# Giuseppe Di MolfettaAix-Marseille Université | AMU · Département d'informatique et d'interactions

Giuseppe Di Molfetta

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

85

Publications

5,551

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1,059

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Introduction

Giuseppe Di Molfetta currently works at the Département d'informatique et d'interactions, Aix-Marseille Université. Giuseppe does research in Quantum Computing, Information Science and Theoretical Physics.

Additional affiliations

Education

September 2015 - June 2016

September 2012 - July 2015

September 2012 - June 2013

## Publications

Publications (85)

Discrete-time quantum walks (QWs) are transportation models of single quantum particles over a lattice. Their evolution is driven through causal and local unitary operators. QWs are a powerful tool for quantum simulation of fundamental physics, as some of them have a continuum limit converging to well-known physics partial differential equations, s...

Discrete-time Quantum Walks (QWs) are transportation models of single quantum particles over a lattice. Their evolution is driven through causal and local unitary operators. QWs are a powerful tool for quantum simulation of fundamental physics, as some of them have a continuum limit converging to well-known physics partial differential equations, s...

This work provides a relativistic, digital quantum simulation scheme for both 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED), based on a discrete spacetime formulation of theory. It takes the form of a quantum circuit, infinitely repeating across space and time, parametrised by the discretization step Δ t = Δ x . Strict causality at each...

We contribute to fulfill the long-lasting gap in the understanding of the spatial search with multiple marked vertices. The theoretical framework is that of discrete-time quantum walks (QW), i.e., local unitary matrices that drive the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. QW based search algorithms are well understood when they have to tac...

The quantum separability problem consists in deciding whether a bipartite density matrix is entangled or separable. In this work, we propose a machine learning pipeline for finding approximate solutions for this NP-hard problem in large-scale scenarios. We provide an efficient Frank-Wolfe-based algorithm to approximately seek the nearest separable...

Quantum discrete-time walkers have since their introduction demonstrated applications in algorithmics and to model and simulate a wide range of transport phenomena. They have long been considered the discrete-time and discrete space analogue of the Dirac equation and have been used as a primitive to simulate quantum field theories precisely because...

Ergodicity breaking is observed in the blockade regime of Rydberg atom arrays, in the form of low entanglement eigenstates known as scars, which fail to thermalize. The signature of these states persists in periodically driven systems, where they coexist with an extensive number of chaotic states. Here we investigate a quantum cellular automaton ba...

Developing numerical methods to simulate efficiently nonlinear fluid dynamics on universal quantum computers is a challenging problem. In this paper, a generalization of the Madelung transform is defined to solve quantum relativistic charged fluid equations interacting with external electromagnetic forces via the Dirac equation. The Dirac equation...

Ergodicity breaking is observed in the blockade regime of Rydberg atoms arrays, in the form of low entanglement eigenstates known as scars, which fail to thermalize. The signature of these states persists in periodically driven systems, where they coexist with an extensive number of chaotic states. Here we investigate a quantum cellular automaton b...

We propose a family of discrete space-time quantum walks capable of propagating on any arbitrary triangulations. Moreover, we also extend and generalize the duality principle introduced by Arrighi et al. [Sci. Rep. 9, 10904 (2019)], linking continuous local deformations of a given triangulation and the inhomogeneity of the local unitaries that guid...

This work provides a relativistic, digital quantum simulation scheme for $3+1$ quantum electrodynamics (QED), based on a discrete spacetime formulation of theory. It takes the form of a quantum circuit, infinitely repeating across space and time, parameterized by the discretization step $\Delta_t=\Delta_x$. Strict causality is ensured as circuit wi...

We propose a new family of discrete-spacetime quantum walks capable to propagate on any arbitrary triangulations. Moreover we also extend and generalise the duality principle introduced in~\cite{arrighi2019curved}, linking continuous local deformations of a given triangulation and the inhomogeneity of the local unitaries that guide the quantum walk...

We build a quantum cellular automaton (QCA) which coincides with 1+1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$1+1$$\end{document} QED on its known continuum limit...

A new model of nonlinear charged quantum relativistic fluids is presented. This model can be discretized into Discrete Time Quantum Walks (DTQWs), and a new hybrid (quantum-classical) algorithm for implementing these walks on NISQ devices is proposed. High resolution (up to $N=2^{17}$ grid points) hybrid numerical simulations of relativistic and no...

