Giuseppe Caruso

Giuseppe Caruso
University of Catania | UNICT · Department of Drug Science (DSF)

PhD
Assistant Professor (BIO/14)

About

87
Publications
9,729
Reads
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1,531
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
IRCCS Associazione Oasi Maria SS, Institute for Research on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging
Position
  • Senior Researcher
July 2016 - July 2017
University of Kansas
Position
  • Fellow
July 2015 - present
University of Kansas
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
November 2009 - February 2014
University of Catania
Field of study
  • Neurobiology
October 2006 - December 2008
University of Catania
Field of study
  • Biomolecular Chemistry
October 2001 - April 2006
University of Catania
Field of study
  • Biological sciences

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
Full-text available
Vinpocetine (VNP), a semisynthetic active pharmaceutical ingredient, is used for oral management of cerebrovascular diseases because of its ability to enhance the blood flow to the brain. However, despite that, the therapeutic application of VNP is restricted due to its reduced bioavailability and diminished brain levels that could be attributed to...
Article
Preclinical studies suggest that most of statins or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors possess pleiotropic anticancer activity. The aim of the present work was to investigate the conjugation of the statin fluvastatin (FLV) with scorpion venom (SV), a natural peptide with proven anticancer properties, to enhance FLV...
Article
Full-text available
Different drug classes such as antineoplastic drugs (anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, taxanes, tyrosine kinase inhibitors), antiretroviral drugs, antipsychotic, and immunosuppressant drugs are known to induce cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that the impairment of the nuclear factor erythroid 2–r...
Article
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Background: Aging society faces significant health challenges, among which cognitive-related disorders are emerging. Diet quality has been recognized among the major contributors to the rising prevalence of cognitive disorders, with increasing evidence of the putative role of plant-based foods and their bioactive components, including polyphenols....
Article
Full-text available
Impaired diabetic wound healing is a major concern for health care professionals worldwide, imposing an intense financial burden and reducing the quality of life of patients. A dysregulation of this process can be responsible for the development of intractable ulcers and the formation of excessive scars. Therefore, the identification of novel pharm...
Article
Full-text available
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring endogenous dipeptide and an over-the-counter food supplement with a well-demonstrated multimodal mechanism of action that includes the detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, the down-regulation of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, the inhibition of aberrant prote...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recently, the combination of durvalumab and tremelimumab, two immune checkpoint inhibitors, for the treatment of different types of cancers has been considered; however, its overall effects, including its safety, are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Objectives: The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analy...
Article
Full-text available
l-Carnosine is an endogenous dipeptide that has high potential for therapeutic purposes, being an antioxidant with metal chelating, anti-aggregating, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Despite its potential therapeutic values, the biomolecular mechanisms involved in neuroprotection are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate, at...
Article
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Cognitive impairment, also known as cognitive decline, can occur gradually or suddenly and can be temporary or more permanent. It represents an increasingly important public health problem and can depend on normal aging or be linked to different neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is now well-established that lifesty...
Article
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Liquid biopsy is emerging as a potential diagnostic tool for prostate cancer (PC) prognosis and diagnosis. Unfortunately, most circulating tumor cells (CTC) technologies, such as AdnaTest or Cellsearch®, critically rely on the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) marker, limiting the possibility of detecting cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and m...
Article
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Depression is a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A neurobiological and clinical continuum exists between AD and depression, with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress being involved in both diseases. Second-generation antidepressants, in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are currently investiga...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have been investigated in metastatic prostate cancer, however their overall effect is unclear and needs to be further investigated. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the oncological response of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. M...
Article
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Pancreatic cancer currently represents a severe issue for the entire world. Therefore, much effort has been made to develop an effective treatment against it. Emerging evidence has shown that icariin, a flavonoid glycoside, is an effective anti-pancreatic cancer drug. Melittin, as a natural active biomolecule, has also shown to possess anticancer a...
Preprint
Liquid biopsy via isolation of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) represents a promising diagnostic tool capable of supplementing state-of-the-art for prostate cancer (PC) prognosis. Unfortunately, most of CTC technologies, such as AdnaTest or Cellsearch, critically rely on the Epithelial-Cell-Adhesion-Molecule (EpCAM) marker, limiting the possibility...
Article
In Oncology, comprehensive Omics and functional enrichment studies led to an extensive profiling of (epi)genetic and neurobiological alterations that can be mapped onto a single tumor’s clinical phenotype and divergent clinical phenotypes expressing common pathophysiological pathways. Consequently, molecular pathway-based therapeutic interventions...
Article
A dysregulation of the wound healing process can lead to the development of various intractable ulcers or excessive scar formation. Therefore it essential to identify novel pharmacological strategies to promote wound healing and restore the mechanical integrity of injured tissue. The goal of the present study was to formulate a nano-complex contain...
Article
Full-text available
