Giuseppe Carrà

Giuseppe Carrà
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca | UNIMIB · School of Medicine and Surgery

Professor
Researching Clinical, Biological and Digital phenotypes of Mental Disorders across several methods and projects

About

333
Publications
78,775
Reads
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5,217
Citations
Citations since 2016
198 Research Items
4665 Citations
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Introduction
Giuseppe Carrà currently works at the School of Medicine and Surgery, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca. Giuseppe does research in Addiction Psychiatry, Psychiatric Epidemiology, and Digital Mental Health.
Additional affiliations
September 2004 - October 2022
University College London
Position
  • Research Associate
January 2000 - December 2004
University of Pavia
Education
September 2004 - October 2006
University College London
Field of study
  • Psychiatry Research

Publications

Publications (333)
Article
To evaluate the effectiveness of multiple group family treatment for Schizophrenia. Relatives were randomly provided with an informative programme (n = 50), or allocated to receive an additional support programme (n = 26). Patients did not attend the programme to overcome cultural and organizational implementation barriers. The 12 and 24 months cli...
Article
Comorbid substance misuse in psychosis is associated with significant clinical, social and legal problems. An epidemiologically informed approach to planning service delivery requires an understanding of which clinical populations are at particularly high risk for such 'dual diagnosis'. Evidence has now been accumulating in the UK since the early 1...
Article
Screening scales can be useful in searching for common mental disorders in primary care and in tracking relevant prevalence and correlates in community surveys. However, it is important to document their validity, before using them. We developed Italian versions of the widely-used K10 and K6 screening scales following the WHO forward-translation an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent network models of schizophrenia propose it is the consequence of mutual interaction between its symptoms. While cross-sectional associations between negative and positive symptoms are consistent with this idea, they may merely reflect their involvement in the diagnostic process. Longitudinal analyses however may allow the identi...
Article
Relatively little is known about rates of comorbid drug and alcohol problems in people with schizophrenia outside the USA. Most studies have recruited from single countries. Newly available data provided an unmatched opportunity to investigate the prevalence of comorbid dependence on alcohol and other psychoactive substances in people with schizoph...
Article
Introduction. Pteridines, such as neopterin, biopterin, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), may be involved in depression pathophysiology owing to their links to immune-inflammatory response, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and monoaminergic transmission. Nonetheless, studies assessing pteridines in depression are inconsistent. We conducted a systemat...
Article
Full-text available
Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are often used for the long-term management also of bipolar disorder (BD). Nonetheless, evidence on their effect on pragmatic outcomes such as hospitalization risk in BD is inconsistent. We carried out a mirror-image study comparing rates and number of days of hospitalization, one year before and after th...
Article
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Background Use of social media (SM) has exponentially grown particularly among youths in the past two years, due to COVID-19-related changing lifestyles. Based on the Italian COvid Mental hEalth Trial (COMET), we investigated the association between SM use and depressive symptoms among Italian young adults (aged 18–24). Methods The COMET is a nati...
Article
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Background. The balance between neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects of kynurenine pathway (KP) components has been recently proposed as a key element in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and related mood episodes. This comprehensive overview explored the link of KP with symptom severity and other clinical features of BD. Methods. We s...
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Recent literature on the mental health consequences of social distancing measures has found a substantial increase in self-reported sleep disorders, anxiety and depressive symptoms during lockdown periods. We investigate this issue with data on monthly purchases of psychotropic drugs from the universe of Italian pharmacies during the first wave of...
Article
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Child maltreatment has detrimental social and health effects for individuals, families and communities. The ERICA project is a pan-European training programme that equips non-specialist threshold practitioners with knowledge and skills to prevent and detect child maltreatment. This paper describes and presents the findings of a rapid review of good...
Article
Background: Mood recurrences in bipolar disorder (BD) are often associated with poor treatment adherence. Despite long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) may favor treatment compliance, their use in BD is still poorly explored. Methods: This mirror-image study investigated the effect of LAIs initiation on the number of emergency department (ED...
Article
In the last four decades, mental health services for people with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) have seen asylums replaced by a balanced model of Community Mental Healthcare (CMH). Innovative approaches and strategies in the field of CMH have been extensively researched. However, this research has been hampered by issues limiting their capacity to inf...
Article
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Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor academic performance also among university students. This relationship may be made more complex by comorbid conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the relationship between ADHD and academic performance. Data we...
Article
Abstract Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted people with substance use disorders (SUDs) worldwide and healthcare systems have reorganized their services in response to the pandemic. Methods: One week after the announcement of the COVID-19 as a pandemic, in a global survey, 177 addiction medicine professionals described COVID-19-related h...
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Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has heavily impacted social, economic and health systems worldwide. Necessary confinement measures have, in turn, contributed to the occurrence of several stress-related conditions and deterioration of pre-existing mental conditions, including insomnia. Objective The present study sought to investigate the occurren...
Research Proposal
Several abnormalities in pituitary functionality have been described in subjects with first episode, drug-naïve psychosis. Research has reported inconsistent and conflicting findings so far, and no systematic synthesis of the existing evidence is available. We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies investigating...
Article
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Background and aims: COVID-19 has infected more than 13 million people worldwide and impacted the lives of many more, with a particularly devastating impact on vulnerable populations, including people with substance use disorders (SUDs). Quarantines, travel bans, regulatory changes, social distancing and ‘lockdown’ measures have affected drug an...