We contribute to fulfil the long-lasting gap in the understanding of the spatial search with multiple marked vertices. The theoretical framework is that of discrete-time quantum walks (QW), i.e. local unitary matrices that drive the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. QW based search algorithms are well understood when they have to tackl...

Gauge-invariance is a fundamental concept in Physics—known to provide mathematical justification for the fundamental forces. In this paper, we provide discrete counterparts to the main gauge theoretical concepts directly in terms of cellular automata. More precisely, the notions of gauge-invariance and gauge-equivalence in cellular automata are for...

This manuscript gathers and subsumes a long series of works on using QW to simulate transport phenomena. Quantum Walks (QWs) consist of single and isolated quantum systems, evolving in discrete or continuous time steps according to a causal, shift-invariant unitary evolution in discrete space. We start reminding some necessary fundamentals of linea...

We build a quantum cellular automaton (QCA) which coincides with 1 + 1 QED on its known continuum limits. It consists in a circuit of unitary gates driving the evolution of particles on a one dimensional lattice, and having them interact with the gauge field on the links. The particles are massive fermions, and the evolution is exactly U (1) gauge-...

Quantum machine learning algorithms could provide significant speed-ups over their classical counterparts; however, whether they could also achieve good generalization remains unclear. Recently, two quantum perceptron models which give a quadratic improvement over the classical perceptron algorithm using Grover's search have been proposed by Wiebe...

One can think of some physical evolutions as being the emergent-effective result of a microscopic discrete model. Inspired by classical coarse-graining procedures, we provide a simple procedure to coarse-grain color-blind quantum cellular automata that follow the so-called Goldilocks rules. The procedure consists in (i) space-time grouping the quan...

We build a quantum cellular automaton (QCA) which coincides with 1+1 QED on its known continuum limits. It consists in a circuit of unitary gates driving the evolution of particles on a one dimensional lattice, and having them interact with the gauge field on the links. The particles are massive fermions, and the evolution is exactly U(1) gauge-inv...

A Plastic quantum walk admits both continuous time and continuous spacetime. The model has been recently proposed by one of the authors in Di Molfetta and Arrighi (Quant Inf Process 19(2): 47, 2020), leading to a general quantum simulation scheme for simulating fermions in the relativistic and non-relativistic regimes. The extension to two physical...

We propose a new quantum numerical scheme to control the dynamics of a quantum walker in a two dimensional space–time grid. More specifically, we show how, introducing a quantum memory for each of the spatial grid, this result can be achieved simply by acting on the initial state of the whole system, and therefore can be exactly controlled once for...

We provide numerical evidence that the nonlinear searching algorithm introduced by Wong and Meyer, rephrased in terms of quantum walks with effective nonlinear phase, can be extended to the finite 2-dimensional grid, keeping the same computational advantage with respect to the classical algorithms. For this purpose, we have considered the free latt...

One can think of some physical evolutions as being the emergent-effective result of a microscopic discrete model. Inspired by classical coarse graining procedures, we provide a simple procedures to coarse-grain color-blind quantum cellular automata, following Goldilock rules. The procedure consists in (i) space-time grouping the quantum cellular au...

We propose a new quantum numerical scheme to control the dynamics of a quantum walker in a two dimensional space-time grid. More specifically, we show how, introducing a quantum memory for each of the spatial grid, this result can be achieved simply by acting on the initial state of the whole system, and therefore can be exactly controlled once for...

We provide first evidence that some families of nonlinear quantum systems, rephrased in terms of coined quantum walks with effective nonlinear phase, display a strong computational advantage for search algorithms, over graphs having sets of vertices of constant size, e.g. the infinite square grid. The numerical simulations show that the walker find...

We consider the quantum version of the bandit problem known as best arm identification (BAI). We first propose a quantum modeling of the BAI problem, which assumes that both the learning agent and the environment are quantum; we then propose an algorithm based on quantum amplitude amplification to solve BAI. We formally analyze the behavior of the...

