Giuseppe Amato

Giuseppe Amato
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Information Science and Technology "Alessandro Faedo" ISTI

PhD

About

261
Publications
76,108
Reads
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3,429
Citations
Introduction
I am research director at CNR-ISTI, where I lead the "Artificial Intelligence fo Media and Humanities" (AIMH) laboratory (http://aimh.isti.cnr.it/). I graduated in Computer Science at the University of Pisa, Italy, in 1992 and was awarded a PhD in Computer Science at the University of Dortmund, Germany, in 2002. I have participated in several EC funded and national research actions in the areas of Multimedia Information Retrieval, Artificial Intelligence, and Digital Libraries. The most recent: - I was Technical director of the Multimatch project, funded by the EC in the IST program. - I was coordinator of the VISITO Tuscany project , co-funded by the EC and the Tuscany Region, under the ERDF program. - I was Work Package leader in the ASSETS project funded by the EC - I was CNR Scientific Coordinator in the RUBICON project, funded by the EC. - I was Work Package leader in the EAGLE project (http://www.eagle-network.eu/), funded by the EC. - I was CNR scientific coordinator in the ADA project (http://www.progetto-ada.it/), co-funded by the EC and the Tuscany Region, under the ERDF program. - I am currently involved in the AI4EU project aiming at building the European platform for Artificial Intelligence (https://www.ai4eu.eu/), funded by the EC - I am currently involved in the AI4Media project aiming at building a centre of excellence on AI and Media Specialties: Multimedia Information Retrieval, Artificial Intelligence, Deep learning, Similarity Search.
Additional affiliations
January 1994 - present
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Education
April 1999 - April 2002
Technische Universität Dortmund
Field of study
  • Computer Science
September 1986 - June 1992
Università di Pisa
Field of study
  • Computer Science

Publications

Publications (261)
Article
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a neurodegenerative syndrome whose clinical diagnosis remains a challenging task especially in the early stage of the disease. Currently, the presence of frontal and anterior temporal lobe atrophies on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is part of the diagnostic criteria for bvFTD. However, MRI da...
Preprint
Image-text matching is gaining a leading role among tasks involving the joint understanding of vision and language. In literature, this task is often used as a pre-training objective to forge architectures able to jointly deal with images and texts. Nonetheless, it has a direct downstream application: cross-modal retrieval, which consists in findin...
Article
Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (Cdkl5) deficiency disorder (CDD) is a severe neurodevelopmental condition caused by mutations in the X-linked Cdkl5 gene. CDD is characterized by early-onset seizures in the first month of life, intellectual disability, motor and social impairment. No effective treatment is currently available and medical management...
Preprint
Full-text available
Learning algorithms for Deep Neural Networks are typically based on supervised end-to-end Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) training with error backpropagation (backprop). Backprop algorithms require a large number of labelled training samples to achieve high performance. However, in many realistic applications, even if there is plenty of image sam...
Preprint
Full-text available
Features extracted from Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have proven to be very effective in the context of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). In recent work, biologically inspired \textit{Hebbian} learning algorithms have shown promises for DNN training. In this contribution, we study the performance of such algorithms in the development of feature...
Article
Exploiting well-labeled training sets has led deep learning models to astonishing results for counting biological structures in microscopy images. However, dealing with weak multi-rater annotations, i.e., when multiple human raters disagree due to non-trivial patterns, remains a relatively unexplored problem. More reliable labels can be obtained by...
Article
In recent years, Quantum Computing witnessed massive improvements in terms of available resources and algorithms development. The ability to harness quantum phenomena to solve computational problems is a long-standing dream that has drawn the scientific community’s interest since the late 80s. In such a context, we propose our contribution. First,...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate Hebbian learning strategies applied to Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) training. We consider two unsupervised learning approaches, Hebbian Winner-Takes-All (HWTA), and Hebbian Principal Component Analysis (HPCA). The Hebbian learning rules are used to train the layers of a CNN in order to extract features that are t...