Prostate cancer (PCa) represents the most commonly non-cutaneous diagnosed cancer in men worldwide and occupies a very wide area of preclinical and clinical research. Targeted therapy for any cancer depends on the understanding of the molecular bases and natural behaviour of the diseases. Despite the well-known effect of androgen deprivation on PCa...
Article
Full-text available
High glucose levels in diabetic patients are implicated in delay wound healing that could lead to more serious clinical complications. The aim of the present work was to examine the formulation of ceftriaxone (CTX) and melittin (MEL) as nanoconjugate (nanocomplex)-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (1.5% w/v)-based hydrogel for healing of...
Article
Dietary polyphenols have been the focus of major interest for their potential benefits on human health. Several preclinical studies have been conducted to provide a rationale for their potential use as therapeutic agents in preventing or ameliorating cognitive decline. However, results from human studies are scarce and poorly documented. The aim of...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropathic pain is one of the most disabling forms of chronic pain and it is characterized by hyperalgesia and allodynia linked to an aberrant processing of pain transmission and to neuroinflammation. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which protects against neuroinflammation. It has been demonstrated that TGF...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly 40–50% of infertility problems are estimated to be of female origin. Previous studies dedicated to the analysis of metabolites in follicular fluid (FF) produced contrasting results, although some valuable indexes capable to discriminate control groups (CTRL) from infertile females (IF) and correlate with outcome measures of assisted reproduc...
Article
Full-text available
Rescue of cognitive function represents an unmet need in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nutraceuticals deliver a concentrated form of a presumed bioactive(s) agent(s) that can improve cognitive function alone or in combination with current approved drugs for the treatment of cognitive disorders. Nutra...
Article
In recent years, mental disorders have represented a relevant public health problem due to their deleterious effect on quality of life and the difficulty of timely diagnosis. The growing trends have been shown to be highly influenced by modern society, unhealthy lifestyle and harmful dietary habits. Not only the specific foods or dietary patterns h...
Article
Full-text available
Piceatannol (PIC) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic stilbene, and it has pleiotropic pharmacological properties. Moreover, PIC has cytotoxic actions among various cancer cells. In this work, preparations of PIC-loaded bilosome-zein (PIC-BZ) were designed, formulated, and characterized, and the optimized PIC-BZ cytotoxic activities, measured as...
Article
Full-text available
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a naturally occurring endogenous peptide widely distributed in excitable tissues such as the brain. This dipeptide has well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aggregation activities, and it may be useful for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this disease, pe...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon-based nanomaterials are nowadays attracting lots of attention, in particular in the biomedical field, where they find a wide spectrum of applications, including, just to name a few, the drug delivery to specific tumor cells and the improvement of non-invasive imaging methods. Nanoparticles inhaled during breathing accumulate in the lung alve...
Article
Full-text available
Carnosine is a natural occurring endogenous dipeptide that was proposed as an anti-aging agent more than 20 years ago. Carnosine can be found at low millimolar concentrations at brain level and different preclinical studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aggregation activity with neuroprotective effects in animal mod...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of S. aureus to infect bone and osteoblasts is correlated with its incredible virulence armamentarium that can mediate the invasion/internalization process, cytotoxicity, membrane damage, and intracellular persistence. We comparatively analyzed the interaction, persistence, and modulation of expression of selected genes and cell viabili...
Article
Full-text available
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in China has become an urgent health and economic challenge. There is a current race for developing strategies to treat and/or prevent COVID-19 worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the strain of coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The aim of the present work was to evaluate t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Due to the increased life expectancy, the prevalence of aging-related health conditions, such as cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer's disease is increasing. Among the modifiable risk factors, dietary factors have proved to be of primary importance in preserving and improving mental health and cognitive status in older adults,...
Article
Full-text available
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a variety of mild to life-threatening infections including bone infections such as osteomyelitis. This bacterium is able to invade and persist within non-professional phagocytic cells such as osteoblasts. In the present study, four different S. aureus strains, namely, 2SA-ST239-III...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest a primary role of oxidative stress in an early phase of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and a strong neurobiological link has been found between dopaminergic system dysfunction, microglia overactivation, and oxidative stress. Different risk factors for schizophrenia increase oxidative stress phenomena raising the risk of de...
Article
Full-text available
Activation of P2X7 signaling, due to high glucose levels, leads to blood retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown, which is a hallmark of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Furthermore, several studies report that high glucose (HG) conditions and the related activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) lead to the over-expression of pro-inflammatory markers. In order to...
Article
Neuroinflammation, a key early pathomechanistic alteration of Alzheimer's disease, may represent either a detrimental or a compensatory mechanism or both (according to the disease stage). YKL-40, a glycoprotein highly expressed in differentiated glial cells, is a candidate biomarker for in vivo tracking neuroinflammation in humans. We performed a l...
Preprint
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium causing a range of mild to life-threatening infections including bone infections such as osteomyelitis. S. aureus is able to invade and persist within non-professional phagocytic cells such as osteoblasts. In the present study four different S. aureus strains, 2SA-ST239-III, 5SA-ST5-II, 10SA-ST228-...
Article
Full-text available