Article
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Impaired hormonal regulation of appetite may contribute to higher cardiovascular risk in bipolar disorder (BD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating peripheral blood levels of appetite-regulating hormones in BD and controls. A total of 32 studies were included. Leptin and insulin levels were significantly elev...
Article
Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a frequent comorbid condition in adults with bipolar disorder. We performed a meta-analysis aimed at assessing sociodemographic and clinical correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder. Method We searched main electronic databases up to June 2021. Random-effects m...
Article
Full-text available
University students are particularly vulnerable to mental health issues, with anxiety and depression identified as the most common conditions. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing, self-isolation, and difficulties linked to online teaching and learning have increased their burden of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thus, the urgent need...
Article
Background The mental health of the Italian population declined at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, nationwide population prevalence estimates may not effectively reproduce the heterogeneity in distress responses to the pandemic. In particular, contextual determinants specific to COVID-19 pandemic need to be considered. We thus aimed to...
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Full-text available
Personalized approaches in psychiatry, albeit being extensively explored in the literature since the early 2010s [...]
Article
Background Subjective well-being in people with schizophrenia is likely to be impaired by positive and negative psychotic symptoms. However, these may impact differentially on hedonic (satisfaction and interest in life) and eudaemonic (optimal psychological and social functioning) components. Aims We hypothesized that positive symptoms would influ...
Article
Full-text available
Acute services for mental health crises are very important to service users and their supporters, and consume a substantial share of mental health resources in many countries. However, acute care is often unpopular and sometimes coercive, and the evidence on which models are best for patient experience and outcomes remains surprisingly limited, in...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Information on the off-label use of Long-Acting Injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in the real world is lacking. In this study, we aimed to identify the sociodemographic and clinical features of patients treated with on- vs off-label LAIs and predictors of off-label First- or Second-Generation Antipsychotic (FGA vs. SGA) LAI choice in e...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The service configuration with distinct child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS) may be a barrier to continuity of care. Because of a lack of transition policy, CAMHS clinicians have to decide whether and when a young person should transition to AMHS. This study describes which characterist...
Article
Background The aim of this study was to explore the psychopathological burden related to COVID-19 together with coping strategies in healthcare workers, focusing on differences between frontline and second-line workers. Methods This is a cross-sectional study part of the COvid Mental hEalth Trial (COMET). Participants' socio-demographic and COVID-...
Article
Introduction Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are prescribed to people with severe psychiatric disorders who show poor adherence to oral medication. The present paper examined factors potentially associated with medication adherence to LAI treatment. Methods The STAR (Servizi Territoriali Associati per la Ricerca) Network Depot Study was...
Article
Objectives: This study aims to explore the long-term efficacy of a psychoeducational family intervention (PFI) in bipolar I disorder at one and five years post-intervention in terms of improvement of: 1) patients' symptoms and global functioning; 2) relatives' objective and subjective burden and coping strategies. Methods: This is a multicentre,...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 pandemic and its related containment measures have been associated with increased levels of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population. While the use of digital media has been greatly promoted by national governments and international authorities to maintain social contacts and healthy lifestyle behaviors, its increased acces...
Article
In this prospective study, we assessed the effectiveness and acceptability of paliperidone palmitate 1-month (PP1M) and aripiprazole monohydrate (AM) over 1-year follow-up. We included 195 subjects (117 treated with PP1M and 78 with AM) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders from real-world settings. We estimated no differences in hospitalization (O...
Article
Full-text available
The responsiveness of professionals working with children and families is of key importance for child maltreatment early identification. However, this might be undermined when multifaceted circumstances, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, reduce interdisciplinary educational activities. Thanks to technological developments, digital platforms seem promi...
Technical Report
The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly affected the psychological well-being of youths and students, particularly among those studying at university, frequently living alone and being burdened by performance-related anxiety and depression. As a consequence, identifying those digital interventions that can be beneficial on the mental health of these...
Article
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Background: When facing a traumatic event, some people may experience positive changes, defined as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Methods: Understanding the possible positive consequences of the pandemic on the individual level is crucial for the development of supportive psychosocial interventions. The present paper aims to: 1) evaluate the levels...
Article
Full-text available
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may influence rates of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) among individuals suffering from Bipolar Disorder (BD). The aim of this systematic re-view and meta-analysis was to estimate the strength and consistency of the potential association between ADHD and AUD in BD. We searched main electronic databases for...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental and physical health of the general population at any age, but it is expected to have a protracted and severe consequences for younger populations. The pandemic has had several consequences on mental health including anger and irritability, depressive symptoms and somatic complaints, insomnia, lack of mo...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are efficacious in managing psychotic symptoms in people affected by severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether attitude toward treatment and treatment adherence represent predictors of symptoms changes over time. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented public health emergency, with consequences at the political, social, and economic levels. Mental health services have been called to play a key role in facing the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of the general population. In the period March–May 2020, an online survey was implemented as...
