Giuseppe Fusco

Giuseppe Fusco
University of Padova | UNIPD · Department of Biology

PhD

About

95
Publications
73,136
Reads
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2,231
Citations
Citations since 2017
30 Research Items
1097 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Additional affiliations
December 2002 - present
University of Padova
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Full-text available
In animal species with separate sexes, abnormal individuals with a mix of phenotypically male and phenotypically female body parts are generally indicated as gynandromorphs, whereas individuals with intermediate sexual phenotypic traits are generally indicated as intersexes. However, this distinction, clear as it may seem, is neither universally ag...
Poster
Full-text available
In the last decades, several European carnivores such as the wolf have experienced a general numerical increase and geographical re-expansion, mainly due to favourable ecological conditions and protective legislation. However, human-wolf coexistence issues and threats to long-term wolf presence are still present. Conservation and management strateg...
Poster
Full-text available
Human persecution and habitat decline are global threats for the wildlife, especially for large animals. Despite this trend, in Europe several large carnivore populations are growing, due to species conservation laws and changes in human activity in rural areas. In Italy, the wolf has had a recent transition from threatened to locally abundant, aft...
Article
Full-text available
Serial homology, i.e., homology between repetitive structures in the same individual organism, is a debated concept in evolutionary developmental biology. The central question is the evolutionary interpretation of “sameness” in the context of the same body. This essay provides a synthetic analysis of the main issues involved in the debate, connecti...
Article
The investigation of species boundaries in strictly endogeic animals is challenging because they are prone to fine-scale genetic and phenotypic geographical differentiation owing to low dispersal ability. An integrative approach exploiting different sources of information has seldom been adopted in these animals and even more rarely by treating all...
Article
Full-text available
High‐altitude insects are expected to be strongly affected by climate change because of their limited range. Phytophagous species will be subject to further threats because of their dependence on host plants. We investigated the impact of climate change on the distribution of Italian high‐altitude longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) using a maximum ent...
Article
Full-text available
Gynandromorphs, i.e., individuals with a mix of male and female traits, are common in the wild bees of the genus Megachile (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). We described new transverse gynandromorphs in Megachile pilidens Alfkeen, 1924 and analyze the spatial distribution of body parts with male vs. female phenotype hitherto recorded in the transverse gynand...
Article
Full-text available
A short stratigraphic interval near Bulin in western Hunan (China) yields multiple specimens of the ~514-Myr-old oryctocarine trilobite Oryctocarella duyunensis . Size data obtained from these specimens indicate that, from meraspid degree 1 onward, degrees represent successive instars. Meraspid growth persisted until a terminal stage was reached, p...
Article
Full-text available
In many arthropods, the appearance of new segments and their differentiation are not completed by the end of embryogenesis but continue, in different form and degree, well after hatching, in some cases up to the last post-embryonic molt. Focusing on the segmentation process currently described as post-embryonic segment addition (or, anamorphosis),...
Article
By adopting a longitudinal study design and through geometric morphometrics methods, we investigated size and shape regulation in the head capsule during the larval development of the cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae under laboratory conditions. We found evidence of size regulation by compensatory growth, although not equally effective in all lar...
Article
A recent theoretical, deterministic model of the effects of phenotypic robustness on adaptive evolutionary dynamics showed that a certain level of phenotypic robustness (critical robustness) is a required condition for adaptation to occur and to be maintained during evolution in most real organismal systems. We built an individual-based heuristic m...
Article
Full-text available
In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogen...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical and experimental studies have provided evidence for a positive role of phenotype resistance to genetic mutation in enhancing long-term adaptation to novel environments. With the aim of contributing to an understanding of the origin and evolution of phenotypic robustness to genetic mutations in organismal systems, we adopted a theoretica...
Chapter
A biological classification is a hierarchical arrangement of species, subspecific units and higher taxa, with the corresponding scientific nomenclature; classification is also the part of systematic biology concerned with generating such an arrangement. Scientific classifications have ancient roots in folk taxonomies. Between the classical Antiquit...