A Plastic Quantum Walk admits both continuous time and continuous spacetime. The model has been recently proposed by one of the authors in \cite{molfetta2019quantum}, leading to a general quantum simulation scheme for simulating fermions in the relativistic and non relativistic regimes. The extension to two physical dimensions is still missing and...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.101.069901

We provide first evidence that under certain conditions, 1/2-spin fermions may naturally behave like a Grover search, looking for topological defects in a material. The theoretical framework is that of discrete-time quantum walks (QWs), i.e., local unitary matrices that drive the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs are well know...

Two models are first presented, of a one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) with temporal noise on the internal degree of freedom (i.e., the coin): (i) a model with both a coin-flip and a phase-flip channel, and (ii) a model with random coin unitaries. It is then shown that both these models admit a common limit in the spacetime continuu...

Gauge-invariance is a fundamental concept in Physics---known to provide mathematical justification for the fundamental forces. In this paper, we provide discrete counterparts to the main gauge theoretical concepts directly in terms of Cellular Automata. More precisely, the notions of gauge-invariance and gauge-equivalence in Cellular Automata are f...

Random graphs are a central element of the study of complex dynamical networks such as the internet, the brain, or socioeconomic phenomena. New methods to generate random graphs can spawn new applications and give insights into more established techniques. We propose two variations of a model to grow random graphs and trees, based on continuous-tim...

This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 9th in a series of international conferences on Quantum Simulation and Quantum Walks (QSQW). During this event, we worked on the development of theories based upon quantum walks and quantum simulation models, in order to solve interrelated problems concerning the simulation of standard qua...

We consider the quantum version of the bandit problem known as best arm identification (BAI). We first propose a quantum modeling of the BAI problem, which assumes that both the learning agent and the environment are quantum; we then propose an algorithm based on quantum amplitude amplification to solve BAI. We formally analyze the behavior of the...

We consider the quantum version of the bandit problem known as {\em best arm identification} (BAI). We first propose a quantum modeling of the BAI problem, which assumes that both the learning agent and the environment are quantum; we then propose an algorithm based on quantum amplitude amplification to solve BAI. We formally analyze the behavior o...

We present the single-particle sector of a quantum cellular automaton, namely a quantum walk, on a simple dynamical triangulated 2 - manifold. The triangulation is changed through Pachner moves, induced by the walker density itself, allowing the surface to transform into any topologically equivalent one. This model extends the quantum walk over tri...

We extend to the gamut of functional forms of the probability distribution of the time-dependent step-length a previous model dubbed Elephant Quantum Walk, which considers a uniform distribution and yields hyperballistic dynamics where the variance grows cubicly with time, σ2 ∝ t3, and a Gaussian for the position of the walker. We investigate this...

Nowadays, quantum simulation schemes come in two flavours. Either they are continuous-time discrete-space models (a.k.a Hamiltonian-based), pertaining to non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Or they are discrete-spacetime models (a.k.a quantum walks or quantum cellular automata based) enjoying a relativistic continuous-spacetime limit. We provide a...

Two models are first presented, of one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) with temporal noise on the internal degree of freedom (i.e., the coin): (i) a model with both a coin-flip and a phase-flip channel, and (ii) a model with random coin unitaries. It is then shown that both these models admit a common limit in the spacetime continuum,...

Gauge-invariance is a mathematical concept that has profound implications in Physics—as it provides the justification of the fundamental interactions. It was recently adapted to the Cellular Automaton (CA) framework, in a restricted case. In this paper, this treatment is generalized to non-abelian gauge-invariance, including the notions of gauge-eq...

We provide the first evidence that under certain conditions, electrons may naturally behave like a Grover search, looking for defects in a material. The theoretical framework is that of discrete-time quantum walks (QW), i.e. local unitary matrices that drive the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some of these are well-known to recover...

Gauge-invariance is a mathematical concept that has profound implications in Physics -- known to provide justification for the fundamental interactions -- and has recently been applied to the Cellular Automaton (CA) model in a restricted case. In this paper, this invariance applied to CA is generalized to a case known as non-abelian gauge-invarianc...

A discrete-time Quantum Walk (QW) is an operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice, through local unitaries. In a previous paper, we showed that QWs over the honeycomb and triangular lattices can be used to simulate the Dirac equation. We apply a spacetime coordinate transformation upon the lattice of this QW, and show that...