Article
In many working and recreational activities, there are scenarios where both individual and collective safety have to be constantly checked and properly signaled, as occurring in dangerous workplaces or during pandemic events like the recent COVID-19 disease. From wearing personal protective equipment to filling physical spaces with an adequate numb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this short paper, we report the activities of the Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities (AIMH) laboratory of the ISTI-CNR related to Public Administration. In particular, we present some AI-based public services serving the citizens that help achieve common goals beneficial to the society, putting humans at the epicenter. Through the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this short paper, we report the activities of the Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities (AIMH) laboratory of the ISTI-CNR related to Industry. The massive digitalization affecting all the stages of product design, production, and control calls for data-driven algorithms helping in the coordination of humans, machines, and digital reso...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work we report the activities of the Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities (AIMH) laboratory of the ISTI-CNR related to Healthcare and Wellbeing. By exploiting the advances of recent machine learning methods and the compute power of desktop and mobile platforms, we will show how artificial intelligence tools can be used to improv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this short paper, we report the activities of the Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities (AIMH) laboratory of the ISTI-CNR related to Trustworthy AI. Artificial Intelligence is becoming more and more pervasive in our society, controlling recommendation systems in social platforms as well as safety-critical systems like autonomous vehic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this short paper, we report the activities of the Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities (AIMH) laboratory of the ISTI-CNR related to Cy-bersecurity. We discuss about our active research fields, their applications and challenges. We focus on face recognition and detection of adversarial examples and deep fakes. We also present our acti...
Chapter
We propose a semi-supervised learning strategy for deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) in which an unsupervised pre-training stage, performed using biologically inspired Hebbian learning algorithms, is followed by supervised end-to-end backprop fine-tuning. We explored two Hebbian learning rules for the unsupervised pre-training stage: soft-W...
Chapter
We explore competitive Hebbian learning strategies to train feature detectors in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), without supervision. We consider variants of the Winner-Takes-All (WTA) strategy explored in previous works, i.e. k-WTA, e-soft-WTA and p-soft-WTA, performing experiments on different object recognition datasets. Results suggest th...
Conference Paper
Image-based automatic cell counting is an essential yet challenging task, crucial for the diagnosing of many diseases. Current solutions rely on Convolutional Neural Networks and provide astonishing results. However, their performance is often measured only considering counting errors, which can lead to masked mistaken estimations; a low counting e...
Chapter
VISIONE is a content-based retrieval system that supports various search functionalities (text search, object/color-based search, semantic and visual similarity search, temporal search). It uses a full-text search engine as a search backend. In the latest version of our system, we modified the user interface, and we made some changes to the techniq...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities laboratory (AIMH) has the mission to investigate and advance the state of the art in the Artificial Intelligence field, specifically addressing applications to digital media and digital humanities, and taking also into account issues related to scalability. This report summarize the 2021 activiti...
Article
Anomalies are ubiquitous in all scientific fields and can express an unexpected event due to incomplete knowledge about the data distribution or an unknown process that suddenly comes into play and distorts the observations. Usually, due to such events' rarity, to train deep learning (DL) models on the anomaly detection (AD) task, scientists only r...
Article
Despite the evolution of deep-learning-based visual-textual processing systems, precise multi-modal matching remains a challenging task. In this work, we tackle the task of cross-modal retrieval through image-sentence matching based on word-region alignments, using supervision only at the global image-sentence level. Specifically, we present a nove...
Preprint
Although convolutional neural networks (CNNs) showed remarkable results in many vision tasks, they are still strained by simple yet challenging visual reasoning problems. Inspired by the recent success of the Transformer network in computer vision, in this paper, we introduce the Recurrent Vision Transformer (RViT) model. Thanks to the impact of re...
Chapter
In the domain of approximate metric search, the Permutation-based Indexing (PBI) approaches have been proved to be particularly suitable for dealing with large data collections. These methods employ a permutation-based representation of the data, which can be efficiently indexed using data structures such as inverted files. In the literature, the d...
Article
Full-text available
Pupil dynamics alterations have been found in patients affected by a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism. Studies in mouse models have used pupillometry for phenotypic assessment and as a proxy for arousal. Both in mice and humans, pupillometry is non-invasive and allows for longitudinal experiments supporting temporal specific...