Preprint
Full-text available
A recent theoretical, deterministic model of the effects of phenotypic robustness on adaptive evolutionary dynamics showed that a certain level of phenotypic robustness (critical robustness) is a necessary condition for adaptation to occur and to be maintained in the course of evolution in most real organismal systems. We built an individual-based...
Article
By adopting a longitudinal study design and through geometric morphometrics methods, we investigated individual and ontogenetic variation in size, shape and timing during larval development of the cabbage butterfly Pieris brassicae under laboratory conditions. We found that ontogenetic size progression departs modestly, but significantly, from grow...
Book
Cambridge Core - Plant Sciences - The Biology of Reproduction - by Giuseppe Fusco
Chapter
Full-text available
In principle, development is only a part of a life cycle, as a life cycle can include more than one ontogeny and reproductive phase. Here I argue that evolution should be viewed as the "change of life cycles with time", rather than ontogenies, as the basic evo-devo rationale is generally summarized. Each different segment of a life cycle can provid...
Book
Full-text available
Dedicated to Alessandro Minelli, distinguished zoologist and evolutionary biologist, this essay collection spans a wide range of approaches to the study of development and evolution, especially, but not exclusively, at their fertile interface, evolutionary developmental biology (or, evo-devo). Discussed topics include the analysis of the developmen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Theoretical and experimental studies have provided evidence for a positive role of phenotype resistance to genetic mutation in enhancing long-term adaptation to novel environments. With the aim of contributing to an understanding of the origin and evolution of phenotypic robustness to genetic mutations in organismal systems, we adopted a theoretica...
Article
Small arthropods are not simply scaled-down versions of their larger closest relatives, as changes in morphology and functional characters are largely governed by scaling laws. These same scaling laws set strict limits to size change toward smaller sizes. The evolution of extreme miniaturized forms involves the breaking of these constraints, by mea...
Article
Trophic niche partitioning between potentially competing species within the same coenosis has been little explored for most of the major groups of arthropod soil predators, among which are the geophilomorph centipedes. We performed a comparative study in nature on the diet of three species of Geophilomorpha living in the same site in Southern Europ...
Poster
Full-text available
A good acquaintance with the fundamental evolutionary patterns and processes is considered essential for any biologist and for laypeople as well. Therefore, correct understanding and communication about evolutionary themes should play a central role in modern scientific education and awareness. Wikipedia is probably the largest reference work on th...
Article
Full-text available
Fossilized growth series provide rare glimpses into the development of ancient organisms, illustrating descriptively how size and shape changed through ontogeny. Occasionally fossil preservation is such that it is feasible to test alternative possibilities about how ancient development was regulated. Here we apply inferred developmental parameters...
Article
Geophilomorph centipedes are common arthropod soil predators, but very little is known about their preying behaviour and their diet. Here we develop an exploratory morpho-functional approach to better understand their feeding habits, based on the morphology of feeding-related structures. Through geometric morphometrics, in a sample of five geophilo...
Article
Plutonium zwierleini is one of the largest scolopendromorph centipedes in Europe and is known for debates on the evolution of segmental body pattern in arthropods. However, only 24 records have so far been reported and probably only a dozen specimens still exist in collections. Based on 19 new data from professionals and amateur recorders, we confi...
Article
Using the centipede model species Strigamia maritima as a subject of study, we illustrate the potential of geometric morphometrics for investigating the development and evolution of segmentation, with a specific focus on post-embryonic segmental patterning. We show how these techniques can contribute detailed descriptive data for comparative purpos...
Article
Full-text available
Does a modular body organization present a challenge for developmental control? We investigate the idea of a possible developmental cost of modularity by examining the relationship between modularity and developmental stability in a multi-segmented arthropod taxon: the geophilomorph centipedes. In a sample of eight species, we tested the correlatio...