β-Secretase1 (BACE1) protein concentrations and rates of enzyme activity, analyzed in human bodily fluids, are promising candidate biological markers for guidance in clinical trials investigating BACE1 inhibitors to halt or delay the dysregulation of the amyloid-β pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A robust body of evidence demonstrates an associ...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis is actually based on clinical evaluation and brain-imaging tests, and it can often be confirmed only post-mortem. Therefore, new non-invasive molecular biomarkers are necessary to improve AD diagnosis. As circulating microRNA biomarkers have been proposed for many diseases, including AD, we aimed to identify new d...
Article
Full-text available
Febuxostat (FBX) is a drug able to inhibit xanthine oxidase and reduce uric acid production commonly used for the treatment of hyperuricemia in subjects suffering from gout. Several studies have also been directed at its use as anti-cancer drug during the last years, opening a window for its off-label use. In the present study, an optimized formula...
Article
Full-text available
Thymoquinone (TQ), a natural polyphenol, has been associated with various pharmacological responses; however, low bioavailability of TQ limits its clinical application. Thus, a novel phytosomal delivery system of TQ-Phospholipon® 90H complex (TQ-phytosome) was developed by refluxing combined with anti-solvent precipitation. This TQ delivery system...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are symptoms of disturbed perception, mood, behavior, and thought content that occurred frequently. These symptoms, which include apathy, depression, anxiety, psychosis, agitation, and aggression, can serve as predictors of and early clinical diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are c...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed at improving the targeting and cytotoxic effect of ellagic acid (EA) on colon cancer cells. EA was encapsulated in chitosan (CHIT) polymers then coated by eudragit S100 (ES100) microparticles. The release of EA double-coated microparticles (MPs) was tested at simulative pH values. Maximum release was observed at 24 h and pH 7.4. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are symptoms of disturbed perception, mood, behavior, and thought content that occurred frequently. These symptoms, which include apathy, depression, anxiety, psychosis, agitation, and aggression, can serve as predictors of and early clinical diagnostic markers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and are c...
Article
Full-text available
Flibanserin (FLB) is a nonhormonal medicine approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the hypoactive sexual appetite disorder in females. However, the peroral administration of the medicine is greatly affected by its poor bioavailability as a result of its extensive first-pass effect and poor solubility. Aiming at circumventing th...
Article
Full-text available
Statins, including simvastatin (SMV), are commonly used for the control of hyperlipidaemia and have also proven therapeutic and preventative effects in cardiovascular diseases. Besides that, there is an emerging interest in their use as antineoplastic drugs as demonstrated by different studies showing their cytotoxic activity against different canc...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects 5–20% of the general population. Current antidepressant drugs exert only a partial clinical efficacy because approximately 30% of depressed patients failed to respond to these drugs and antidepressants produce remission only in 30% of patients. This can be explained by the fact...
Article
Full-text available
This work aimed at improving the targeting and cytotoxicity of simvastatin (SMV) against colon cancer cells. SMV was encapsulated in chitosan polymers, followed by eudragit S100 microparticles. The release of SMV double coated microparticles was dependent on time and pH. At pH 7.4 maximum release was observed for 6 h. The efficiency of the double c...
Article
Full-text available
Due to multiplicity of causes originating a traumatic brain injury (TBI), TBI is a highly heterogeneous pathology, characterized by high mortality and disability rates. TBI is an acute neurodegenerative event, potentially and unpredictably evolving into sub-chronic and chronic neurodegenerative events, with transient or permanent neurologic, cognit...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroinflammation commences decades before Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical onset and represents one of the earliest pathomechanistic alterations throughout the AD continuum. Large-scale genome-wide association studies point out several genetic variants—TREM2, CD33, PILRA, CR1, MS4A, CLU, ABCA7, EPHA1, and HLA-DRB5-HLA-DRB1—potentially linked to n...
Article
Full-text available
Blood–retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction represents one of the most significant changes occurring during diabetic retinopathy. We set up a high-reproducible human-based in vitro BRB model using retinal pericytes, retinal astrocytes, and retinal endothelial cells in order to replicate the human in vivo environment with the same numerical ratio and la...
Article
Full-text available
Carnosine is a natural endogenous dipeptide widely distributed in mammalian tissues, existing at particularly high concentrations in the muscles and brain and possesses well-characterized antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In an in vitro model of macrophage activation, induced by lipopolysaccharide + interferon-gamma (LPS + IFN-γ), we he...
Article
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a slow-developing neurodegenerative disorder in which a main pathogenic role has been assigned to β-amyloid protein (Aβ) that accumulates in extracellular plaques. The mechanism of action of Aβ has been deeply analyzed and several membrane structure have been identified as potential mediators of its effect. The ability o...
Poster
Full-text available
A long-term treatment with antidepressants reduces the risk to develop AD, and different second-generation antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently being studied for their neuroprotective properties in AD. In the present work, the SSRI fluoxetine and the new multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine were te...
Article
Full-text available
Using a closed-head impact acceleration model of mild or severe traumatic brain injury (mTBI or sTBI, respectively) in rats, we evaluated the effects of graded head impacts on the gene and protein expressions of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), as well as major enzymes of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). TBI was induced in anaesthetized r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs acting as negative regulators of gene expression involved in a number of physiological processes. MiRNAs' expression is commonly dysregulated in many types of human tumor diseases and cancers, including thyroid cancers, and is often involved in tumor initiation and pro...