signaling cascade. Firstly, we rep...
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Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a global health issue with severe implications on morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of HCV infection on all-cause, liver-related, and non-liver-related mortality in a population living in an area with a high prevalence of HCV infection before the advent of Direct...
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The Interferon (IFN) response is crucial to restrain pathogenic infections. Investigations into flavivirus-host interactions reported that the high virulence is linked to innate immune evasion. Zika Virus (ZIKV) has developed diversified strategies to evade the innate immune system. We report that the viral protein NS2A counteracts the IFN response...
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Background Several biomarkers have been identified to predict the outcome of COVID-19 severity, but few data are available regarding sex differences in their predictive role. Aim of this study was to identify sex-specific biomarkers of severity and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19. Methods Plasma levels of sex...
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Nearly two years since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has caused over 5 million deaths, the world continues to be on high COVID-19 alert. The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with national authorities, public health institutions and scientists have been closely monitoring and assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 since...
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Objective To evaluate the immune-specific response after the full SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with different Disease Modifying drugs by the detection of both serological- and T-cell responses. Methods Health care workers (HCWs) and MS patients, having completed the two-dose schedule of an mRNA-based vaccine a...
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Limited data are available on risks and benefits of anti‐SARS‐CoV2 vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients, and weaker responses have been described. At the Italian National Institute for Infectious Diseases, 61 liver transplant recipients underwent testing to describe the dynamics of humoral and cell‐mediated immune response after two dos...
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Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are essential for ending the ongoing pandemic. Although impressive progress has been made with several COVID-19 vaccines already approved, it is clear that those developed so far cannot meet the global vaccine demand alone. We describe a COVID-19 vaccine based on a replication-...
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Patients affected by lymphoid malignancies (LM) are frequently immune-compromised, suffering increased mortality from COVID-19. This prospective study evaluated serological and T-cell responses after complete mRNA vaccination in 263 patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, B- and T-cell lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Results were compar...
Preprint
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are proving to be very effective in preventing severe illness; however, although rare, post-vaccine infections have been reported. The present study describes 94 infections (47.9% symptomatic, 52.1% asymptomatic), occurred in Lazio Region (Central Italy) in the first trimester 2021, after first or second...
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Objective To assess in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, treated with different immunosuppressive therapies, the induction of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response after vaccination in terms of anti-region-binding-domain (RBD)-antibody- and T-cell-specific responses against spike, and the vaccine safety in terms of clinical impact on disease activi...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made the development of safe and effective vaccines a critical priority. To date, four vaccines have been approved by European and American authorities for preventing COVID-19 but the development of additional vaccine platforms with improved supply and logistics profiles remains a pressing need. Here w...
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COVID-19 presents with a wide range of clinical neurological manifestations. It has been recognized that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects both the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to smell and taste disturbances; acute ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease; encephalopathies and seizures; and causes most surviving patients to ha...
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Massive platelet activation and thrombotic events characterize severe COVID-19, highlighting their critical role in SARS-CoV-2-induced immunopathology. Since there is a well-described expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in severe COVID-19, we evaluated their possible role in platelet activation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. During C...
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Patients diagnosed with malignancy, neurological and immunological disorders, i.e. , fragile patients, have been excluded from COVID-19 vaccine trials. However, this population may present immune response abnormalities, and relative reduced vaccine responsiveness. Here we review the limited current evidence on the immune responses to vaccination of...
Preprint
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Background The emerging threat represented by SARS-CoV-2 variants, demands the development of therapies for better clinical management of COVID-19. MAD0004J08 is an extremely potent Fc-engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) able to neutralise in vitro all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs). This ongoing study, evaluates safety, pharmacokin...
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In the last months, many studies have clearly described several mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cell and tissue level, but the mechanisms of interaction between host and SARS-CoV-2, determining the grade of COVID-19 severity, are still unknown. We provide a network analysis on protein–protein interactions (PPI) between viral and host proteins...
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Background: The benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high-risk procedure for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to healthcare workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed the optimal timing of PDT, the clinical outcomes of patients...
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Introduction: The use of steroid therapy in patients within the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still a matter of debate. This study aimed to evaluate if potential steroid benefits could be predicted by the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 in mmHg) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) in COVID-19 patients at admission. Mat...
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Complex systems are inherently multilevel and multiscale systems. The infectious disease system is considered a complex system resulting from the interaction between three sub-systems (host, pathogen, and environment) organized into a hierarchical structure, ranging from the cellular to the macro-ecosystem level, with multiscales. Therefore, to des...
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Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the mechanisms underlying virus–host interactions during cancer therapies remain elusive. When comparing nasopharyngeal swabs from cancer and noncancer patients for RT-qPCR cycle thresholds measuring acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-C...
Preprint
(1) Background: Benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high risk procedure for transmission of SARS CoV-2 to health care workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed optimal timing of PDT, clinical outcomes of patients undergoing P...
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Background: Recent studies proposed the whole-blood based IFN-γ-release assay to study the antigen-specific SARS-CoV-2 response. Since the early prediction of disease progression could help to assess the optimal treatment strategies, an integrated knowledge of T-cell and antibody response lays the foundation to develop biomarkers monitoring the CO...
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Vaccination is the main public health measure to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and hospitalization, and a massive worldwide scientific effort resulted in the rapid development of effective vaccines. This work aimed to define the dynamics of humoral and cell-mediated immune response in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) who received a two-dose...
Preprint
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the β-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has made the development of safe and effective vaccines a critical global priority. To date, four vaccines have already been approved by European and American authorities for preventing COVID-19 but the development of additional vaccine platforms with improved supply and logistics profile...