Article
Full-text available
Recent morphometric analysis revealed a juvenile (meraspid) axial growth gradient in the trunk of the ~429 Myr old trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii that resulted from growth control based on positional specification, as is common among extant organisms. Here we explore axial growth gradients in the more anterior body region, the cephalon, and in th...
Chapter
Is it possible, and in the first place is it even desirable, to define what “development” means and to determine the scope of the field called “developmental biology”? Though these questions appeared crucial for the founders of “developmental biology” in the 1950s, there seems to be no consensus today about the need to address them. Here, in a comb...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical and computational studies predict a positive role for widespread phenotype resistance to genetic mutation, or "phenotype mutational robustness," in enhancing adaptation to novel environments through the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation. However, this has not been verified through experimental evolution in biological systems at...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its potentially broad scope, current evo-devo research is largely dominated by empirical developmental studies, whereas comparably little role is played by theoretical research. I argue that this represents an obstacle to a wider appreciation of evo-devo and its integration within a more comprehensive evolutionary theory, and that this situ...
Article
Full-text available
Stenotaenia is one of the largest and most widespread genera of geophilid centipedes in the Western Palearctic, with a very uniform morphology and about fifteen species provisionally recognized. For a better understanding of Stenotaenia species-level taxonomy, we have explored the possibility of using molecular data. As a preliminary assay, we samp...
Article
Full-text available
European populations of the geophilomorph centipede Haplophilus subterraneus show a high proportion of individuals with morphological anomalies, suggesting high levels of developmental instability. The broad geographic distribution of this phenomenon seems to exclude local environmental causes, but the source of instability is still to be identifie...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in animal body size is the result of a complex interplay between variation in cell number and cell size, but the latter has seldom been considered in wide-ranging comparative studies, although distinct patterns of variation have been described in the evolution of different lineages. We investigated the correlation between epidermal cell s...
Article
Full-text available
Geometric morphometric studies of dolphins have traditionally concentrated on the skull, while the mandible and its modularity have been little explored. We investigated the mandible variability and modularity in three strictly related Mediterranean dolphins: Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis and Tursiops truncatus. The aims were to describe...
Chapter
Full-text available
We start defining a landscape as a function of multiple variables and show how this can be interpreted as a dynamical system. From the perspective of dynamical systems modelling, we move to analyze Waddington’s ‘epigenetic landscape’ and landscape representations in current developmental biology literature. Then we delve into the problem of models...
Article
Full-text available
In many arthropods, there is a change in relative segment size during post-embryonic development, but how segment differential growth is produced is little known. A new dataset of the highest quality specimens of the 429 Myr old trilobite Aulacopleura koninckii provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate segment growth dynamics and its cont...
Book
More than two thirds of all living organisms described to date belong to the phylum Arthropoda. But their diversity, as measured in terms of species number, is also accompanied by an amazing disparity in terms of body form, developmental processes, and adaptations to every inhabitable place on Earth, from the deepest marine abysses to the earth sur...
Chapter
Full-text available
Homology is the core concept of comparative biology. Or, better, a variegated flock of concepts about relationships between character states in different biological units, the latter being either modular parts of one biological individual or conspecific individuals differing either in sex or developmental stage or, more commonly, representative ind...
Chapter
The study of arthropod post-embryonic development is a chapter of biology that requires a new conceptual framework. Some of the reasons behind the inadequacy of the prevailing approach are common to the study of post-embryonic development of all, or most, animals groups; others are specific to the Arthropoda.
Chapter
According to a well-consolidated tradition, the body of arthropods is described in terms of segments and tagmata. Even the oldest names for these animals, Aristotle’s έντομα [entoma, internally (sub)divided] and Linnaeus’ Latin equivalent Insecta, now restricted to one of the major arthropod subgroups, already referred to the modular organization o...