Article
We propose to address the issue of sample efficiency, in Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN), with a semi-supervised training strategy that combines Hebbian learning with gradient descent: all internal layers (both convolutional and fully connected) are pre-trained using an unsupervised approach based on Hebbian learning, and the last fully c...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years, Quantum Computing witnessed massive improvements both in terms of resources availability and algorithms development. The ability to harness quantum phenomena to solve computational problems is a long-standing dream that has drawn the scientific community's interest since the late '80s. In such a context, we pose our contribution. F...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a communication framework built to simplify the construction of robotic ecologies, i.e., networks of heterogeneous computational nodes interfaced with sensors, actuators, and mobile robots. Building integrated ambient intelligence (AmI) solutions out of such a wide range of heterogeneous devices is a key requirement for a range...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents a novel solution to automatically count vehicles in a parking lot using images captured by smart cameras. Unlike most of the literature on this task, which focuses on the analysis of single images, this paper proposes the use of multiple visual sources to monitor a wider parking area from different perspectives. The proposed mul...
Article
Full-text available
Deep learning has achieved impressive results in many machine learning tasks such as image recognition and computer vision. Its applicability to supervised problems is however constrained by the availability of high-quality training data consisting of large numbers of humans annotated examples (e.g. millions). To overcome this problem, recently, th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cross-modal retrieval is an important functionality in modern search engines, as it increases the user experience by allowing queries and retrieved objects to pertain to different modalities. In this paper, we focus on the image-sentence retrieval task, where the objective is to efficiently find relevant images for a given sentence (image-retrieval...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes in detail VISIONE, a video search system that allows users to search for videos using textual keywords, the occurrence of objects and their spatial relationships, the occurrence of colors and their spatial relationships, and image similarity. These modalities can be combined together to express complex queries and meet users' n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emotions play a central role in the social life of every human being, and their study, which represents a multidisciplinary subject, embraces a great variety of research fields. Especially concerning the latter, the analysis of facial expressions represents a very active research area due to its relevance to human-computer interaction applications....
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose to address the issue of sample efficiency, in Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN), with a semisupervised training strategy that combines Hebbian learning with gradient descent: all internal layers (both convolutional and fully connected) are pre-trained using an unsupervised approach based on Hebbian learning, and the last fully co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pupil dynamics alterations have been found in patients affected by a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism. Studies in mouse models have used pupillometry for phenotypic assessment and as a proxy for arousal. Both in mice and humans, pupillometry is non-invasive and allows for longitudinal experiments supporting temporal specific...
Preprint
Full-text available
Facial expressions play a fundamental role in human communication. Indeed, they typically reveal the real emotional status of people beyond the spoken language. Moreover, the comprehension of human affect based on visual patterns is a key ingredient for any human-machine interaction system and, for such reasons, the task of Facial Expression Recogn...
Chapter
Deep learned models are now largely adopted in different fields, and they generally provide superior performances with respect to classical signal-based approaches. Notwithstanding this, their actual reliability when working in an unprotected environment is far enough to be proven. In this work, we consider a novel deep neural network architecture,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Facial Expression Recognition(FER) is one of the most important topic in Human-Computer interactions(HCI). In this work we report details and experimental results about a facial expression recognition method based on state-of-the-art methods. We fine-tuned a SeNet deep learning architecture pre-trained on the well-known VGGFace2 dataset, on the Aff...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep learning demonstrated major abilities in solving many kinds of different real-world problems in computer vision literature. However, they are still strained by simple reasoning tasks that humans consider easy to solve. In this work, we probe current state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks on a difficult set of tasks known as the same-di...
Chapter
This paper presents the second release of VISIONE, a tool for effective video search on large-scale collections. It allows users to search for videos using textual descriptions, keywords, occurrence of objects and their spatial relationships, occurrence of colors and their spatial relationships, and image similarity. One of the main features of our...
Article
Full-text available
Deep learning demonstrated major abilities in solving many kinds of different real-world problems in computer vision literature. However, they are still strained by simple reasoning tasks that humans consider easy to solve. In this work, we probe current state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks on a difficult set of tasks known as the same-di...