We extend to the gamut of functional forms of the probability distribution of the time-dependent step-length a previous model dubbed Elephant Quantum Walk, which considers a uniform distribution and yields hyperballistic dynamics where the variance grows cubicly with time, $\sigma ^2 \propto t^3$, and a Gaussian for the position of the walker. We i...

We present a $2\mathrm{-dimensional}$ quantum walker on curved discrete surfaces with dynamical geometry. This walker extends the quantum walker over the fixed triangular lattice introduced in \cite{quantum_walk_triangular_lattice}. We write the discrete equations of the walker on an arbitrary triangulation, whose flat spacetime limit recovers the...

Nowadays, quantum simulation schemes come in two flavours. Either they are continuous-time discrete-space models (a.k.a Hamiltonian-based), pertaining to non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Or they are discrete-spacetime models (a.k.a Quantum Walks or Quantum Cellular Automata-based) enjoying a relativistic continuous spacetime limit. We provide a...

A simple Discrete-Time Quantum Walk (DTQW) on the line is revisited and given an hydrodynamic interpretation through a novel relativistic generalization of the Madelung transform. Numerical results show that suitable initial conditions indeed produce hydrodynamical shocks and that the coherence achieved in current experiments is robust enough to si...

A discrete-time Quantum Walk (QW) is an operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice, through local unitaries. Some QW admit, as their continuum limit, a well-known equation of Physics. In arXiv:1803.01015 the QW is over the honeycomb and triangular lattices, and simulates the Dirac equation. We apply a spacetime coordinate tr...

Gauge invariance is one of the more important concepts in physics. We discuss this concept in connection with the unitary evolution of discrete-time quantum walks in one and two spatial dimensions, when they include the interaction with synthetic, external electromagnetic fields. One introduces this interaction as additional phases that play the ro...

Gauge invariance is one of the more important concepts in physics. We discuss this concept in connection with the unitary evolution of discrete-time quantum walks in one and two spatial dimensions, when they include the interaction with synthetic, external electromagnetic fields. One introduces this interaction as additional phases that play the ro...

Gauge-invariance is a fundamental concept in physics—known to provide mathematical justifications for the fundamental forces. In this paper, we provide discrete counterparts to the main gauge theoretical concepts, directly in terms of Cellular Automata. More precisely, we describe a step-by-step gauging procedure to enforce local symmetries upon a...

A discrete-time Quantum Walk (QW) is essentially an operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice, through local unitaries. Some QWs admit a continuum limit, leading to well-known physics partial differential equations, such as the Dirac equation. We show that these simulation results need not rely on the grid: the Dirac equati...

Gauge-invariance is a fundamental concept in physics---known to provide the mathematical justification for all four fundamental forces. In this paper, we provide discrete counterparts to the main gauge theoretical concepts, directly in terms of Cellular Automata. More precisely, we describe a step-by-step gauging procedure to enforce local symmetri...

A discrete-time quantum walk (QW) is essentially a unitary operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice. Some QWs have familiar physics PDEs as their continuum limit. Some slight generalization of QWs (allowing for prior encoding and larger neighbourhoods) even have the curved spacetime Dirac equation, as their continuum limit...

We explore the impact of long-range memory on the properties of a family of quantum walks in a one-dimensional lattice and discrete time, which can be understood as the quantum version of the classical "Elephant Random Walk" non-Markovian process. This Elephant Quantum Walk is robustly superballistic with the standard deviation showing a constant e...

We analyze the properties of a two- and three-dimensional quantum walk that are inspired by the idea of a brane-world model put forward by Rubakov and Shaposhnikov [Phys. Lett. B 125, 136 (1983)]. In that model, particles are dynamically confined on the brane due to the interaction with a scalar field. We translated this model into an alternate qua...

We prove that conformal curved spacetime can be encoded into the initial wave function and that curved propagation can be simulated on a two-dimensional regular lattice with a finite set of homogeneous unitary operators. We generalize recent results shown in [1], where the author transforms flat-spacetime in curved static spacetime via non-unitary...

We analyze the properties of a two dimensional quantum walk that are inspired by the idea of a brane-world model put forward by Rubakov and Shaposhnikov [1]. In that model, particles are dynamically confined on the brane due to the interaction with a scalar field. We translated this model into an alternate quantum walk with a coin that depends on t...