Chapter
Full-text available
In a recent paper in the journal Arthropod Structure and Development, Alexey A. Polilov has shown that 95% of the ca. 4,600 neurons forming the brain of a tiny parasitoid wasp are anucleate. This amazing correlate of miniaturization is just one of the latest unexpected discoveries in arthropod biology, one of those whose relevance goes far beyond t...
Article
Full-text available
Can we describe all species on Earth before they disappear? We argue that this is possible only by endowing taxonomy with professional manpower and appropriate material resources as required by big science. Contrary to Costello et al.’s (CMS) statements, taxonomy is not an easy discipline accessible to all through a smartphone. It requires exhausti...
Article
Full-text available
Can we describe all species on Earth before they disappear? We argue that this is possible only by endowing taxonomy with professional manpower and appropriate material resources as required by big science. Contrary to Costello et al.’s (CMS) statements, taxonomy is not an easy discipline accessible to all through a smartphone. It requires exhausti...
Chapter
A biological classification is a hierarchical arrangement of species, subspecific units and higher taxa, with the corresponding scientific nomenclature; classification is also the part of systematic biology concerned with generating such an arrangement. Scientific classifications have ancient roots in folk taxonomies. Between the classical Antiquit...
Article
Full-text available
The mainstream approaches to the study of speciation and clade diversification have extensively focused on genetic mechanisms and ecological contexts, while much less attention has been paid to the role of development. In this paper we provide materials to support the thesis that taking development into the picture of evolutionary processes can bri...
Article
Full-text available
We performed a tree-based analysis of trilobite postembryonic development in a sample of 60 species for which quantitative data on segmentation and growth increments between putative successive instars are available, and that spans much of the temporal, phylogenetic, and habitat range of the group. Three developmental traits were investigated: the...
Article
Full-text available
In the adult males of helminthomorph millipedes, one or two pairs of legs in the anterior part of the trunk are strongly modified into sexual appendages (gonopods) used for sperm transfer during the copula. Gonopods differentiate in an advanced phase of post-embryonic development, in most cases as replacement for the walking legs of the seventh tru...
Article
In arthropods, molting events are mediated by the binding of the ecdysone hormone to a heterodimer of two nuclear receptors: the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR), a homolog of ultraspiracle (USP). We have cloned partial sequences of several isoforms for EcR and RXR genes from the centipede Lithobius peregrinus, and studied...
Article
Full-text available
Postembryonic segmentation (anamorphosis) is widespread among arthropods, but only partially known as for its developmental mechanics and control. Studies on developmental genetics of segmentation in anamorphic arthropods are mostly limited to the germ band stage, during early phases of embryonic development. This work presents the first data on th...
Article
This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterr...
Article
Size-related changes of form in animals with periodically patterned body axes and post-embryonic growth discontinuously obtained throughout a series of moulting episodes cannot be accounted for by allometry alone. We address here the relationships between body size and number and size of appropriately selected structural units (e.g., segments), whi...
Article
Full-text available
This theme issue pursues an exploration of the potential of taking into account the environmental sensitivity of development to explaining the evolution of metazoan life cycles, with special focus on complex life cycles and the role of developmental plasticity. The evolution of switches between alternative phenotypes as a response to different envi...
Article
Full-text available
Metazoan life cycles can be complex in different ways. A number of diverse phenotypes and reproductive events can sequentially occur along the cycle, and at certain stages a variety of developmental and reproductive options can be available to the animal, the choice among which depends on a combination of organismal and environmental conditions. We...
Article
We describe and analyze naturally occurring anomalies in the segmental structures of the trunk in an isolated population of the geophilomorph centipede Stigmatogaster subterranea. Recorded anomalies include mispaired tergites, shrunk segments, variously deformed sclerites, bifurcated trunk, and defects of spiracles and sternal pore areas. One speci...
Article
The production of new articles in the flagellum of the second antennae of Asellus aquaticus was studied in both undamaged and regenerating antennae. Segmentation is an iterative process in two phases: 1) the first proximal flagellomere (the meristematic article) repeatedly gives off distally a new primary article; 2) each primary article divides in...