Article
Full-text available
Deep Learning methods have become state-of-the-art for solving tasks such as Face Recognition (FR). Unfortunately, despite their success, it has been pointed out that these learning models are exposed to adversarial inputs – images to which an imperceptible amount of noise for humans is added to maliciously fool a neural network – thus limiting the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Convolutional Neural Networks have produced state-of-the-art results for a multitude of computer vision tasks under supervised learning. However, the crux of these methods is the need for a massive amount of labeled data to guarantee that they generalize well to diverse testing scenarios. In many real-world applications, there is indeed a large dom...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Artificial Intelligence for Media and Humanities laboratory (AIMH) has the mission to investigate and advance the state of the art in the Artificial Intelligence field, specifically addressing applications to digital media and digital humanities, and taking also into account issues related to scalability. This report summarize the 2020 activiti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent work has shown that biologically plausible Hebbian learning can be integrated with backpropagation learning (backprop), when training deep convolutional neural networks. In particular, it has been shown that Hebbian learning can be used for training the lower or the higher layers of a neural network. For instance, Hebbian learning is effecti...
Preprint
Previous work has shown that it is possible to train neuronal cultures on Multi-Electrode Arrays (MEAs), to recognize very simple patterns. However, this work was mainly focused to demonstrate that it is possible to induce plasticity in cultures, rather than performing a rigorous assessment of their pattern recognition performance. In this paper, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anomalies are ubiquitous in all scientific fields and can express an unexpected event due to incomplete knowledge about the data distribution or an unknown process that suddenly comes into play and distorts the observations. Due to such events' rarity, it is common to train deep learning models on "normal", i.e. non-anomalous, datasets only, thus l...
Preprint
Deep learned models are now largely adopted in different fields, and they generally provide superior performances with respect to classical signal-based approaches. Notwithstanding this, their actual reliability when working in an unprotected environment is far enough to be proven. In this work, we consider a novel deep neural network architecture,...
Article
Full-text available
Face Recognition is among the best examples of computer vision problems where the supremacy of deep learning techniques compared to standard ones is undeniable. Unfortunately, it has been shown that they are vulnerable to adversarial examples - input images to which a human imperceptible perturbation is added to lead a learning model to output a wr...
Chapter
Deep Learning models proved to be able to generate highly discriminative image descriptors, named deep features, suitable for similarity search tasks such as Person Re-Identification and Image Retrieval. Typically, these models are trained by employing high-resolution datasets, therefore reducing the reliability of the produced representations when...
Chapter
Efficient indexing and retrieval in generic metric spaces often translate into the search for approximate methods that can retrieve relevant samples to a query performing the least amount of distance computations. To this end, when indexing and fulfilling queries, distances are computed and stored only against a small set of reference points (also...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrian detection through Computer Vision is a building block for a multitude of applications. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in convolutional neural network-based architectures to execute such a task. One of these supervised networks' critical goals is to generalize the knowledge learned during the training phase to new scenari...
Conference Paper
Monitoring vehicle flows in cities is crucial to improve the urban environment and quality of life of citizens. Images are the best sensing modality to perceive and assess the flow of vehicles in large areas. Current technologies for vehicle counting in images hinge on large quantities of annotated data, preventing their scalability to city-scale a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the evolution of deep-learning-based visual-textual processing systems, precise multi-modal matching remains a challenging task. In this work, we tackle the problem of accurate cross-media retrieval through image-sentence matching based on word-region alignments using supervision only at the global image-sentence level. In particular, we pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pedestrian detection through Computer Vision is a building block for a multitude of applications. Recently, there was an increasing interest in Convolutional Neural Network-based architectures for the execution of such a task. One of these supervised networks' critical goals is to generalize the knowledge learned during the training phase to new sc...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe VISIONE, a video search system that allows users to search for videos using textual keywords, occurrence of objects and their spatial relationships, occurrence of colors and their spatial relationships, and image similarity. These modalities can be combined together to express complex queries and satisfy user needs. The p...