Article
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Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is considered the most effective method of prevention to contain the pandemic. While highly effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are being applied on a large-scale, whether and to what extent the strength of the vaccine-induced immune response could be further potentiated is still an object of debate. Several reports studied...
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Introduction Accurate diagnosis of chikungunya is essential for effective disease management and surveillance. In a cohort of febrile Congolese patients, we evaluated available diagnostic methods widely used in chikungunya diagnosis. In addition, plasma cytokines were quantified in chikungunya patients and in patients coinfected with malaria compar...
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Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (pLMWH) is currently recommended in COVID-19 to reduce the risk of coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antinflammatory effects of pLMWH could translate in lower rate of clinical progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients admitted to a COVID-hospital in Rome with SA...
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Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradative mechanism essential in maintaining cellular homeostasis, but it is also considered an ancient form of innate eukaryotic fighting against invading microorganisms. Mounting evidence has shown that HIV-1 is a critical target of autophagy that plays a role in HIV-1 replication and disease progression. In a...
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The outcome of COVID-19 appears to be influenced by vitamin D status of population. Although epidemiological data indicate that COVID-19 produces more severe symptoms and higher mortality in elderly in comparison to young patients and in men in comparison to women to date sex and age differences in vitamin D status in infected patients have not bee...
Preprint
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Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the mechanisms underlying virus-host interactions during cancer therapies remain elusive. When comparing nasopharyngeal swabs from cancer and non-cancer patients for RT-qPCR cycle thresholds measuring acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-...
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Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a complex threat to global health security and universal health coverage. Recently, nosocomial infections with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is increasing worldwide. We report the molecular characterization and detection of genes associated with carbapenemase producing Gram negat...
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Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the association between sex hormones and SARS-CoV-2 infection severity. Furthermore, the associations between sex hormones and systemic inflammation markers, viral shedding and length of patients’ hospitalization were studied. Design and Methods We conducted a case-control study, including 48 SARS...
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COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 pathogen has been a catastrophic pandemic outbreak all over the world, with exponential increasing of confirmed cases and, unfortunately, deaths. In this work we propose an AI-powered pipeline, based on the deep-learning paradigm, for automated COVID-19 detection and lesion categorization from CT scans. We fi...
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Background Post-artesunate delayed haemolysis (PADH) is common after severe malaria episodes. PADH is related to the “pitting” phenomenon and the synchronous delayed clearance of once-infected erythrocytes, initially spared during treatment. However, direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positivity has been reported in several PADH cases, suggesting a con...
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) in humans. ACE-2 is a type I transmembrane metallocarboxypeptidase expressed in vascular endothelial cells, alveolar type 2 lung epithelial cells, renal tubular epithelium, L...
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Prolonged B-cell depletion due to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAbs) therapy impairs the adaptive immune response causing severe manifestations during COronaVIrus Disease-2019. The cases of two patients under anti-CD20 therapy who experienced prolonged and severe COVID-19 successfully treated with mAbs against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed to control the ongoing pandemic. Although impressive progress has been made with several COVID-19 vaccines already approved, it is clear that those developed so far cannot meet the global vaccine demand. We have developed a COVID-19 vaccine based on a replic...
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Full-text available
Diagnostic methods based on SARS-CoV-2 antigens detection are a promising alternative to SARS-CoV-2 RNA amplification. We evaluated the automated chemiluminescence-based Lumipulse® G SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay on saliva samples, using Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assay as a reference test. Analytical performance was established on a pool of healthy donors’ s...
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Objectives: No specific treatment has been approved for COVID-19. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used with poor results, and a trial showed advantages of combined antiviral therapy vs. single antivirals. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the combination of antivirals (LPV/r and HCQ) or their...
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COVID-19 pandemic is a dramatic health, social and economic global challenge. There is urgent need to maximize testing capacity. Rapid Antigen Tests (RAT) represent good candidates for point-of-care and mass surveillance testing to rapidly identify SARS-CoV-2-infected people, counterbalancing lower sensitivity vs. gold standard molecular tests with...
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Abstract: Background: The WHO advised that the impact of COVID‐19 pandemic on TB services was estimated to be dramatic due to the disruption of TB services. Methods: A retrospective data collection and evaluation was conducted to include all the patients hospitalized for TB at INMI from 9 March to 31 August 2020 (lockdown period and three months th...
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Background: Few data about predictors and outcomes associated with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding (VS) are available. Methods: Retrospective study including all patients admitted with COVID-19 in an Italian reference hospital for infectious diseases between March 1 and July 1, 2020. Predictors of viral clearance (VC) and prolonged VS from upp...
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Objectives The interaction of COVID-19 and tuberculosis (TB) are still poor characterized. Here we evaluated the immune response specific for M. tuberculosis (Mtb) and SARS-CoV-2 using a whole-blood-based assay-platform in COVID-19 patients either with TB or latent TB infection (LTBI). Methods We evaluated IFN-γ level in plasma from whole-blood st...
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The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be completely understood, and detailed SARS-CoV-2 cellular cytopathic effects requires definition. We performed a comparative ultrastructural study of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 infection in Vero E6 cells and in lungs from deceased COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 induces rapid death associated with profound ul...
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COVID-19 is currently a highly pressing health threat and therapeutic strategies to mitigate the infection impact are urgently needed. Characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 interactome in infected cells may represent a powerful tool to identify cellular proteins hijacked by viruses for their life cycle and develop host-oriented antiviral therapeutics....