We study the role played by noise on the bounded state of a two-particle QW with interaction, as introduced in [1]. The bounded ("molecular") state can be effectively described as a one-particle QW in 1D, with a coin operator which depends on the extra phase that is acquired by the interaction at each time step. The noise is introduced by a random...

We analyze the simulation of Dirac neutrino oscillations using quantum walks, both in vacuum and in matter. We show that this simulation, in the continuum limit, reproduces a set of coupled Dirac equations that describe neutrino flavor oscillations, and we make use of this to establish a connection with neutrino phenomenology, thus allowing to fix...

We consider the 2D alternate quantum walk on a cylinder. We concentrate on the study of the motion along the open dimension, in the spirit of looking at the closed coordinate as a small or "hidden" extra dimension. If one starts from localized initial conditions on the lattice, the dynamics of the quantum walk that is obtained after tracing out the...

A new family of DTQWs on the line is introduced, which presents an exact discrete $U(N)$ gauge invariance. It is shown that the continuous limit of these DTQWs, when it exists, coincides with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to usual $U(N)$ gauge fields in $2D$ spacetime. A discrete generalization of the usual $U(N)$ curvature is also constr...

Identifiability of parameters is a fundamental prerequisite for model identification. It concerns uniqueness of the model parameters determined from experimental or simulated observations. This dissertation specifically deals with structural or a priori identifiability: whether or not parameters can be identified from a given model structure and ex...

Problems too demanding for classical computers can be approached promisingly with quantum simulators, which operate using one controllable quantum system in order to investigate the behavior and properties of a less accessible one. Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in a number of experimental and theoretical fields. Quantu...

The nonlinear optical Galton board (NLOGB), a quantum walk like (but
nonlinear) discrete time quantum automaton, is shown to admit a complex
evolution leading to long time thermalized states. The continuous limit of the
Galton Board is derived and shown to be a nonlinear Dirac equation (NLDE). The
(Galerkin truncated) NLDE evolution is shown to the...

A generalization of the $3D$ Euler-Voigt-$\alpha$ model is obtained by
introducing derivatives of arbitrary order $\beta$ (instead of $2$) in the
Helmholtz operator. The $\beta \to \infty$ limit is shown to correspond to
Galerkin truncation of the Euler equation. Direct numerical simulations (DNS)
of the model are performed with resolutions up to $...

Discrete-time quantum walks can be regarded as quantum dynamical simulators
since they can simulate spatially discretized Schr\"{o}dinger, massive Dirac,
and Klein-Gordon equations. Here, two different types of Fibonacci
discrete-time quantum walks are studied analytically. The first is the
Fibonacci coin sequence with a generalized Hadamard coin a...

Discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) in random artificial electric and
gravitational fields are studied analytically and numerically. The analytical
computations are carried by a new method which allows a direct exact analytical
determination of the equations of motion obeyed by the average density
operator. It is proven that randomness induces deco...

The continuous limit of quantum walks (QWs) on the line is revisited through
a recently developed method. In all cases but one, the limit coincides with the
dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to an artificial electric and/or
relativistic gravitational field. All results are carefully discussed and
illustrated by numerical simulations.

The continuous limit of discrete-time quantum walks with time- and space-dependent coefficients is investigated in 1 + 1 and 1 + 2 dimensions. A given quantum walk does not generally admit a continuous limit but some families (1-jets) of quantum walks do. All families (1-jets) admitting
a continuous limit are identified. In 1 + 1 dimensions, the co...

A particular family of time- and space-dependent discrete-time quantum walks
(QWs) is considered in one dimensional physical space. The continuous limit of
these walks is defined through a new procedure and computed in full detail. In
this limit, the walks coincide with the propagation of a massless Dirac fermion
in an arbitrary gravitational field...

Propagation in quantum walks is revisited by showing that very general 1D
discrete-time quantum walks with time- and space-dependent coefficients can be
described, at the continuous limit, by Dirac fermions coupled to
electromagnetic fields. Short-time propagation is also established for
relativistic diffusions by presenting new numerical simulatio...

The continuous limit of one dimensional discrete-time quantum walks with
time- and space-dependent coefficients is investigated. A given quantum walk
does not generally admit a continuous limit but some families (1-jets) of
quantum walks do. All families (1-jets) admitting a continuous limit are
identified. The continuous limit is described by a Di...