Article
Defending an evo-devo approach to the study of evolution in the pages of this journal may appear to be an unnecessary exercise. However, there are some case studies which, better than others, illustrate the necessity and the potential of considering developmental causes for explaining the evolution of organisms’ body architecture. An example involv...
Article
Full-text available
After a multi-year survey of the centipede fauna in the city of Poznań (Poland), we document here the high frequency of naturally occurring anomalies in an isolated population of the geophilomorph Stigmatogaster subterranea (Shaw, 1794). Out of 809 specimens collected in 1991 to 2007, 25.8 % are affected by anomalies of either the appendages or the...
Article
Full-text available
The words we use for describing biological systems and their transformations through development and evolution can recurrently perform as 'conceptual traps', i.e. as representations that limit the possibilities of improving our understanding of the very processes they are called to describe. The main focus of this contribution is on the paradigmati...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2007, Zootaxa celebrated the tercentenary of the birth of Linnaeus with an important collection of 30 articles published as volume 1668 under the title Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy.
Article
Based on traditional techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy for external morphology, and immunohistochemistry for the muscular system, we describe here the segmental features of the antennal exopod of Artemia nauplii. Two kinds of serial elements are present, i.e. setae (with cuticular folds at their base) and ringlets (serially arranged...
Article
Full-text available
Regeneration of the second antennae of Asellus aquaticus is described here following amputations along the antennal flagellum. The process involves the frequent resorption (loss of the distalmost joint remained on the amputated antenna) and the regular apicalization of the new terminal article. In the distal part of the flagellum, resorption occurs...
Article
Full-text available
The development of specialized appendages involved in sperm transfer in the males of julid millipedes is an extreme case of specialized, complex structures differentiating in a very advanced phase of post-embryonic development. Here, a non-systemic metamorphosis affects the external morphology and the internal anatomy of a trunk double segment only...
Book
Evolutionary developmental biology, or ‘evo-devo’, is the study of the relationship between evolution and development. Dealing specifically with the generative mechanisms of organismal form, evo-devo goes straight to the core of the developmental origin of variation, the raw material on which natural selection (and random drift) can work. Evolving...
Article
Full-text available
Ontogenetic stages of trilobites have traditionally been recognized on the basis of the development of exoskeletal segmentation. The established protaspid, meraspid, and holaspid phas-es relate specifically to the development of articulated joints between exoskeletal elements. Tran-sitions between these phases were marked by the first and last appe...
Article
Simple treatments with hormones could unlock the expression of complex phenotypes not known to occur in nature. Using this method, Kim et al. recently obtained males from all-female populations of water fleas. The novel characters revealed by this work can be used in taxonomic identification and phylogenetic inference. Additionally, these "resurrec...
Article
Full-text available
The traditional framework for the description of arthropod development takes the molt-to-molt interval as the fundamental unit of periodization, which is similar to the morphological picture of the main body axis as a series of segments. Developmental time is described as the subdivision into a few major stages of one or more instars each, which is...
Article
The origin of evolutionary novelties is a central topic in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) studies. In any new feature, there is a conserved component that is either structural or related to the underlying genetic control, but it is not always obvious what is really new and what is conserved. Nevertheless, disentangling this blending...
Article
Full-text available
Sequential segmentation from a posterior "proliferative zone" is considered to be the primitive mechanism of segmentation in arthropods. Several studies of embryonic and post-embryonic development and gene expression suggest that this occurs in all major arthropod taxa. Sequential segmentation is often associated with the idea of posterior producti...
Article
Full-text available
Bilaterian animals show a diverse array of segmental patterns and segmentation processes. Differences in pattern and process emerge both in comparisons of taxa and among sets of serial structures within one animal. Diversity in developmental mechanisms of segmentation and their genetic control is reflected in the modes in which segmentation evolves...