Preprint
This paper describes the design and development of the ERICA (Stopping Child Maltreatment through a Pan European Multiprofessional Training Programme: Early Child Protection Work with Families at Risk) training programme. ERICA project was funded by the Rights, Equality and Citizenship Funding programme of the European Commission (European Commissi...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe psychosocial impact on healthcare workers (HCWs). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the association between individual features and depressive symptoms reported by HCWs during the pandemic. We searched Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo up to 23 June 2020. We included cross-sectional stud...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health are now well documented, however, few studies have been focused on the role of coping strategies and resilience in counterbalancing these detrimental effects. Data are derived from the COvid Mental hEalth Trial (COMET), a national multicentric trial carried out in the Italian general population....
Article
Several drugs previously tested in clinical trials and approved for different indications have been repurposed for bipolar disorder. We carried out a systematic meta-review of meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating repurposed drugs as adjunctive treatments for mania and bipolar depression. We performed a critical apprai...
Article
Background: Severe psychological and psychosocial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are expected, especially for people already vulnerable to biological or psychosocial stressors, including those with mental health problems. The study aimed to investigate factors associated with the loss of jobs and unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic. I...
Article
Background: Work functioning impairment is a key diagnostic and transnosographic criterion for psychiatric disorders in both DSM-5 and ICD-11. Occupational inclusion is a fundamental aspect of the care path for patients attending the territorial services provided by the Italian Mental Health and Addiction Departments (DSMDs). Since 2009, the Regio...
Article
Full-text available
Acute services for mental health crises are very important to service users and their supporters, and consume a substantial share of mental health resources in many countries. However, acute care is often unpopular and sometimes coercive, and the evidence on which models are best for patient experience and outcomes remains surprisingly limited, in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent network models propose that mutual interaction between symptoms has an important bearing on the onset of schizophrenic disorder. In particular, cross-sectional studies suggest that affective symptoms may influence the emergence of psychotic symptoms. However, longitudinal analysis offers a more compelling test for causation: the...
Technical Report
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a frequently concurrent condition in Bipolar Disorder (BD). We will conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at identifying the clinical characteristics of adults with BD-ADHD comorbidity as compared with those suffering from BD alone. The protocol has been registered in OSF Registrie...
Technical Report
Abnormalities in the tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis pathway have been described in depression. Research has reported inconsistent and conflicting findings so far, and no systematic synthesis of existing evidence is available. We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies aimed at investigating the peripheral blood le...
Article
There is accumulating evidence that individuals with schizophrenia show altered levels of thyroid hormones. However, a qualitative and quantitative synthesis of findings in this field has not been performed so far. Therefore, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence suggests that a dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) occurs in bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at assessing the possible differences in peripheral blood levels of KP metabolites between individuals with BD and healthy controls. We searched Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo electronic databa...
Article
Full-text available
This metasynthesis brings together what is known about family members’ perspectives of their relationship with social care practitioners as a starting point for developing a pan-European training resource for practitioners. Four databases were searched for qualitative literature with search terms relating to family members and social care practitio...
Article
In recent years we have witnessed a growing interest in the analysis of social media data under different perspectives, since these online platforms have become the preferred tool for generating and sharing content across different users organized into virtual communities, based on their common interests, needs, and perceptions. In the current stud...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this systematic review is to systematically investigate which non-pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing violence risk among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) in forensic settings. Methods: Six electronic data bases were searched. Two researchers independently screened 6,003 abstracts r...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted people with substance use disorders (SUDs) worldwide and healthcare systems have reorganized their services in response to the pandemic. Methods: One week after the announcement of the COVID-19 as a pandemic, in a global survey, 177 addiction medicine professionals described COVID-19-related health res...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted people with substance use disorders (SUDs) worldwide, and healthcare systems have reorganized their services in response to the pandemic. Methods: One week after the announcement of the COVID-19 as a pandemic, in a global survey, 177 addiction medicine professionals described...
Article
Full-text available
Background Recent guidelines suggested a wider use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) than previously, but naturalistic data on the consequences of LAI use in terms of discontinuation rates and associated factors are still sparse, making it hard for clinicians to be informed on plausible treatment courses.Objective Our objective was to...
Article
Full-text available
Although cannabis’ major psychoactive component, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been linked to both earlier onset and poorer outcomes of psychotic disorders, Cannabidiol (CBD) seems to have different pharmacological mechanisms and potential therapeutic properties. However, no clinical study has investigated CBD for the treatment of co-occurrin...
Article
Full-text available
Subclinical inflammation has been associated with psychosis; however, it remains unknown whether this phenomenon appears also in the premorbid phase. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing peripheral blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines between individuals at risk of psychosis and contro...
Article
This study investigated the association between maladaptive personality traits, personality disorders (PDs), schizophrenia, and the risk of aggressive behavior. Ninety-four patients with a history of violence and 92 patients with no history of violence underwent a multidimensional baseline assessment. Aggressive behavior was monitored during a 1-ye...